To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We report the utility of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) conducted in a clinically relevant time frame (ie, sufficient for guiding management decision), in managing a Streptococcus pyogenes outbreak, and present a comparison of its performance with emm typing.
A 2,000-bed tertiary-care psychiatric hospital.
Active surveillance was conducted to identify new cases of S. pyogenes. WGS guided targeted epidemiological investigations, and infection control measures were implemented. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)–based genome phylogeny, emm typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed. We compared the ability of WGS and emm typing to correctly identify person-to-person transmission and to guide the management of the outbreak.
The study included 204 patients and 152 staff. We identified 35 patients and 2 staff members with S. pyogenes. WGS revealed polyclonal S. pyogenes infections with 3 genetically distinct phylogenetic clusters (C1–C3). Cluster C1 isolates were all emm type 4, sequence type 915 and had pairwise SNP differences of 0–5, which suggested recent person-to-person transmissions. Epidemiological investigation revealed that cluster C1 was mediated by dermal colonization and transmission of S. pyogenes in a male residential ward. Clusters C2 and C3 were genomically diverse, with pairwise SNP differences of 21–45 and 26–58, and emm 11 and mostly emm120, respectively. Clusters C2 and C3, which may have been considered person-to-person transmissions by emm typing, were shown by WGS to be unlikely by integrating pairwise SNP differences with epidemiology.
WGS had higher resolution than emm typing in identifying clusters with recent and ongoing person-to-person transmissions, which allowed implementation of targeted intervention to control the outbreak.
As Andrew Linklater has shown, Europeans have decreased their tolerance for, or endorsement of, violence over the centuries. Various international and domestic conventions demonstrate the point. This accomplishment rightfully deserves celebration. But herein lies the rub. While Linklater recognises the role of imperialism and colonialism in perpetrating global violence, he does not grant equal opportunity to the Rest in contributing to the world’s new moral heights. Linklater assumes, for instance, that Las Casas never talked with indigenes to realise that they, too, warrant recognition as human beings; Catholic piety alone sufficed. The West thus towers in singular triumph, embedding International Relations (IR) in what I call Hypermasculine Eurocentric Whiteness (HEW). Still, the Other retains a sense of its Self. An effervescent spirit of play enables resilience and creativity to co-produce our world-of-worlds. Come out and play!, I urge. It’s time to shed IR’s ‘tragedy’ for the sparkle within.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world and a potentially important source of zinc (Zn) in the diet. The improvement of Zn content of rice is a global challenge with implications for both rice production and human health. The objective of the present study was to identify the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates and Zn application methods on Zn content of rice by evaluating rice production on native soils with different Zn availabilities in 2010/11. The results indicated that Zn application increased rice grain yield and Zn content in grains compared with the control; however, this effect was also affected by the native soil Zn availability, N fertilizer rate and Zn fertilizer application method. The native soil Zn status was the dominant factor influencing grain yield and grain Zn content in response to Zn fertilizer application. Grain Zn content ranged from 19·74 to 26·93 mg/kg under the different Zn statuses. The results also indicated that Zn application method has a significant influence on grain yield. Application of Zn fertilizer to the soil was more effective than the foliar spray on rice grain yield; however, the foliar spray resulted in a greater increase in grain Zn content when compared with soil application. Grain Zn content was affected by application method and displayed the following general trend: soil application + foliar spray > foliar spray > soil application. The experiments investigating the effect of N fertilizer rate combined with Zn application method showed a clear increase in both grain yield and Zn content as the N fertilizer level increased from 200 to 300 kg/ha. In addition, the results also indicated that N content and accumulation increased in all plant tissues, which suggests that Zn application might influence the uptake and translocation of N in rice plants. These results suggest that soil application in addition to a foliar spray of Zn should be considered as an important strategy to increase grain yield and grain Zn content of rice grown in soils with low background levels of Zn-associated diethylene triamine pentaacetate acid. Moreover, this process could be further strengthened by a high N application rate. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the potential of optimizing nutrient management using Zn fertilizer to obtain higher grain yields and higher grain Zn content in fields with low native Zn status.
