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At the intersection between statistical physics and rigorous econometric analysis, this powerful new framework sheds light on how innovation and competition shape the growth and decline of companies and industries. Analyzing various sources of data including a unique micro level database which collects historic data on the sales of more than 3,000 firms and 50,000 products in 20 countries, the authors introduce and test a model of innovation and proportional growth, which relies on minimal assumptions and accounts for the empirically observed regularities. Through a combination of extensive stochastic simulations and statistical tests, the authors investigate to what extent their simple assumptions are falsified by empirically observable facts. Physicists looking for application of their mathematical and modelling skills to relevant economic problems as well as economists interested in the explorative analysis of extensive data sets and in a physics-orientated way of thinking will find this book a key reference.
Glucose intolerance during pregnancy – a major driver of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) – has significant short and long-term health consequences for both the mother and child. As GDM prevalence continues to escalate, there is growing need for preventative strategies. There is limited but suggestive evidence that myo-inositol (MI) and probiotics (PB) could improve glucose tolerance during pregnancy. This study tested the hypothesis that MI and/or PB supplementation would reduce the risk of glucose intolerance during pregnancy. Female C57BL/6 mice were randomised to receive either no treatment, MI, PB (Lactobacillusrhamnosus and Bifidobacteriumlactis), or both (MIPB) for five weeks. They were then provided with high fat diet (HFD) for one week before mating commenced and throughout mating/gestation, while remaining on their respective treatments. An oral glucose tolerance test occurred at gestational day (GD) 16.5 and tissue collection at GD18.5. Neither MI or PB, separately or combined, improved glucose tolerance. However, MI and PB both independently increased adipose tissue expression of Ir, Irs1, Akt2, and Pck1, and PB also increased Pparγ. MI was associated with reduced gestational weight gain, whilst PB was associated with increased maternal fasting glucose, total cholesterol and pancreas weight. These results suggest that MI and PB may improve insulin intracellular signalling in adipose tissue but this did not translate to meaningful differences in glucose tolerance. The absence of fasting hyperglycaemia or insulin resistance suggests this is a very mild model of GDM, which may have affected our ability to assess the impact of these nutrients.
Smoking prevalence is higher amongst individuals with schizophrenia and depression compared with the general population. Mendelian randomisation (MR) can examine whether this association is causal using genetic variants identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS).
We conducted two-sample MR to explore the bi-directional effects of smoking on schizophrenia and depression. For smoking behaviour, we used (1) smoking initiation GWAS from the GSCAN consortium and (2) we conducted our own GWAS of lifetime smoking behaviour (which captures smoking duration, heaviness and cessation) in a sample of 462690 individuals from the UK Biobank. We validated this instrument using positive control outcomes (e.g. lung cancer). For schizophrenia and depression we used GWAS from the PGC consortium.
There was strong evidence to suggest smoking is a risk factor for both schizophrenia (odds ratio (OR) 2.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.67–3.08, p < 0.001) and depression (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.71–2.32, p < 0.001). Results were consistent across both lifetime smoking and smoking initiation. We found some evidence that genetic liability to depression increases smoking (β = 0.091, 95% CI 0.027–0.155, p = 0.005) but evidence was mixed for schizophrenia (β = 0.022, 95% CI 0.005–0.038, p = 0.009) with very weak evidence for an effect on smoking initiation.
These findings suggest that the association between smoking, schizophrenia and depression is due, at least in part, to a causal effect of smoking, providing further evidence for the detrimental consequences of smoking on mental health.
Nutsedge species are problematic in plastic-mulched vegetable production because of the weed’s rapid reproduction and ability to penetrate the mulch. Vegetable growers rely heavily on halosulfuron to manage nutsedge species; however, the herbicide cannot be applied over mulch before vegetable transplanting due to potential crop injury. This can be problematic when multiple crops are produced on a single mulch installation. Field experiments were conducted to determine the response of broccoli, cabbage, squash, and watermelon to halosulfuron applied on top of mulch prior to transplanting. Halosulfuron at 80 g ai ha−1 was applied 21, 14, 7, and 1 d before planting (DBP), and 160 g ai ha−1 was applied 21 DBP. In all experiments, extending the interval between halosulfuron application and planting reduced crop injury. For squash and watermelon, visual injury, plant diameters/vine runner lengths, marketable fruit weights, and postharvest plant biomass resulted in similar values when applying 80 g ha−1 21 DBP and with the nontreated weed-free control. Reducing this interval increased injury for both crops. Visual crop injury and yield reductions up to 40% occurred, with halosulfuron applied 14, 7, or 1 DBP in squash and 1 DBP in watermelon. Broccoli and cabbage showed greater sensitivity, with injury and plant diameter reductions greater than 15%, even with halosulfuron applied at 80 g ha−1 21 DBP. Experimental results confirm that halosulfuron binds to plastic mulch, remains active, and is slowly released from the mulch over a substantial period, during rainfall or overhead irrigation events. Extending the plant-back interval to at least 21 d before transplanting did overcome squash and watermelon injury concerns with halosulfuron at 80 g ha−1, but not broccoli and cabbage. Applying halosulfuron over mulch to control emerged nutsedge before planting squash and watermelon would be beneficial if adequate rainfall or irrigation and appropriate intervals between application and planting are implemented.
