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Individuals experiencing different medical conditions, as well as healthy volunteers, may often be interested in trial participation, and researchers similarly need to find participants to advance medical knowledge. The ResearchMatch (RM) Trials Today clinical trial searching tool leverages clinicaltrials.gov data to enable potential participants to look for trial opportunities relevant to their situation. To facilitate expanded use of this tool, we undertook a national digital public awareness campaign to increase awareness of Trials Today among members of the general public.
The awareness campaign promoted Trials Today using Facebook and digital banner messages in 2017, encompassing nine cities across the USA. The digital strategy was complemented by print media in several outlets. We employed descriptive statistics to summarize campaign metrics and site usage data during the campaign.
The campaign was successful in increasing visits to Trials Today, with 142,303 sessions logged during its run, as compared to pre-campaign data indicating 104,688 total sessions during the entire 2-year period since the site’s inception. The city-specific click-through rate for all digital impressions, combining Facebook and banner messaging, ranged from 0.50% to 1.09%, resulting in a cost-per-click range of $0.69–$1.15. In addition, visitors conducted 29,697 searches and viewed individual trial records 173,512 times.
The public awareness campaign was successful in increasing use of the RM Trials Today clinical trial searching tool. Our findings support the value of digital media messaging as a cost-effective vehicle for promoting clinical trial awareness, especially for chronic ailments.
Potential participants seek information about clinical trials for many reasons, but the process can be challenging. We analyzed 101,249 searches in ResearchMatch Trials Today, a free interface to recruiting trials from ClinicalTrials.gov. Searches from March 2015 to November 2016 included a broad range of conditions and healthy volunteer concepts, including 12,649 unique topics. Trials Today data indicate that it is being used to identify trials on a variety of topics.
We present results from our ongoing monitoring programs aimed at identifying and understanding Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in extreme flux and spectral states. Observations of AGN in extreme states can reveal the nature of the inner accretion flow, the physics of matter under strong gravity, and they provide insight on the properties of ionized absorbers and outflows launched near supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We present new results from our long-term monitoring of IC 3599, WPVS007, and Mrk 335, multi-wavelength follow-ups of the newly identified changing-look AGN HE 1136–2304, and UV–X-ray follow-ups of the binary SMBH candidate OJ 287 after its 2015 optical maximum, now in a new optical-X-ray–high-state.
Because of unforeseen difficulties, Dr Sinzi, President of the Commission, was not able to prepare this Report. It was then too late for asking the Directors of the almanac offices and the other Members of the Commission for informations. This Report is therefore based on the material just available, and it must be apologized for some lack from which it necessarily suffers. If possible, any omitted facts which appear to be serious, may be included in the Report for the following triennium.
During the period, there have been several major events which have effected the scope and interest of Commission 19. The most significant of these has been the dissolution of the BIH and IPMS and their replacement by the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS). The correlation of higher frequency fluctuations in the Earth’s rotation rate with changes in the Earth’s Atmospheric Angular Momentum is also significant. Many investigators now seem to believe that the “decade variations„ in the Earth’s rotation rate are caused by torques between the core and mantle caused by the uneven motions at the core-mantle boundary. These events and discoveries have made this an exciting period. It seems that the future holds more in the way of discovery due to the utilization of the more accurate and precise Earth rotation data coming from the modern observing techniques.
During the period under review two issues of the Astronomical Yearbook of the U.S.S.R. for the years 1971, 1972 have been published, and that for 1973 is in preparation. The positions and proper motions of the stars are in the FK4 system as recommended by Commission 4 in 1961. Further, as recommended at the meeting in Hamburg in 1964 (Trans. IAU, 12 B (1964), 105,1966) the IAU System of Astronomical Constants has been introduced into the tabulations of the day numbers, solar and lunar eclipses, ephemerides for physical observations of planets, and the factors S &C. The corresponding differential corrections to the Moon’s ephemeris as well as re-calculated eclipse data for 1971 have been tabulated separately in the Appendix to the Yearbook for 1971. As from the edition of the Yearbook for 1972, the lunar ephemeris j = 2 will be published in accordance with the recommendations adopted in Prague in 1967.
