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Fibre degradation in the rumen needs the concerted action of numerous microbial species. The removal of molecular hydrogen (H2) by methanogenesis is postulated to eliminate the inhibitory effect of H2 on the microbial degradation of feed material. Different fibre structures in forages can alter fibre digestibility and influence fibrolytic microorganisms in the rumen, which may be associated with ruminal dissolved H2 (dH2) concentration. Napier grass (NG) silage and corn stover (CS) silage were compared as forage sources in the present study. In the first experiment, both forages were incubated to determine fibre degradation, total gas, methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) accumulation through 48-h in vitro batch cultures. Corn stover silage had greater (P < 0.05) 48-h DM, NDF and ADF degradation, and total gas and CH4 volumes, and lower (P < 0.05) 48-h H2 volume than NG silage in in vitro incubations. In the second experiment, 24 growing beef bulls were allocated to 12 blocks according to body weight, and each animal within a block was fed a diet including 55% (DM basis) NG or CS silage. Bulls fed the CS diet had greater (P < 0.05) DM intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), total-tract digestibility of OM and NDF, ruminal dissolved methane (dCH4) concentration, and gene copies of protozoa, methanogens, Ruminococcus albus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and had lower (P < 0.05) ruminal dH2 concentration, and molar proportions of valerate and isovalerate, in comparison with those fed the NG diet. There was a negative correlation between dH2 concentration and NDF digestibility in bulls fed the CS diet (R2 = 0.48, P = 0.02), and a lack of relationship between dH2 concentration and NDF digestibility with the NG diet (R2 < 0.01, P = 0.90; interaction dH2 × diet P = 0.006). In summary, the fibre of CS silage was more easily degraded by rumen microorganisms than that of NG silage. Increased dCH4 concentration with the CS diet presumably led to the decreased ruminal dH2 concentration, which may be helpful for fibre degradation and growth of fibrolytic microorganisms in the rumen.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Utilize polymer-based fiber scaffolds and machine learning methods applied to patient biomarker data to enhance and personalize T cell expansion and production for T cell therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Scaffolds are 1) generated from a co-polymer blend of PDMS and PCL with controlled fiber diameters and pore size, 2) coated with activating antibodies to CD3 and CD28, and 3) used to stimulate T cells from both healthy donors and CLL patients. CLL patients have pre-annotated mutation burdens and clinical biomarkers. T cell populations will be analyzed for exhaustion markers and phenotypes before, during, and after expansion. Cell functionality will be measured by cytokine secretion, cell cycle analysis, and fold expansion, with respect to platform parameters, and analyzed with inputs of disease markers and exhaustion profile of isolated T cells using regression and random forest classifiers. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We previously showed that engineering the mechanical rigidity of activating substrates can enhance and rescue T cell expansion from exhausted populations. Now we aim to study a broader range of compositions and geometry of scaffolds with respect to capacity to expand CLL T cells. Preliminary data with fiber diameters ranging from 300 nm to 6 um confirm the effect of geometry in modulating expansion. A biorepository of T cells from 80 CLL patients have been isolated concurrently. Anticipated results include correlating exhaustion profile of T cells with clinical biomarkers and identifying markers associated with expansion on panel of platform parameters. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: T cell therapy has shown particular promise in treating blood cancers, yet significant percentage of T cells isolated from patients undergoing treatments are unresponsive to activation. A powerful tool is to predict if and how patient T cells can be robustly expanded on a personalized approach.
Accurate elemental quantification of materials by X-ray detection techniques in electron microscopes or microprobes can only be carried out if the appropriate mass absorption coefficients (MACs) are known. With continuous advancements in experimental techniques, databases of MACs must be expanded in order to account for new detection limits. Soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) is a characterization technique that can detect emitted X-rays whose energies are in the range of 10 eV to 2 keV by using a varied-line-spaced grating. Transitions producing soft X-rays can be detected and accurate MACs are required for use in quantification. This work uses Monte Carlo modeling coupled with multivoltage SXES measurements in an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) to compute MACs for the L2,3-M and Li Kα transitions in a variety of aluminum alloys. Electron depth distribution curves obtained by the software MC X-ray are used in a parametrized fitting equation. The MACs are calculated using a least-squares regression analysis. It is shown that X-ray distribution cross-sections at such low energies need to take into account additional contributions, such as Coster–Kronig transitions, Auger yields, and wave function effects in order to be accurate.
The hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) as a wide bandgap semiconductor is an attractive material for deep ultraviolet (DUV) generation. In this paper we study the prospect of using the stacking hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (h-BNNS) for generating DUV emission by impact excitation in alternating current driven thin electroluminescence devices (ACTEL) based on BN phosphors having different morphologies. A theoretical approach considered is based on the impact excitation model for generating DUV from stacking h-BNNS under a high electric field. It was found that in the h-BNNS with a thickness of 90 nm biased at 3.33×109 V/m, the quantum yield can reach to 86.8%, and the power conversion efficiency of 1.68%. To achieve the same quantum yield and power conversion efficiency for the ACTEL based on h-BN single crystal, the active phosphor layer should be 2 μm thick when biased at 1.5×108 V/m.
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) by infants and young children are less explored in Asian populations. The Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes cohort study examined associations between SSB intake at 18 months and 5 years of age, with adiposity measures at 6 years of age. We studied Singaporean infants/children with SSB intake assessed by FFQ at 18 months of age (n 555) and 5 years of age (n 767). The median for SSB intakes is 28 (interquartile range 5·5–98) ml at 18 months of age and 111 (interquartile range 57–198) ml at 5 years of age. Association between SSB intake (100 ml/d increments and tertile categories) and adiposity measures (BMI standard deviation scores (sd units), sum of skinfolds (SSF)) and overweight/obesity status were examined using multivariable linear and Poisson regression models, respectively. After adjusting for confounders and additionally for energy intake, SSB intake at age 18 months were not significantly associated with later adiposity measures and overweight/obesity outcomes. In contrast, at age 5 years, SSB intake when modelled as 100 ml/d increments were associated with higher BMI by 0·09 (95 % CI 0·02, 0·16) sd units, higher SSF thickness by 0·68 (95 % CI 0·06, 1·44) mm and increased risk of overweight/obesity by 1·2 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·23) times at age 6 years. Trends were consistent with SSB intake modelled as categorical tertiles. In summary, SSB intake in young childhood is associated with higher risks of adiposity and overweight/obesity. Public health policies working to reduce SSB consumption need to focus on prevention programmes targeted at young children.
Nowadays, there is much legislation in the world devoted to restrict the use of synthetic antibiotics in the poultry industry, which could reduce performance rate and production profits. Various phyto-biotic growth promoters have been proposed to serve as antibiotic alternatives with emphasis on plant extracts and essential oils. This study was conducted to assess the impacts of using the oregano essential oil (OEO) (comprised of 5% thymol and 65% carvacrol) and Enviva essential oil (EEO) (4.5% cinnamaldehyde and 13.5% thymol) as phytobiotic feed additives (PFA) on growth performance, cecal microbiota and serum biochemicals of growing ducks. In total, 800 11-day-old ducklings, housed in 20 floor pens, were allotted randomly into five dietary treatments: (i) A basal diet (BD) (control), (ii.) BD+50 mg EEO/kg, (iii.) BD+100 mg EEO/kg, (iv.) BD+150 mg OEO/kg and (v.) BD+300 mg OEO/kg diet. The growth performance traits were studied between 11 and 42 days of age. At the experiment end, 40 ducks were slaughtered (eight/ treatment) and cecal digesta and blood samples were collected to estimate the cecal bacterial populations and serum blood biochemicals. The results indicated that the tested levels of OEO and EEO did not display any significant effect (P>0.05) on the duck’s final BW, BW gain, growth rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio or survivability rate. Besides, the different levels of EEO and OEO decreased the cecal populations of Coliforms (P<0.01), total aerobes (P<0.01) and lactose-negative Enterobacteria (P<0.05) in comparison with those of the control group. Finally, the tested EEO and OEO levels did not show any significant effect on the serum variables; in terms of total protein, albumin, globulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. In conclusion, the antimicrobial effect of the OEO and EEO against the cecal microbiota has been proven, while they did not display significant effects on the growth performance or blood variables of growing ducks.