Application timing and environmental factors reportedly influence the efficacy of auxinic herbicides. In resistance-prone weed species such as Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson), efficacy of auxinic herbicides recently adopted for use in resistant crops is of utmost importance to reduce selection pressure for herbicide-resistance traits. Growth chamber experiments were conducted comparing the interaction of different environmental effects with application time to determine the influence of these factors on visible phytotoxicity and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation in A. palmeri. Temperature displayed a high degree of influence on 2,4-D and dicamba efficacy in general, with applications at the low-temperature treatment (31/20 C day/night) resulting in an increase in phytotoxicity compared with high-temperature treatments (41/30 C day/night). Application time across temperature treatments significantly affected 2,4-D–induced phytotoxicity, resulting in a ≥30% increase across rates with treatments at 4:00 PM compared with 8:00 AM. Temperature differential had a significant influence on dicamba efficacy based on visible phytotoxicity data, with a ≥46% increase with a high (37/20 C day/night) compared with a low differential (41/30 C day/night). Concentration of H2O2 in herbicide-treated plants was 34% higher under a high temperature differential compared with the low differential. Humidity treatments and application time interactions displayed undetected or inconsistent effects on visible phytotoxicity and H2O2 production. Overall, temperature-related influences seem to have the largest environmental effect on auxinic herbicides within conditions evaluated in this study. Leaf concentration of H2O2 appears to be generally correlated with phytotoxicity, providing a potentially useful tool in determining efficacy of auxinic herbicides in field settings.
There is increasing evidence that smoking is a risk factor for severe mental illness, including bipolar disorder. Conversely, patients with bipolar disorder might smoke more (often) as a result of the psychiatric disorder.
We conducted a bidirectional Mendelian randomisation (MR) study to investigate the direction and evidence for a causal nature of the relationship between smoking and bipolar disorder.
We used publicly available summary statistics from genome-wide association studies on bipolar disorder, smoking initiation, smoking heaviness, smoking cessation and lifetime smoking (i.e. a compound measure of heaviness, duration and cessation). We applied analytical methods with different, orthogonal assumptions to triangulate results, including inverse-variance weighted (IVW), MR-Egger, MR-Egger SIMEX, weighted-median, weighted-mode and Steiger-filtered analyses.
Across different methods of MR, consistent evidence was found for a positive effect of smoking on the odds of bipolar disorder (smoking initiation ORIVW = 1.46, 95% CI 1.28–1.66, P = 1.44 × 10−8, lifetime smoking ORIVW = 1.72, 95% CI 1.29–2.28, P = 1.8 × 10−4). The MR analyses of the effect of liability to bipolar disorder on smoking provided no clear evidence of a strong causal effect (smoking heaviness betaIVW = 0.028, 95% CI 0.003–0.053, P = 2.9 × 10−2).
These findings suggest that smoking initiation and lifetime smoking are likely to be a causal risk factor for developing bipolar disorder. We found some evidence that liability to bipolar disorder increased smoking heaviness. Given that smoking is a modifiable risk factor, these findings further support investment into smoking prevention and treatment in order to reduce mental health problems in future generations.
Declaration of interest
W.v.d.B received fees in the past 3 years from Indivior, C&A Pharma, Opiant and Angelini. G.M.G. is a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Emeritus Senior Investigator, holds shares in P1vital and has served as consultant, advisor or CME speaker in the past 3 years for Allergan, Angelini, Compass Pathways, MSD, Lundbeck (/Otsuka and /Takeda), Medscape, Minervra, P1Vital, Pfizer, Sage, Servier, Shire and Sun Pharma.