The regular publication of the ephemeris of the lunar crater Mösting A has been continued in the editions of the Yearbook mentioned above.
Fundamental ephemerides of the Sun, Moon, and planets have been printed in full conformity with the first part of the Astronomical Ephemeris circulated in advance by H. M. Nautical Almanac Office, Royal Greenwich Observatory.
The appended reports of the directors of the national ephemeris offices provide a record of the current activity in the publication and preparation of astronomical ephemerides, including those published for use by navigators and surveyors and those prepared for astronomers whose special needs are not met in the printed almanacs. A brief review of the relevant work of other institutions and individuals is also given in the appendix. The reports also cover to some extent activities in positional astronomy and celestial mechanics (i.e. in the fields of interest of Commissions 7, 8, 17, 19, 20 and 31). This report is therefore restricted to reviewing, firstly, the action that has been taken on matters raised at and since the 1967 meetings of the Commission and, secondly, the matters that will require attention at and after the 1970 meetings.
Before that review, it is appropriate to pay tribute to the memory of that almost legendary astronomer, Gaston Fayet, who died on 27 December 1967 at the advanced age of 93. As member of the Bureau des Longitudes responsible for the production of the Connaissance des Temps from 1930 to 1961, and President of Commission 4 from 1938 to 1952, he contributed greatly to our subject, in addition to his researches in other fields particularly in respect of the minor planets.
The period of this Report includes 1984 January 1, the date which was probably the most drastic caesura in the history of astronomical almanacs. It seemed, therefore, appropriate to concentrate here to the general aspects rather than to describe the works going on at the particular almanac offices. It is, however, hoped that the past years with their developments and changes will be followed by a period of consolidation and continuity. This would be also of great benefit for the users of the almanacs who still need some time for getting accustomed to so many innovations.
We sought to estimate mortality and associated factors in HIV-hepatitis co-infected individuals in Michigan using a retrospective cohort study. For the study period of 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2009, all HIV-infected individuals were matched to hepatitis B and C cases. In the final Cox proportional hazards regression model, individuals of other [hazard ratio (HR) 2·2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·4–3·2] and black (HR 1·3, 95% CI 1·1–1·6) race had decreased survival compared to white race. Similarly, injecting drug users (IDUs) (HR 2·1, 95% CI 1·6–2·6), men who have sex with men (MSM)/IDUs (HR 1·5, 95% CI 1·1–2·2), individuals with undetermined risk (HR 1·5, 95% CI 1·2–1·9) and heterosexual practices (HR 1·4, 95% CI 1·1–1·8) had decreased survival compared to MSM. Additionally, an interaction was found between current HIV status and co-infection. Mortality in HIV-hepatitis co-infected individuals remains a continuing problem. Our study can help in planning interventions to reduce mortality in HIV-infected individuals.
Military trainees are at high risk for skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), especially those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A multicomponent hygiene-based SSTI prevention strategy was implemented at a military training center. After implementation, we observed 30% and 64% reductions in overall and MRSA-associated SSTI rates, respectively.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2009 in Michigan to estimate the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis co-infection and identify associated factors. The prevalence of co-infection was 4·1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3·8–4·5]. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between co-infection and being male and: of Black race [odds ratio (OR) 2·0, 95% CI 1·2–3·6] and of Other race (OR 3·5, 95% CI 1·7–7·0) compared to Hispanic race. A significant association was found between co-infection and risk categories of blood products (OR 11·1, 95% CI 6·2–20·2), injecting drug user (IDU) (OR 3·6, 95% CI 2·7–4·8) and men who have sex with men/IDU (OR 3·4, 95% CI 2·4–4·9) in addition to two interactions; one between sex and current HIV status and the other between current HIV status and age at HIV diagnosis. Our results document the changing epidemiology of HIV–hepatitis co-infection which can guide preventive measures and interventions to reduce the prevalence of hepatitis co-infection.
