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Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) may be an important factor in pathogenesis of schizophrenia due to its role in neurodevelopmental processes: myelination, neurotransmitter receptor expression and synaptic plasticity. NRG1 has been also implied to play role in cognitive impairments, which are considered to be endophenotypes of schizophrenia, i.e. subclinical, heritable and independent of clinical state traits associated with genetic susceptibility. Surprisingly, a recent meta-analysis (Dickinson, 2007) demonstrated that reliable and easy to administer Digit Symbol Coding Task (DSCT) discriminate people with schizophrenia from comparison individuals better than the more widely studied neuropsychological instruments.
The study was carried out to investigate the association of a polymorphisms of the NRG1 gene (rs62510682) and schizophrenia with respect to performance on DSCT.
Material and methods
We included 103 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to ICD-10 criteria and 578 controls in our study. The patients were evaluated for lifetime psychotic symptomatology using the Operational Criteria for Psychotic Illness (OPCRIT) checklist. DSCT was administered to 80 patients.
The polymorphisms were in HWE both in the cases’ and controls’ groups. In single marker analysis, we did not find an association for the SNP tested. However; we have found that T allel carriers (TT and/or GT genotype) performed worse than G allel carriers (p=0.4) suggesting weaker cognitive processing efficiency.
Our data do not support the role of the NRG1 gene polymorphism (rs62510682) in the predisposition to schizophrenia; however, the studied SNP might be considered to be a risk factor for cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.
ADHD is one of the most frequent developmental disorders in childhood. Adults also suffer from symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prevalence estimates of ADHD in adult community samples (5%) are based on American and West-European studies. Most of research though is concentrated on early ADHD symptoms. There are no sufficient data on clinical manifestation and scale of this problem in Poland.
To assess prevalence (life and 12-month), access to psychiatric care and other clinical and sociodemographic aspects of ADHD in adult population in Poland (both contemporary and retrospective). The first Polish nationwide survey, Epidemiology of Mental Disorders and Access to Care (EZOP, Poland)” was included in the WHO's WMH.
The aim of this paper is to present collected data on ADHD in community sample.
Composite International Diagnostic Interview (cidi capi v.3.1) was administered in random sample of Poles aged 18–65 (n = 10000). Data was collected from November 2010 to March 2011 by trained Millward Brown SMG/KRC interviewers.
Response rate is 50.4%. Prevalence estimated on the basis of retrospective reports in Screening Section is 2.2% for attention-deficit symptoms (2.5% for men and 1.9% for women) and 2.8% for hyperactivity symptoms (respectively 3.2% and 2.8%). Further analysis are in progress and detailed results will be known till December 2011.
Presented study will allow to introduce data on relation between intensity of early ADHD symptoms and it's later clinical manifestation. The identification of demographic factors influencing the course of the disorder and patterns of treatment will be possible.
Schizophrenia is a chronic severe psychiatric disorder with multiple environmental and genetic determinants. Several reports indicate the possible role of immune system dysregulation in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. An accumulating body of evidence indicates an association of schizophrenia and its psychopathology with altered cytokine production. The variation of the level of cytokines might be partly due to their functional gene polymorphism.
The study was carried out to investigate the association of schizophrenia with the following cytokine polymorphisms: IL-2 (-330T/G), IL-6 (-174G/C), IFN-gamma (+874 T/A), TGF-beta (+869 T/C and +915 G/C).
Material and methods
We included 130 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 184 controls in our study. The patients were evaluated for lifetime psychotic symptomatology using the Operational Criteria for Psychotic Illness (OPCRIT) checklist. The patients having history of traumatic brain injury, neurologic disorders, substance abuse or immune related diseases were excluded from the study by detailed medical examination.
The polymorphisms were in HWE both in the cases’ and controls’ groups. In single marker analysis, we did not find an association for the tested polymorphisms.
Our data do not support the role of IL-2, IL-6, IFN-gamma and TGF-beta gene polymorphisms in the predisposition to schizophrenia in the Polish population.
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