The association between opportunistic infection (OI) and anaemia among HIV-infected patients remains to be studied. We investigated the prevalence and risk factors of anaemia in hospitalised HIV-infected patients to reveal the association between OI and anaemia. We conducted a retrospective study of HIV-positive hospitalised patients from June 2016 to December 2017 in Mengchao Hepatobiliary Hospital of Fujian Medical University. Patients’ information on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were carefully collected. The comparison of anaemia prevalence between groups was conducted with χ2 test. A logistic regression model was carried out to analyse the predictors of anaemia. The total prevalence of anaemia in hospitalised HIV-infected patients was 55.15%. The prevalence of mild, moderate and severe anaemia was 41.42%, 11.08% and 2.64%, respectively. Predictors independently associated with anaemia were: CD4 counts <50 cells/μl (odds ratio (OR): 6.376, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.916–21.215, P = 0.003), CD4 counts 50–199 cells/μl (OR: 6.303, 95% CI = 1.874–21.203, P = 0.003), co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) (OR: 2.703, 95% CI = 1.349–5.414, P = 0.005) or Penicillium marneffei (PM) (OR: 7.162, 95% CI = 3.147–15.299, P < 0.001). In Fujian, China, more than half inpatients with HIV were anaemic, but severe anaemia is infrequent. Lower CD4 counts, co-infection with TB or PM were independent risk factors for anaemia. Chinese HIV patients especially with TB, PM infection and low CD4 level should be routinely detected for anaemia to improve therapy.
The generation of drops from a jet spiralling out of a spinning device, under the action of centrifugal force, is considered for the case of small perturbations introduced at the inlet. Close to the inlet, where the disturbances can be regarded as small, their propagation is found to be qualitatively similar to that of a wave propagating down a straight jet stretched by an external body force (e.g. gravity). The dispersion equation has the same parametric dependence on the base flow, but the base flow is, of course, different. Further down the jet, where the amplitude of the disturbances becomes finite and eventually resulting in drop formation, the flow appears to be quite complex. As shown, for the regular/periodic process of drop generation, the wavelength corresponding to the frequency at the inlet, increasing as the wave propagates down the stretching jet, determines, in general, not the volume of the resulting drop but the sum of volumes of the main drop and the satellite droplet that follows the main one. The proportion of the total volume forming the main drop depends on how far down the jet the drops are produced, i.e. on the magnitude of the inlet disturbance. The volume of the main drop is found to be a linear function of the radius of the unperturbed jet evaluated at the point where the drop breaks away from the jet. This radius, and the corresponding velocity of the base flow, have to be found simultaneously with the jet’s trajectory by using a jet-specific non-orthogonal coordinate system described in detail in Shikhmurzaev & Sisoev (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 819, 2017, pp. 352–400). Some characteristic features of the nonlinear dynamics of the drop formation are discussed.
This work explores the uplift history of the best exposed marine terraces in the northeastern Arabian Peninsula (eastern Al Hajar Mountains). A multidisciplinary approach was employed, including a topographic survey, 14C dating, thin section studies, and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Six distinctive marine terraces with widths ranging from tenth of meters to kilometers and elevations from 5 to ~400 m were studied. These terraces record an along-strike heterogeneous uplift history, while they show temporally variable uplift rates ranging between 0.9 to 6.7 mm/yr, which correlates well with other published uplift rates of marine terraces of the eastern Arabian Peninsula. We attribute the variable uplift along strike of the terraces, to a combination of uplift mechanisms: (1) during early to mid-Miocene along deep-rooted reverse faults that bound large crustal-scale blocks, (2) Pliocene or post-Pliocene uplift on the outer wall of the forebulge of the lower Arabian Plate as it bends to enter the Zagros-Makran subduction zone, and (3) a possible slowdown of subduction for the past ~40 ka.