The electrical heating of Ni/Al laminate foils allows interrogation of phenomena at heating rates as high as 10^12 K/s. In the 2011 Fall MRS meeting, we reported on emission spectra from rapidly heated Ni/Al laminates resolved temporally over 350 ns, which provided qualitative evidence of rapid and exothermic vapor phase mixing of Ni and Al in these experiments which we term electrical explosions. These results were significant, because thermal diffusion processes normally limit Ni/Al reactions to much slower energy release rates, potentially limiting their applications. Here we present further evidence of exothermic Ni/Al mixing, quantified by experimental velocity measurements of encapsulation material and interpreted by numerical calculations of energy partitioning into different processes. These calculations agreed well with experiments from different Al, Cu, and Ni samples, sputter-deposited and lithographically patterned into bow-tie bridge structures. Velocity measurements of up to 5 km/s for 11.5 μm thick parylene encapsulation layers were accurately predicted using a single, empirical fitting parameter which depended on the electrical circuit used. The calculations also agreed with encapsulation layers accelerated by electrically exploded Ni/Al laminates as long as an additional 1.2 kJ/g of energy was included in the model. This value is precisely the enthalpy of mixing between Ni and Al, and therefore quantifies the transduction of energy into encapsulation layer kinetic energy.
Of the radiation types, alpha-(α) particles are of particular interest as they are an environmental concern, predominately due to inhalation of radon and its daughter progeny. Furthermore, α-particle emitters like Americium-241, Plutonium-238 and Polonium-210 have been identified as probable isotopes to be used in radiological dispersal devices. Thus, the identification of potential biomarkers to α-particle radiation exposure would be useful for the development of field deployable bioassays which could be used for human risk assessment and public health protection. Human lung cells were exposed to α-particle radiation and assessed for modulations in protein expression using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE). Concurrently, cell culture supernatants were analyzed for cytokine secretion using a multiplex-27 bead array assay. Cell culture supernatants assessed for cytokine secretion expressed 8 statistically significant cytokines following α-particle exposure, among which VEGF was confirmed to be dose-responsive and not modulated in X-irradiated cells. Analysis of whole cell lysates using 2-D gel electrophoresis showed 15 upregulated and 1 downregulated protein spot, of which 4 were identified by mass spectrometry. These data suggest that α-particle exposure results in the alterations in expression-levels of specific proteins which may be potential biomarkers used further for the development of fast and reliable bioassays.
Study of relevant types has led to the conclusion that Gagea kunawurensis (Royle) Greuter (Liliaceae) is the correct name for what has recently been known as G. stipitata Merckl. ex Bunge; that G. gageoides (Zucc.) Vved. is the correct name for G. persica Boiss., and that G. kashmirensis Turrill should be reduced to synonymy of G. tenera Pascher. Anatomical and morphological data are presented for these and the related species Gagea dschungarica Regel and G. afghanica A.Terracc., and a key given to allow their discrimination.
Dislocations extending through channel regions of NMOSFETs with submicron gate lengths have been observed. Additionally, arrays of dislocations in the field regions of IC's have also been observed and found to be generating from the corners of the first n+ region during subsequent high temperature process.
The dissolution behaviour of Zircaloy clad used CANDU fuel in aqueous solutions has been examined under mildly reducing conditions at 95°C for a period of 16 months. The effects of various container components and groundwaters on the dissolution of the fuel have been investigated. The components studied were titanium (container material), carbon steel (fuel bundle support basket) and soda-lime glass beads (container infill material). Leaching solutions included deionized water (DIW) and synthetic saline groundwaters.
The presence of glass beads or carbon steel did not appear to significantly affect solution concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, 99Tc, or 238U. Radionuclide concentrations were one to two orders of magnitude higher in saline groundwaters than in DIW. After about 30 days leaching, continued radionuclide release from the fuel was strongly inhibited in the absence of oxygen, and radionuclide concentrations in solution remained virtually constant. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements of the oxidation state of fuel fragments leached in groundwaters, showed a surface composition of less than UO2.33, below the postulated threshold for oxidative dissolution.