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The risk for developing and preserving symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN) in children seems to be multifactorial: individual, familial, socio-cultural, and biological factors interact within the developmental framework. A disruption of attachment processes with the mother in an early stage of child development has been proposed as a contributing factor; however, the evidence is controversial.
To address the research question of how childhood AN patients recognize disorder-specific provocative factors such as body type, high-calorie food, and attachment between mother and child.
The aim of this study was to investigate the prefrontal activation in childhood AN patients when imaging those symptom-provocative factors.
The prefrontal activations during each task, in terms of blood volume changes, were measured by near infrared spectroscopy. Twelve females with childhood AN (mean age, 14.4 years old) and 13 age-matched healthy female controls participated in this study.
Both groups showed increased prefrontal blood volume when viewing images of each symptom-provocative factor. Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in the prefrontal blood volume increases between the control group and the childhood AN group when viewing images of slender and obese body types and high-calorie food. On the other hand, images of mother-child attachment resulted in significantly greater increases in prefrontal blood volume in the childhood AN group than in the control group.
These results indicated that prefrontal activation in AN might be associated with imaging attachment between mother and child, but not associated with imaging body type or high-calorie food.
Optical properties of infrared-bright (IR-bright) dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are reported. DOGs are faint in optical but very bright in mid-IR, which are powered by active star formation (SF) or active galactic nucleus (AGN), or both. The DOGs is a candidate population that are evolving from a gas-rich merger to a quasar. By combining three catalogs of optical (Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam), near-IR (VIKING), and mid-IR (ALLWISE), we have discovered 571 IR-bright DOGs. Using their spectral energy distributions, we classified the selected DOGs into the SF-dominated DOGs and the AGN-dominated DOGs. We found that the SF-dominated DOGs show a redder optical color than the AGN-dominated DOGs. Interestingly, some DOGs shows extremely blue color in optical (blue-excess DOGs: bluDOGs). A possible origin for this blue excess is either the leaked AGN light or stellar UV light from nuclear starbursts. The BluDOGs may be in the transition phase from obscured AGNs to unobscured AGNs.
Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is thought to be useful for chronic pain, with the pathology of the latter being closely associated with cognitive–emotional components. However, there are few resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies. We used the independent component analysis method to examine neural changes after CBT and to assess whether brain regions predict treatment response.
We performed R-fMRI on a group of 29 chronic pain (somatoform pain disorder) patients and 30 age-matched healthy controls (T1). Patients were enrolled in a weekly 12-session group CBT (T2). We assessed selected regions of interest that exhibited differences in intrinsic connectivity network (ICN) connectivity strength between the patients and controls at T1, and compared T1 and T2. We also examined the correlations between treatment effects and rs-fMRI data.
Abnormal ICN connectivity of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and inferior parietal lobule within the dorsal attention network (DAN) and of the paracentral lobule within the sensorimotor network in patients with chronic pain normalized after CBT. Higher ICN connectivity strength in the OFC indicated greater improvements in pain intensity. Furthermore, ICN connectivity strength in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) within the DAN at T1 was negatively correlated with CBT-related clinical improvements.
We conclude that the OFC is crucial for CBT-related improvement of pain intensity, and that the dorsal PCC activation at pretreatment also plays an important role in improvement of clinical symptoms via CBT.
Metal Organic Decomposition (MOD)-made BaTiO3 (BT) thin films were prepared for Resistive Random Access Memory (ReRAM) under various annealing conditions and investigated for improving the properties of bipolar-type resistive switching, focusing on the relation between oxygen vacancies and the behavior of resistive hysteresis. BT thin films with both pre- and final- annealing in nitrogen showed the resistive hysteresis of bipolar-type switching with current ON/OFF ratios of 2 orders of magnitude for both bias polarities. Finally they showed the endurance property with the 106 switching cycles. It was suggested that oxygen vacancies near the oxide surface (both interfaces at metal electrode/oxide and between layer-by-layered oxide layers) are increased by N2 annealing and enhanced the interface-type resistive switching. Pre-annealing in N2 was also found to be very effective to improve endurance properties, implying that not only the electrode/oxide interface but also the middle part of the film would contribute the interface-type mechanism.
Elucidating how the human brain is structured and how it functions is a fundamental aim of human neuroscience. To achieve such an aim, the activity of the human brain has been measured using noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, the most popular of which is functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (Ogawa et al. 1990). The fMRI signals are obtained at a spatial resolution of typically 3mm and measure changes of blood flow and blood oxygen consumption whose temporal dynamics are slower than that of neuronal electrical activities, resulting in a poor temporal resolution of the order of seconds. In contrast, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) can detect changes of neuronal activities by the millisecond measurement of magnetic and electric fields, respectively, outside the skull (Hämäläinen et al. 1993; Nunez & Srinivasan 2006). The high temporal resolution of MEG (and EEG) is useful, especially for studying the dynamic integration of functionally specialized brain regions, which is a subject of growing interest in human neuroscience (de Pasquale et al. 2012).