Early life environments interact with genotype to determine stable phenotypic outcomes. Here we examined the influence of a variant in the brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) gene (Val66Met), which underlies synaptic plasticity throughout the central nervous system, on the degree to which antenatal maternal anxiety associated with neonatal DNA methylation. We also examined the association between neonatal DNA methylation and brain substructure volume, as a function of BDNF genotype. Infant, but not maternal, BDNF genotype dramatically influences the association of antenatal anxiety on the epigenome at birth as well as that between the epigenome and neonatal brain structure. There was a greater impact of antenatal maternal anxiety on the DNA methylation of infants with the methionine (Met)/Met compared to both Met/valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes. There were significantly more cytosine–phosphate–guanine sites where methylation levels covaried with right amygdala volume among Met/Met compared with both Met/Val and Val/Val carriers. In contrast, more cytosine–phosphate–guanine sites covaried with left hippocampus volume in Val/Val infants compared with infants of the Met/Val or Met/Met genotype. Thus, antenatal Maternal Anxiety × BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism interactions at the level of the epigenome are reflected differently in the structure of the amygdala and the hippocampus. These findings suggest that BDNF genotype regulates the sensitivity of the methylome to early environment and that differential susceptibility to specific environmental conditions may be both tissue and function specific.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) has been prevalent for some time in China and it was first identified in 2010. However, the seroprevalence of SFTSV in the general population in southeastern China and risk factors associated with the infection are currently unclear. Blood samples were collected from seven counties across Zhejiang province and tested for the presence of SFTSV-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA. A total of 1380 blood samples were collected of which 5·51% were seropositive for SFTSV with seroprevalence varying significantly between sites. Seroprevalence of SFTSV in people who were family members of the patient, lived in the same village as the patient, or lived in a different village than the patient varied significantly. There was significant difference in seroprevalence between participants who bred domestic animals and participants who did not. Domestic animals are probably potential reservoir hosts and contact with domestic animals may be a transmission route of SFTSV.
Discourse in the US/West that a rising China threatens world order serves no national interest or international purpose. It subscribes only to Westphalian anxieties about the Other. Drawing on Daoist dialectics, this article shows how we can reframe this issue by revealing the complicities that bind even seemingly intractable opposites, thereby undermining the rationale for violence. By recognising the ontological parity between (US/Western) Self and (Chinese/non-Western) Other, we may begin to shift IR/world politics from hegemony to engagement, the ‘tragedy’ of great power politics to the freedom of discovery and creativity.
The results of the experimental study of CoX/Pd multilayer based recording layers for perpendicular recording media are presented. The perpendicular magnetic recording media with multilayer recording layers and high moment soft underlayers were deposited by magnetron sputtering. It is shown how a favorable microstructure of the multilayer films can be achieved by the use of the appropriate buffer layers. The effects of boron addition to the cobalt layer in a multilayer recording layer is described. The feasibility of the aging process that leads to the reduced exchange coupling in the multilayer recording layer, is demonstrated. It is shown that boron addition to the cobalt layer accelerates the aging process.
GeB− Cluster ions have been used to effectively produce 0.65-2keV boron for low energy ion implantation. We have generated the GeB− cluster ions using the SNICS ion source (source of negative ion by cesium sputtering). Shallow junctions have been made by the GeB− cluster ions implanting into Si substrates at 15keV, 1×1015/cm2 and 5keV, 5×1014/cm2. The junction depth as small as 37nm has been achieved by rapid thermal annealing of the 5 keV sample at 1000°C for 1 second. A two-step annealing was also performed to study the diffusion of B in the GeB− ion cluster implanted Si by annealing the 15 keV implanted sample at 550°C/300sec+1000°C/10sec. We found that the junction depth of the two-step annealed sample was only half of the one-step annealed sample. TEM (transmission electron microscopy) showed clear recrystallization of the amorphized layer with no observable residual defects. We briefly discussed the role of Ge in regards to reduction of the junction depth.
In addition to being successfully used for ion implantation, the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technique has been used to produce diamond-like carbon films. Homogeneous, adherent films were obtained on silicon and stainless steel substrates under 2 kV pulse bias voltages and 50 mtorr methane plasma pressure. Chemical composition analysis was made using Auger electron microscopy. Fretting wear tests and scratch tests were performed to study the tribological and adherent properties. Cross sectional TEM samples were prepared. The interfacial microstrucutres and chemical compositions were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy.
From a comparative study using scanning tunneling microscopy, high-resolution lowenergy electron diffraction, and reflectance difference spectroscopy, we investigate the optical anisotropy on clean and H-covered Si(001) surfaces. We demonstrate a high sensitivity of reflectance difference spectroscopy to the surface tructural anisotropy and surface chemistry.
Photonic integrated circuits in silicon require waveguiding through a material compatible with silicon VLSI technology. Polysilicon (polySi), with a high index of refraction compared to SiO2 and air, is an ideal candidate for use in silicon optical interconnect technology. Inspite of its advantages, the biggest hurdle to this technology is that losses of 350dB/cm have been measured in as-deposited polySi waveguide structures, as against ldB/cm losses measured in waveguides fabricated in crystalline silicon. We report methods for reducing scattering and absorption, which are the main sources of losses in this system. To reduce surface scattering losses we fabricate waveguides in smooth recrystallized amorphous silicon and Chemo-Mechanically Polished (CMP) polySi, both of which reduce losses by about 40dB/cm to 15dB/cm. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometry studies are used to monitor surface roughness which has been reduced from an RMS roughness value of 19–20nm down to about 4–6nm. Bulk absorption/scattering losses can depend on size, structure, and quality of grains and grain boundaries which we investigate by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Although the lowest temperature deposition has twice as large a grain size as the highest temperature deposition, the losses appear to not be greatly dependent on grain size in the 0.1pm to 0.4pm range. Additionally, absorption/scattering at dangling bonds is investigated before and after a low temperature Electron-Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) hydrogenation step. After hydrogenation, we obtain the lowest reported polySi loss values at λ = 1.54μm of about 15dB/cm.