Six on-farm studies determined the effects of a rolled rye cover crop, herbicide program, and planting technique on cotton stand, weed control, and cotton yield in Georgia. Treatments included: (1) rye drilled broadcast with 19-cm row spacing and a broadcast-herbicide program (2) rye drilled with a 25-cm rye-free zone in the cotton row and a broadcast-herbicide program (3) rye drilled with a 25-cm rye-free zone in the cotton row with PPI and PRE herbicides banded in the cotton planting row, and (4) no cover crop (i.e., weedy cover) with broadcast herbicides. At two locations, cotton stand was lowest with rye drilled broadcast; at these sites the rye-free zone maximized stand equal to the no-cover system. At a third location, cover crop systems resulted in greater stand, due to enhanced soil moisture preservation compared with the no-cover system. Treatments did not influence cotton stand at the other three locations and did not differ in the control of weeds other than Palmer amaranth at any location. Treatments controlled Palmer amaranth equally at three locations; however, differences were observed at the three locations having the greatest glyphosate-resistant plant densities. For these locations, when broadcasting herbicides, Palmer amaranth populations were reduced 82% to 86% in the broadcast rye and rye-free zone systems compared with the no-cover system at harvest. The system with banded herbicides was nearly 21 times less effective than the similar system broadcasting herbicides. At these locations, yields in the rye broadcast and rye-free zone systems with broadcast herbicides were increased 9% to 16% compared with systems with no cover or a rye-free zone with PPI and PRE herbicides banded. A rolled rye cover crop can lessen weed emergence and selection pressure while improving weed control and cotton yield, but herbicides should be broadcast in fields heavily infested with glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a hyperkinetic movement disorder associated with antipsychotic treatment. RE KINECT (NCT03062033), a real-world study of outpatients prescribed antipsychotics, was designed to identify the presence of possible TD and characterize the impact of involuntary movements on functioning and quality of life. Data from RE-KINECT were used to compare the impact of possible TD in patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder [SZD] versus mood/other psychiatric disorders [Mood].
Adults with ≥3months of lifetime exposure to antipsychotics and ≥1 psychiatric disorder were recruited. The presence of possible TD was based on clinicians’ observation of involuntary movements in 4 body regions (head, trunk, upper extremities, and lower extremities). Baseline outcomes included demographics, medication history, location/severity of abnormal movements, impact of abnormal movements on daily activities, the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and the EuroQoL 5-Dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L).
Of 204 patients with clinician-confirmed possible TD, 111 (54.4%) had a SZD diagnosis and 93 (45.6%) had a mood/other psychiatric diagnosis. Significant differences found between groups (Mood vs SZD) included: mean age (56.9 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0263); male sex (33.3% vs 62.2%; P<0.0001); African-American race (7.5% vs 26.1%; P=0.0005); mean lifetime exposure to antipsychotics (9.5 vs 19.5 years; P<0.0001); and percentage of patients currently taking ≥2 psychiatric medications (93.5% vs 79.3%; P=0.0093). Based on clinician observation, there were no significant differences between diagnosis groups in the number of body regions impacted by abnormal movements, maximum severity score across all 4 regions, or patient awareness of possible TD. Over 30% of patients in both groups reported that involuntary movements had “some” or “a lot” of impact on their ability to continue usual activities, be productive, and socialize. No significant differences between the diagnosis groups (Mood vs SZD) were found for mean SDS total score (12.8 vs 10.8), SDS domain scores (work/school [4.1 vs 4.2], social life [4.3 vs 3.7], family life [4.1 vs 3.5]), EQ-5D-5L utility score (0.68 vs 0.74), or EQ-5D-5L health state VAS (64.8 vs 68.5).
In this cohort of outpatients with possible TD, those with Mood disorders were more likely to be older, female, and white than patients with SZD. The ability to function and quality of life were equally impaired in both groups. Further studies on the impact of TD are needed.
Funding Acknowledgements: Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc.
Field research was conducted in 2012 and 2013 in Georgia, New York, and North Carolina to evaluate the effect of trifluralin PPI on turnip root production. Treatments included trifluralin PPI at 0, 0.42, 0.56, 0.84, 1.12, 1.68, 2.24, and 3.36 kg ai ha−1. Aboveground injury to turnip varied by location and increased from 0% to 85% as trifluralin rate increased from 0.42 to 3.36 kg ha−1. Trifluralin at 0.42 to 0.84 kg ha−1 caused ≤7% injury, except at Clayton, NC, and Freeville, NY, where injury ≤32%. Trifluralin at 0.42 to 0.84 kg ha−1 reduced turnip root yield ≤11% at all locations, except Clinton, NC, where yield was reduced 29% and 43% by 0.56 and 0.84 kg ha−1, respectively. Turnip roots were not injured internally by trifluralin. Our research results suggest that up to 0.84 kg ha−1 trifluralin PPI is safe to use in turnip roots.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
Millions of children suffer from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in low- and middle- income countries. Much is known about the effectiveness of community treatment programmes (CMAM) but little is known about post-discharge outcomes after successful treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate post-discharge outcomes of children cured of SAM.
