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Japanese universities are required to improve both international and Japanese students' mental health, because the number of international students increases annually. Moreover, mental health data for graduate school students in Japan are lacking. Therefore, the present study attempted to examine differences in graduate school students' mental health according to major, grade, and nationality.
A total of 587 students from a Japanese university, which only offers graduate school education, completed the Japanese version of Kessler 6 (K6) as part of their regular health assessments; 542 students agreed to the use of their data for research purposes.
The K6 scores were analyzed using a 3-way (major × grade × nationality) between-subjects ANOVA, and a significant second-order interaction (F(6, 518) = 2.68, p < .05) was observed. As a subsequent 2-way (major × nationality) ANOVA, performed according to grade, only showed an interaction for first-grade master's degree students (M1; F(2, 167) = 7.88, p < .01), comparisons between Japanese and international students were made according to major. For one major, Japanese students' K6 scores tended to be higher relative to those observed in international students (t(36) = 1.98, p < .10). In contrast, international students' K6 scores for another major were significantly higher than were those of Japanese students (t(86) = 3.31, p < .01).
Japanese and international M1 students' K6 scores differed significantly. University staff should take these differences into account and examine ways to support students.
The dynamics of burning plasma is very complicated physics, which is dominated by multi-scale and multi-physics phenomena. To understand such phenomena, numerical simulations are indispensable. Fundamentals of numerical methods used in fusion science numerical modeling are briefly discussed in this paper. In addition, the parallelization technique such as open multi processing (OpenMP) and message passing interface (MPI) parallel programing are introduced and the loop-level parallelization is shown as an example.
We have investigated electronic band-gap states in AlGaN/GaN hetero-structures with different growth conditions of GaN buffer layers from a viewpoint of Carbon impurity incorporation into GaN, using photoluminescence (PL), capacitance-voltage (C-V) and steady-state photo-capacitance spectroscopy (SSPC) techniques. The Carbon incorporation was found to be enhanced with decreasing the growth temperature of the GaN buffer layer between 1120 and 1170 °C. Acting in concert, three specific deep levels located at ~2.07, ~2.70, and ~3.23 eV below the conduction band were found to become dense significantly at the low growth temperature. Therefore, these levels are probably attributable to Ga vacancies and/or Carbon acceptors produced by the Carbon impurity incorporation, and are likely in conjunction with each other.
We have fabricated top-gated field effect transistors (FETs) using graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition directly on a SiO2/Si substrate without using any transferring processes. Graphene was synthesized on an Fe catalyst film on the substrate at 650°C. The catalyst film was then etched after both ends of the graphene were fixed by source and drain electrodes, leaving the graphene channel connecting the two electrodes. Top-gated FETs were then made by covering graphene channels with HfO2 and depositing top electrodes. The drain current was successfully modulated by the gate voltage and exhibited the bipolar behavior that is characteristic of graphene. Also, it has been shown that graphene channels can sustain an electric current with a density of 107–108 /cm2. Our newly developed fabrication process paves a way to fabricate graphene transistors all over large substrates including Si and glass.
Innovative blast furnace operations with top gas recycling after CO2 scrubbing
were numerically examined. The fully kinetic mathematical model was applied to the
operations with recycled gas injections into the tuyere and stack parts of the furnace,
and the top gas recycling combined with waste plastics injection. The simulation results
showed that the top gas recycling decreased the reducing agent rate and increased
A satisfactory understanding of the origin of the dependence of galaxy properties on their environment has remained, so far, out of reach. In the light of numerous observational results and substantial theoretical progress obtained for clusters of galaxies in the last few years, a primary goal is to understand how the star formation activity depends on cluster substructure, i.e. on the merging/accretion history of a cluster. In this contribution we present a case in which it is possible to identify the cluster environment, and in particular the intracluster medium and the recent infall history of galaxies onto the cluster, as the cause for an abrupt change in the star formation histories of a subset of galaxies in the Coma cluster.
A main topic at this meeting is how galaxies are affected when they enter for the first time the cluster environment from the outskirts. Most of the times we are forced to infer the environmental effects indirectly, relying on systematic variations of galaxy properties with environment, but there aren't many examples of direct observations able to unveil ongoing transformations, and the corresponding mechanism producing it. We present a case in which it is possible to identify the cluster environment, and in particular the intracluster medium and the recent infall history of galaxies onto the cluster, as the cause for a recent, abrupt change in the evolutionary history of galaxies.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
Photometric properties (effective surface brightness, effective radius, radial profile index, axis ratio, color, color gradient) of 328 galaxies in the Coma cluster fainter than $R=15$ mag are examined as a function of the distance from the cluster center. No significant gradient is found for the effective surface brightness, effective radius and radial profile index. The distribution of axis ratios shows a concentration of round galaxies at the cluster center in the magnitude range $16.5 \lt R \lt 18$; most of these are found to be old and to have intermediate metal abundance, suggesting that they are nucleated dwarf ellipticals. On the other hand, we find a significant gradient in color, in the sense that galaxy colours become bluer with increasing distance from the cluster center. We conclude that this color gradient represents a metallicity gradient.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
A surprising result of our recent spectroscopic survey of galaxies in the Coma cluster has been the discovery of a possible bimodal distribution in the metallicities of faint galaxies at MB > −17. We identified a group of dwarfs with luminosity-weighted metallicities around solar and a group with [M/H] around −1.5. A metallicity bimodality among galaxies of similar luminosities is unexpected and suggests that faint cluster galaxies could be an heterogeneous population that formed through more than one evolutionary path, possibly as a consequence of the cluster environment.