Positron lifetime spectroscopy was employed to study the as-electron-irradiated (10 MeV, 1×1018 cm-2) n-type 6H silicon carbide sample in the measuring temperature range of 15 K to 294 K. Isochronal annealing studies were also performed up to the temperature of 1373 K by carrying out the room temperature positron lifetime measurement. Negatively charged carbon vacancies and VCVSi divacancy were identified as the major vacancy type defects induced by the electron irradiation process. The concentration of the VCVSi divacancy was found to decrease dramatically after the 1973 K annealing.
This paper outlines a simple method to fabricate a bilayer membrane consisting of a thin nanoporous gold layer infused with uncured polydimethylsiloxane. The fabrication technique offers excellent adhesion due to mechanical interlocking between porous layer and elastomer, and excellent electrical conductivity up to 25% strain, despite a very low effective elastic modulus (∼1.35 MPa) due to cracks in the embedded gold layer. Initially freestanding circular membranes displayed significant out of plane buckling, and created difficulties in extraction of membrane mechanical properties. The underlying mechanisms of compressive stress accumulation that lead to membrane buckling and remedies to prevent it are discussed.
Novice Lee (‘Frank’) seeks world peace and thinks he has found it in the Liberal world order. He informs the Learned One, head of the monastery. Through their discussions, Frank discovers that the Liberal world order, despite its promises, offers neither ‘democracy’ nor ‘peace’. Turning to the Confucian world order of ‘all-under-heaven’ (tianxia), they find it similarly top-down and one-way. Finally, Frank and the Learned One, now joined by their brother monks and sister nuns, consider the life of the 7th century monk, Xuanzang. He inspires Frank to imagine a ‘worldly world order’ where humility and learning drive one's engagements with others, rather than what we have today: hegemony and imperialism.
Background: The genetic region coding for low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein1 (LRP1) is considered an intriguing susceptibility locus for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is characterized by episodic memory impairment and represents the prodromal stage of AD. Our aim in this study is to investigate the relationship between LRP1 genetic variation and aMCI, and the influence of LRP1 on cognitive performance.
Methods: We performed a case-control association study analyzing five polymorphisms in LRP1 gene by TaqMan Assays-on-Demand SNP Genotyping. All samples were derived from Chinese subjects (109 cases, 104 healthy controls) and assessed using multi-dimension neuropsychological instruments.
Results: We identified haplotypes within the region containing the LRP1 gene. Of these, haplotype TAA (T: rs1800194; A: rs11837145; A: rs10876967) was significantly associated with aMCI, being over-represented in aMCI versus healthy controls. Haplotype TAA was associated with poor performance on episodic memory in all subjects.
Conclusions: This study confirms the association between genetic variants in LRP1 and aMCI. Moreover, we have identified a relationship between LRP1 genetic variation and specific aspects of neurocognitive function. Our convergent results suggest that LRP1 plays an important role in cognitive function and possibly in the pathogenesis of aMCI.
Neither cultural conversion to Western liberalism nor resort to local traditions such as Confucianism adequately deals with the hybrid nature of democratization in a postcolonial context. With its assortment of Chinese, Japanese, American, and Taiwanese hegemonic legacies, Taiwan offers a case in point. Its version of democratic politics operates across three contending normative domains: liberal political institutions, Confucian rationales for power, and Taiwanese nativist/nationalist sensibilities. Some may despair at this “distortion” of the (Western) liberal democratic ideal. We suggest, alternatively, that the contentious and unstable nature of liberal politics in Taiwan may render its polity more open-ended and organic, with simultaneous potential for both authoritarianism and democratization.
Multiple introductions of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains occurred to a new hospital in Hong Kong. Two years of clinical microbiological surveillance of the resulting outbreaks was combined with laboratory investigation by phage and antibiogram typing, and plasmid profiling. The outbreaks on the special care baby (SCBU) and burns (BU) units were studied in detail, and colonization of staff and contamination of the environment were investigated. MRSA were spread by the hands of staff on the SCBU, where long-term colonization of dermatitis was important, but were probably transmitted on the BU by a combination of the airborne, transient hand-borne and environmental routes. Simple control measures to restrict hand-borne spread on the SCBU were highly effective, but control was not successful on the BU.