Prospective, observational cohort study. Children with SAM who were discharged as cured were followed monthly for 6 months or until they experienced relapse to SAM. ‘Cure’ was defined as a child achieving a mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of ≥115 mm with ≥15 % weight gain after loss of oedema. Relapse was defined as a child with MUAC<115 mm and/or oedema at any monthly visit.
Save the Children CMAM programme in Swabi, Pakistan, from January 2012 to December 2014.
Children aged 6–59 months (n 117) discharged as cured from the CMAM programme were eligible for the study and followed for 6 months.
One hundred children (92·6 %) remained free of SAM, eight (7·4 %) relapsed to SAM, nine (8·3 %) were lost to follow-up and none died. Most relapses occurred within 3 months of discharge (mean time to relapse 73·4 (sd 36·2) d). At enrolment, 90 % had moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and 10 % were not malnourished. By the end of 6 months, 35 % persisted with MAM and the remaining were not malnourished.
In rural Pakistan, fewer than 10 % of children cured of SAM relapsed. The first 3 months is the most vulnerable time.
The commercial release of crops with engineered resistance to 2,4-D and dicamba will alter the spatial and temporal use of these herbicides. This, in turn, has elicited concerns about off-target injury to sensitive crops. In 2014 and 2015, studies were conducted in Tifton, GA, to describe how herbicide (2,4-D and dicamba), herbicide rate (1/75 and 1/250 field use), and application timing (20, 40, and 60 DAP) influence watermelon injury, vine development, yield, and the accumulation of herbicide residues in marketable fruit. In general, greater visual injury and reductions in vine growth, relative to the non-treated check, were observed when herbicide applications were made before watermelon plants had begun to flower. Although the main effects of herbicide and rate were less influential than the timing of applications with respect to plant development, the 1/75 rates were more injurious than the 1/250 rates; dicamba was more injurious than 2,4-D. In 2014, the 1/75 and 1/250 rates of each herbicide reduced marketable fruit numbers 13 to 20%, but only for the 20 DAP application. The 1/75 rate of each herbicide when applied at either 20 or 40 DAP reduced the number of fruit harvested per plot in 2015. Dicamba residues were detected in marketable fruit when the 1/75 rate in 2014 and 2015 and the 1/250 rate in 2015 was applied to plants at 40 or 60 DAP. Residues of 2,4-D were detected in 2015 when the 1/75 and 1/250 rates were applied at 60 DAP. Across both years, the maximum level of residue detected was 0.030 ppm. While early season injury may reduce watermelon yields, herbicide residue detection is more likely in marketable fruit when an off-target contact incident occurs closer to harvest.
Background: Perinatal mental health difficulties are highly prevalent. In England, the Improving Access to Psychological Therapy (IAPT) programme provides evidence-based psychological treatment, predominantly in the form of brief manualized cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), to people with mild to moderate depression or anxiety. Yet little is known about the experiences of women referred to IAPT with perinatal mental health difficulties. Aims: The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate how women view IAPT support for perinatal mental health. We also gained the perspective of IAPT therapists. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve women who had been referred to and/or received therapy from IAPT during the perinatal period. Additionally, fourteen IAPT therapists participated in two focus groups. Thematic analysis was used. Results: Key themes centred on barriers to access and the need to tailor support to (expectant) mothers. Women and therapists suggested that experiences could be improved by supporting healthcare professionals to provide women with more help with referrals, better tailoring support to the perinatal context, improving perinatal-specific training, supervision and resources, and offering a more individualized treatment environment. Conclusions: Overall, women reported positive experiences of support offered by IAPT for perinatal mental health difficulties. However, services should seek to facilitate access to support and to enable therapists to better tailor treatment.