The major problem of MEG is that spatial brain activity patterns are not easily understandable from sensor measurements. This is because the magnetic fields produced by neuronal current sources are superimposed to form rather uninterpretable spatial patterns of signals on sensors. Estimating the position and intensity of these current sources from the sensor measurements is called source reconstruction, or source localization. Solving the source reconstruction problem allows the mapping of temporally dynamic electrical activities in the human brain (Baillet et al. 2001). Since how brain regions are dynamically integrated to produce a variety of functions is of great interest in human neuroscience research, the mission of MEG source reconstruction is not only to localize position of the current sources, but also to identify directed interactions between these sources. A possible approach to this involves constructing a dynamic model of brain electrical activities, as well as developing an estimation algorithm for the source positions and interactions that are parametrized in this model.
We succeeded in photovoltaic power generation of p-i-n solar cells utilizing epitaxial ZnInON film with a wide band gap of 3.1 eV as the intrinsic layer, suitable for a top cell of tandem solar cells. The solar cell shows a high open circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.68 V under solar simulator light irradiation of 3.2 mW/cm2. The solar cell performance becomes worse under 100 mW/cm2, which is mainly attributed to the leakage current caused by crystal defects and grain boundaries. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the ZnInON film has rather large tilt and twist angles and a high dislocation density of 7.62×1010 cm-2. Such low crystallinity is a bottleneck for high performance of the solar cells. Our results demonstrate a potential of epitaxial ZnInON films as an intrinsic layer of wide band gap p-i-n solar cells with a high Voc.
Effects of surface morphology of buffer layers on ZnO/sapphire heteroepitaxial growth have been investigated by means of “nitrogen mediated crystallization (NMC) method”, where the crystal nucleation and growth are controlled by absorbed nitrogen atoms. We found a strong correlation between the height distribution profile of NMC-ZnO buffer layers and the crystal quality of ZnO films. On the buffer layer with a sharp peak in height distribution, a single-crystalline ZnO film with atomically-flat surface was grown. Our results indicate that homogeneous and high-density nucleation at the initial growth stages is critical in heteroepitaxy of ZnO on lattice mismatched substrates.
The sensor team at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is an integrated multidisciplinary group that develops both core technologies as well as accessory tools for efficient biodetection. We have developed a waveguide-based optical biosensor for the efficient and ultra-sensitive, rapid detection of biological agents. We have previously demonstrated the use of this technology for the detection of biomarkers associated with many diseases. Herein, we present the preliminary data demonstrating the extension of this technology to the discovery and detection of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). TBI afflicts a significant percentage of US troops deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan, but is difficult to diagnose efficiently. Currently, only neuropsychological questionnaires are being used for the diagnosis of this condition, which can range from mild concussion to severe brain damage. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop a rapid biomarker-based diagnostic for TBI in blood. However, this cannot be accomplished until a comprehensive repertoire of biomarkers secreted during brain injury is established. This requires an integrated biomarker discovery and detection approach that is sampled directly from human serum and cerebrospinal fluid.
The results reported here are preliminary steps in that direction wherein we aim to develop two different methods for the discovery of novel biomarkers of TBI in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, as well as develop assays for two biomarkers on an ultra-sensitive waveguide-based platform that was developed at LANL. We were able to evaluate two different methods for biomarker discovery: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in serum samples. In addition to development of depletion protocols to remove abundant proteins in serum, we were also able to detect spiked TBI biomarkers using both methods. However, the results clearly show that for protein biomarkers, MALDI MS is much more sensitive than 2-DE. We also developed a sandwich immunoassay on a waveguide-based platform for a TBI biomarker, procalcitonin, using commercially available antibodies. We show with our methods that we were able to directly detect procalcitonin from human serum. While our discovery and detection methods show promising results, these methods need to be further optimized before we can apply it to clinically relevant samples.
Hydrogen passivation was applied to the initial epitaxial growth of n-type β-FeSi2 thin films on p-type Si(111) substrates by facing-targets direct-current sputtering (FTDCS) in order to reduced the formation of interface states and terminate dangling bonds in the β-FeSi2 films, and the passivation effects were studied on basis of the electrical evaluation results of the formed n-type β-FeSi2/p-type Si heterojunction photodiodes. The initial growth was made at different gas inflow H2/Ar ratios ranging from 0 to 0.2. The photodetection performance of the photodiode fabricated at the ratio of 0.2 was markedly improved as compared to those of the other samples. The quantum efficiency and detectivity were 2.08 % and 1.75 × 1010 cm√Hz/W, respectively. The sample exhibited the minimum junction capacitance density of 9.2 nF/cm2. The enhanced photodetective performance should be mainly because dangling bonds that act as trap centers for photocarriers are effectively inactivated by the passivation.