Adult Glioblastomas (GBMs) remain one of the least curable brain cancers despite the discovery and use of DNA alkylating agent Temozolomide (TMZ). TMZ provides a moderate survival benefit to sensitive patients whose O6-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) gene is silenced by promoter methylation. Unfortunately, TMZ potential is stunted because of the rapid onset of tumour recurrence and acquired resistance believed to result from the upregulation of DNA damage repair by the base excision repair (BER), mismatch repair (MMR), or homologous recombination (HR) systems. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that cell lines obtained from recurrent, TMZ-resistant GBMs could be re-sensitized to TMZ when treated with an inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) – a protein instrumental in the recruitment of BER machinery. From this preliminary research, we postulate that PARP-1 inhibition may not only be used to overcome established resistance in GBM but may also be used to prevent its emergence altogether. To test this hypothesis, we utilized the MGMT-methylated GBM cell line U251N and developed an in vitro model of inducible TMZ resistance. We verified that prolonged treatment of U251N cells with TMZ resulted in the emergence of resistant colonies that resembled recurrent GBM clinically observed in TMZ-treated patients. However, when the parental U251N line was co-treated with TMZ and PARP-1 inhibitor ABT-888, resistant colonies failed to appear. Therefore, PARP-1 inhibition may possess the potential to maintain tumour sensitivity to TMZ as well as evade the otherwise inevitable development of resistance in GBM.
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a life-threatening illness that presents significant healthcare challenges. About 90% of ESRD patients receive hemodialysis treatment, but the currently available hemodialysis systems are bulky and prone to complications. We report the design of a microfluidic hemodialysis device composed of two polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chambers separated by a cellulose ester (CE) membrane. The polyethylene glycol-passivated PDMS and CE surfaces reduced platelet adhesion by 74% and 86%, respectively. Moreover, the device exhibited a higher urea clearance rate per unit area than a healthy kidney. The reported design sets the foundation for a next-generation biomimetic portable hemodialysis device.
Several previous prospective studies suggest that consumption of green leafy and cruciferous vegetables may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated the association between consumption of different types of vegetables in relation to T2D risk in an Asian Population. We included 45 411 participants (age range: 45–74 years) of the Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS) free of diabetes, cancer or CVD at baseline (1993–1998). Dietary information was collected using a validated FFQ. Physician-diagnosed incident diabetes was reported at follow-up I (1999–2004) and II (2006–2010) interviews. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and 95 % CI of T2D risk. An updated meta-analysis was also conducted to summarise results for green leafy and cruciferous vegetables. During 494 741 person-years of follow-up, 5207 incident T2D occurred. After adjustment for potential confounders, neither total vegetables (top v. bottom quintile HR=1·08; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·18, Ptrend=0·66) nor specific vegetables including dark green leafy vegetables (HR=1·05; 95 % CI 0·96, 1·15, Ptrend=0·21) and cruciferous vegetables (HR=0·97; 95 % CI 0·88, 1·06, Ptrend=0·29) were substantially associated with risk of T2D. A meta-analysis (eleven studies with 754 729 participants and 58 297 cases) including the SCHS and all previous prospective studies suggested borderline significant inverse associations between green leafy (summary relative risk (RR)=0·91; 95 % CI 0·84, 1·00) and cruciferous vegetable consumption (RR=0·87; 95 % CI 0·76, 1·00) and T2D risk, with moderate-to-high heterogeneity. In conclusion, green leafy or cruciferous vegetable consumption was not substantially associated with risk of T2D in an Asian population. Meta-analysis of available cohort data indicated that evidence for a beneficial effect of green leafy or cruciferous vegetable consumption on T2D risk is not convincing.