Bell pepper producers are faced with the challenge of controlling weeds following the phase-out of methyl bromide (MBr). Numerous attempts have been made to find a single fumigant or herbicide to control a broad spectrum of weeds. Adequate weed control in bell pepper will likely require weed management systems utilizing both fumigant and herbicide options. A weed management system including the fumigant dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) plus chloropicrin (Pic) plus the herbicide napropamide prior to transplant followed by S-metolachlor POST may be necessary to replace MBr. Field experiments were conducted during 2010 and 2011 near Ty Ty, Georgia to determine bell pepper and weed response to DMDS plus Pic or in systems with napropamide and/or S-metolachlor. Bell pepper were not significantly injured by DMDS plus Pic or napropamide. Injury caused by S-metolachlor was transient and plants fully recovered by 4 weeks after treatment (WAT). Yellow nutsedge control 6 WAT using DMDS plus Pic applied at 468 or 560 L ha−1 controlled yellow nutsedge 91 to 95%. Large crabgrass control 6 WAT was 92 to 100% when DMDS plus Pic was applied at 468 or 560 L ha−1 with or without a(n) herbicide (S-metolachlor or napropamide). Palmer Amaranth control prior to harvest was 21, 64, and 85% using DMDS plus Pic at 374, 468, or 560 L ha−1, respectively. DMDS plus Pic applied at 468 or 560 L ha-1 with napropamide followed by S-metolachlor POST gave 95 to 99% control of Palmer amaranth 6 WAT. Consistent weed control and optimum yields were obtained when DMDS plus Pic was used at 468 L ha−1 plus napropamide beneath plastic mulch followed by S-metolachlor POST.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy (ILE) is an invasive surgical procedure with a high incidence of postoperative pneumonia. Antibiotic prophylaxis could reduce respiratory infections but increase Clostridium difficile and antibiotic resistance. Our institution reduced the duration of piperacillin-tazobactam prophylaxis following ILE from 4 to 1 day or less in January 2015. We evaluated short-term outcomes in ILE patients before and after this institutional change. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Retrospective cohort study of all ILE patients from 2012 to 2016. We confirmed antibiotic duration directly from nursing medication administration records. The primary outcomes of this study were rates of C. difficile and postoperative pneumonia. Secondary outcomes include other infection, length of hospital stay, and readmission within 30 days. We used logistic regression to analyze impact of days of antibiotics and χ2 or Fischer exact tests for categorical variables. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of 104 ILE patients, 40.4% (n=42) were after January 2015, 11.5% developed pneumonia and 5.8% developed C. difficile colitis. ILE patients received more days of antibiotics before the institutional change compared with after (6.1 vs. 2.9 d, p<0.01). For a 1-day increase in antibiotic duration, the odds of acquiring C. difficile increased significantly by 1.2 (p=0.03). Before compared with after the institutional change, rates of C. difficile were 8.1% Versus 2.4% (p>0.2), rates of pneumonia were 11.3% Versus 11.9% (p>0.2), and length of stay was 10.9 Versus 10.5 days (p>0.2), respectively. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Institutional policy can have an impact on patient outcomes. Antibiotic stewardship is associated with reduced rates of inpatient C. difficile. Our study suggests reduced antibiotics are not associated with pneumonia, although larger studies are necessary to confirm this finding. Surgeons should consider the benefit of decreased rates of C. difficile before administering prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis following esophagectomies.
The efficacy of WSSA Group 4 herbicides has been reported to vary with dependence on the time of day the application is made, which may affect the value of this mechanism of action as a control option and resistance management tool for Palmer amaranth. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effect of time of day for application on 2,4-D and dicamba translocation and whether or not altering translocation affected any existing variation in phytotoxicity seen across application time of day. Maximum translocation (Tmax) of [14C]2,4-D and [14C]dicamba out of the treated leaf was significantly increased 52% and 29% to 34% in one of two repeated experiments for each herbicide, respectively, with application at 7:00 AM compared with applications at 2:00 PM and/or 12:00 AM. Applications at 7:00 AM increased [14C]2,4-D distribution to roots and increased [14C]dicamba distribution above the treated leaf compared with other application timings. In phytotoxicity experiments, dicamba application at 8 h after exposure to darkness (HAED) resulted in significantly lower dry root biomass than dicamba application at 8 h after exposure to light (HAEL). Contrasts indicated that injury resulting from dicamba application at 8 HAEL, corresponding to midday, was significantly reduced with a root treatment of 5-[N-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylethyl)methylamino]-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-isopropylvaleronitrile hydrochloride (verapamil) compared with injury observed with dicamba application and a root treatment of verapamil at 8 HAED, which corresponded to dawn. Overall, time of application appears to potentially influence translocation of 2,4-D and dicamba. Furthermore, inhibition of translocation appears to somewhat influence variation in phytotoxicity across times of application. Therefore, translocation may be involved in the varying efficacy of WSSA Group 4 herbicides due to application time of day, which has implications for the use of this mechanism of action for effective control and resistance management of Palmer amaranth.