We report here the results of deep optical spectroscopy of the very extended emission-line region (VEELR) found serendipitously around the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4388 in the Virgo cluster. The Hα recession velocities of most of the filaments of the region observed are highly blue-shifted with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The velocity field is complicated, and there seem to be several streams of filaments ranging from ~ −100 km s−1 to ~ −700 km s−1 with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The emission-line ratios of the VEELR filaments are well explained by power-law photoionization models with solar abundances. In addition to photoionization, shock heating probably contributes to the ionization of the gas. We conclude that the VEELR was formerly the disk gas of NGC 4388, which has been stripped by ram pressure due to the interaction between the hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) and the galaxy.
The survey of Vibrio cholerae O1 in marine area was carried out in the Port of Osaka, Japan in 1987–2001, and 51 V. cholerae O1 strains were isolated. All strains were identified to be of El Tor biotype, Ogawa serotype and classic Ubon Kappa-phage type, and were cholera toxin (CT)-negative and CT gene-negative. In order to clarify certain ecological aspects of V. cholerae O1 in the marine environment of the temperate zone, we performed molecular analysis of the isolated strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with NotI and SfiI restriction enzymes. We found the indistinguishable strains by DNA analysis using PFGE with strains passed for 1 year, and also found the closely related strains with that passed for 3 and 12 years. Those results indicated that V. cholerae O1 can survive over one winter at least, and that it survives in marine water for a long time by undergoing continuous mutation.
Composite membranes of titanium oxide and phosphorus oxide (TiP) were prepared by the sol-gel method and evaluated for use as proton conductive materials at intermediate temperatures. Titanium phosphorus oxide sol solutions were prepared by the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) using hydrochloric acid as a catalyst in isopropanol solutions, and the addition of an appropriate amount of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). A new concept for structurally composite membranes is proposed for proton conductive membranes. A composite membrane, Ti/TiP, where the pores of a porous titanium oxide layer are filled with titanium phosphorus oxide, was found to be effective for high electrical conductivity as well as mechanical strength. Electrical conductivities as high as 0.1 and 0.06 S cm−1 at 100 and 300 °C, respectively, under a partial pressure of water of 50 kPa, was achieved for the Ti/ TiP membranes.
A novel technique to reduce planar defects in 3C-SiC is to grow it on “undulant-Si” substrates, on which the surface forms countered slopes oriented in the  and  directions. In the initial stage of 3C-SiC growth, step flow epitaxy occurs on each slope of the substrate, reducing the anti-phase boundaries. Then, the stacking faults in the (111) and (111) planes are gradually annihilated by combining with counter-stacking faults, while those parallel to (111) and (111) vanish. The freestanding 3C-SiC exhibits anisotropy in its electrical properties. The origin of the anisotropy in electrical properties is discussed by referring to the results of X-ray diffraction study.
Domain wall velocity and nucleation rate in 250nm-thick epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films were studied by piezoresponse scanning force microscopy (PFM). Domain growth observed after applying switching pulses shorter than the switching time can be described using the Ishibashi theory. At a pulse voltage of +5V, experimental results indicated that new nucleation occurred during the switching period, which corresponded to the Category I in the Ishibashi theory. Switching time, domain wall velocity and nucleation rate at +5V can be obtained as 70ns, 8.3m/s and 43μs-1 μm-2, respectively. As compared with experimental results reported in BaTiO3 single crystals, domain wall velocity was much smaller but nucleation rate was much larger than those in single crystals.
We reported previously that in mouse testis calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase (calcineurin) is localised in the nuclei of round and elongating spermatids (Cell Tissue Res. 1995; 281: 273-81). In this study, we studied the immunohistochemical localisation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase II) using antibodies against CaM kinase IIγ from chicken gizzard and specific antibodies raised against the amino acid sequence Ileu480–Ala493 of this enzyme, and compared it with the distribution of calmodulin. Indirect immunofluorescence was most concentrated in early spermatocytes and localised in the outermost layer of seminiferous tubules where the calmodulin level was relatively low. Measurements of immuno-gold particle densities on electron micrographs revealed that CaM kinase II is transiently increased in the nucleus of zygotene spermatocytes. These observations suggest the involvement of CaM kinase II in the meiotic chromosomal pairing process. An extremely high concentration of calmodulin in spermatogenic cells undergoing meiosis may not be directly related to activation of calmodulin-dependent kinases and phosphatases.
The focus of this work is on sensor-based motion planning for a biped robot operating in a scene with unknown obstacles. Using on-line sensor information about its surroundings, the robot negotiates obstacles on its way. Depending on the obstacle's shape, size, and location, the decision-making system chooses an appropriate walking pattern. The robot
then negotiates the obstacle and resumes stable motion. The walking pattern is chosen from a small number of precomputed patterns that together cover a reasonably wide range of possible situations. The overall control strategy is based on the concept of Zero Moment Point. Each precomputed pattern guarantees dynamically stable motion; its stability is obtained by adjusting the swing leg center of mass and hip position trajectories. The approach is fast enough for real-time implementation. Simulation experiments demonstrate stability of motion when negotiating various obstacles.
Negative ion states for Li atoms are found in graphite nanoclusters heavily doped with lithium using a semiempirical calculational method. These calculations identify a quasi-stable site for a negative Li ion near the terminated hydrogen atoms, and this site becomes very stable in the presence of the Coulomb interaction between Li ions. The total charge transfer from Li ions to the graphite clusters does not depend on the number of Li atoms per cluster but rather on the relative geometries of the Li atoms on the cluster. The relationship of these findings to the findings in the 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and to the performance of Li secondary batteries is discussed.