Muons produced by the Bethe–Heitler process from laser wakefield accelerated electrons interacting with high
materials have velocities close to the laser wakefield. It is possible to accelerate those muons with laser wakefield directly. Therefore for the first time we propose an all-optical ‘Generator and Booster’ scheme to accelerate the produced muons by another laser wakefield to supply a prompt, compact, low cost and controllable muon source in laser laboratories. The trapping and acceleration of muons are analyzed by one-dimensional analytic model and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. It is shown that muons can be trapped in a broad energy range and accelerated to higher energy than that of electrons for longer dephasing length. We further extrapolate the dependence of the maximum acceleration energy of muons with the laser wakefield relativistic factor
and the relevant initial energy
. It is shown that a maximum energy up to 15.2 GeV is promising with
on the existing short pulse laser facilities.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Human cystic echinococcosis is a widespread, chronic, endemic, helminthic zoonosis caused by larval tapeworms of the species Echinococcus granulosus. At present, there is no rational and effective therapy for patients with echinococcosis. The present study evaluated whether the combination of alkaloids from Sophora moorcroftiana seeds (SMSa2) and Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) was effective in the treatment of experimental echinococcosis. After 20 weeks of secondary infection with protoscoleces, mice were randomly allocated to five groups and treated for 6 weeks by daily intragastric administration of albendazole (ABZ, 100 mg/kg), SMSa2 (100 mg/kg), BCG (abdominal subcutaneous injection at 5 × 106 CFU), SMSa2 + BCG (100 mg/kg SMSa2 and 5 × 106 CFU BCG) or normal saline (untreated group), respectively. The results indicated a significant reduction in the weight of hydatid cysts in the SMSa2 + BCG group compared with the untreated, SMSa2 and BCG groups. The rate of inhibition of hydatid cyst growth in the SMSa2 + BCG group (76.1%) was obviously increased compared with that in the SMSa2 (25.7%) and BCG (26.6%) groups, respectively. Compared with the untreated control, the SMSa2 + BCG group showed a non-significant increase in serum interleukin-4 (IL-4). Furthermore, the serum levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) between the untreated and SMSa2 + BCG groups were not statistically different. Therefore, the combination of alkaloids from S. moorcroftiana seeds and BCG can reduce cyst burden and is an effective therapeutic regimen against echinococcosis.
Suicide-related behaviours are common in schizophrenia and are significantly associated with premature death. The objective of this meta-analysis study was to estimate the pooled prevalence of suicide-related behaviours in schizophrenia patients in China.
The relevant literature was searched systematically via the relevant electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Databases and Chinese Biological Medical Literature Database) from their inception until 14 September 2016. Only original studies that reported the prevalence of suicide-related behaviours including suicidal ideation (SI), suicide plan, suicide attempt (SA) and completed suicide were selected.
Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria and were analysed. The pooled lifetime prevalence of SI and SA were 25.8% (95% CI 14.7–41.1%) and 14.6% (95% CI 9.1–22.8%), respectively. The 1-month prevalence of SI was 22.0% (95% CI 18.2–26.4%). Subgroup analyses of lifetime SI and SA showed that gender, sample size, survey year, study location and source of patients have no significant mediating effects on the results.
Suicide-related behaviours are common in Chinese schizophrenia patients. Due to the high mortality risk, regular screening and effective suicide prevention programmes are warranted.
South China has become the most important area to establish a global stratigraphic framework of the Wuchiapingian Stage because complete Wuchiapingian sequences include the GSSPs for the base and top of the stage. As the markers of the Wuchiapingian GSSP, conodonts are the most important fossil group to establish the Wuchiapingian biostratigraphic framework. However, few documents have investigated in detail the conodont biostratigraphic succession through the entire Wuchiapingian Stage. Furthermore, the conodont taxonomy of several Wuchiapingian Clarkina species is still debated. Therefore, we here review all Wuchiapingian Clarkina species from South China and figure ontogenetic growth series from juvenile to adult individuals for each valid and important species in order to revise both Wuchiapingian conodont taxonomy and the biostratigraphic succession. Based on the Penglaitan, Dukou, and Nanjiang sections, seven conodont zones (Clarkina postbitteri postbitteri, C. dukouensis, C. asymmetrica, C. leveni, C. guangyuanensis, C. transcaucasica, and C. orientalis) are recognized. The Wuchiapingian Clarkina species lineage is also reviewed to confirm the conodont biostratigraphic framework. The Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary (GLB) interval represents a sequence boundary. The time framework of the pre-Lopingian extinction interval indicates that the beginning of the end-Guadalupian regression is in the upper part of the Jinogondolella postserrata Zone, and the beginning of the early Lopingian transgression is in the lower part of the Clarkina dukouensis Zone in South China.
The SkyMapper 1.3 m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory has now begun regular operations. Alongside the Southern Sky Survey, a comprehensive digital survey of the entire southern sky, SkyMapper will carry out a search for supernovae and other transients. The search strategy, covering a total footprint area of ~2 000 deg2 with a cadence of ⩽5 d, is optimised for discovery and follow-up of low-redshift type Ia supernovae to constrain cosmic expansion and peculiar velocities. We describe the search operations and infrastructure, including a parallelised software pipeline to discover variable objects in difference imaging; simulations of the performance of the survey over its lifetime; public access to discovered transients; and some first results from the Science Verification data.