A sudden break-down of a heat-exchanger in vinyl chloride plant resulted in that 141 °C, 23% concentration of hydrochloric acid spouted out over the workers around it. Eight workers suffered and Ichihara City Fire Department was deployed in response to the call 3 minutes after the onset of the incident, 17 vehicles including 5 fire engines, 6 ambulances, and two helicopters. Finally three severely (> 80% of TBSA) burned, two moderately (20–80%) burned, and three slightly (< 20%) burned victims were identified and triaged. One severely burned was transferred at first to the closest tertiary care hospital (TUCMC) which existed within 2.5 km distance by an ambulance and other two and one moderately burned were transferred by helicopters to the neighboring tertiary care hospitals. Another moderately burned one was sent to TUCMC by an ambulance about 30 minutes later than the first one. Three slightly burned victims were sent to a local hospital and treated as an outpatient. This casualty mission was ended by 120 minutes after the call. Two among the three severely burned patients lost their lives but another severe one and two moderately burned were survived. Conclusions: With these considerations, the management of this multiple burn casualty was successful, partly because of small number of the victims and of that the incident occurred in a weekday morning.
Oxide dispersion strengthened austenitic stainless steel (ODS316), which is based on advanced SUS316 steel, has been developed by mechanically alloying and hot extrusion. Hafnium and titanium were added to make a fine distribution of oxide particles. The stability of oxide particles dispersed in ODS316 under irradiation was evaluated after 250 keV Fe+ irradiation up to high doses at 500 °C. TEM observation and EDS analysis indicated that fine complex oxide particles with Y, Hf and Ti were mainly dispersed in the matrix. There are no significant changes in the distribution and the size of oxide particles after irradiation. It was also revealed that the constitution ratio of Ti in complex oxide appeared to be decreased after irradiation. This diffuse-out of Ti during irradiation could be explained by the difference in oxide formation energy among alloying elements.
Effects of the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, on the dung beetles, Caccobius jessoensis Harold, 1867 and the rare species, Copris ochus Motschulsky, 1860 and Copris acutidens Motschulsky, 1860 were studied in laboratory and field experiments in Hokkaido, Japan. Ivermectin was detected in dung from 1 to 21 or 28 days following treatment, with a peak on the first day after treatment in two pour-on administrations (500 μg kg−1), although there were considerable differences between the two peaks. In C. jessoensis, brood balls constructed by the female were not reduced in the dung of treated cattle except for seven days after treatment in experiment 2. Also, there was no significant difference in the mean weight of brood balls between dung from treated and control cattle. However, the emergence rates were significantly reduced in dung 1–3 days after treatment. In the field study, brood balls constructed by C. jessoensis were more abundant in dung from treated cattle in experiment 1, but adult emergence was significantly reduced at one and seven days after treatments. Adult mortality of C. ochus Motschulsky at 90 days after the beginning of rearing was 11.1% in dung from control cattle with 22 brood balls constructed, whereas it was 84% in dung from treated cattle with no brood balls and/or ovipositioning. Also, in C. acutidens Motschulsky, adult mortality at 90 days after the beginning of rearing was 3.6% in dung from control cattle with 13 brood balls constructed, whereas it was 94.1% in dung from treated cattle with no brood balls or ovipositioning. The environmental risk in the use of ivermectin during breeding period of dung beetles in pasture is discussed.
We present an overview of recent astrometric results with VERA. Since 2004, we have been conducting astrometry of tens of Galactic maser sources with VERA, and recently obtained trigonometric parallaxes for several sources, with distances ranging from 180 pc to 5.3 kpc. In this paper, we briefly summarize the results for Galactic star-forming regions, including S269, Orion-KL, NGC 1333, ρ-oph, NGC 281 and others.
We present results of astrometric observations of S269 H2O maser performed with VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry). We have monitored the positions of S269 H2O masers for 1 year and successfully detected its parallax to be 189±8 micro-arcsecond. This corresponds to a source distance of 5.28+0.24−0.22 kpc, and is the smallest parallax (and thus the largest distance) that has ever been measured by means of annual parallax. Proper motions of S269 H2O maser were also measured and used to determine the Galactic rotation velocity at the position of S269. Our measurements show that the Galactic rotation velocity at S269 is the same to that at the Sun within 3%, indicating that the Galactic rotation curve is flat out to R~13 kpc.
We have carried out multi-epoch VLBI observations of the H2O maser sources associated with young stellar objects (YSOs) in nearby molecular clouds with VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry), which is a newly constructed VLBI network in Japan (Kobayashi et al. 2003). The main goal of our study is to measure the absolute proper motions and distances to nearby molecular clouds within 1 kpc from the Sun, to reveal their 3-dimensional structures and dynamical properties. Using the VERA dual-beam receiving system (Honma et al. 2003), we have carried out phase-referencing VLBI observations and measured annual parallaxes and absolute proper motions of the H2O maser features with respect to the extragalactic radio sources. We have successfully detected the annual parallax of one of the H2O maser features in Orion KL to be 2.29±0.10 mas, corresponding to the distance of 437±19 pc from the Sun (Hirota et al. 2007). In addition, the annual parallax of SVS13 in NGC 1333 is also determined to be4.10±0.17 mas, corresponding to the distance of 244±10 pc from the Sun, although the life time of the maser features are only 6 months. The absolute proper motions of the H2O maser features associated with Orion KL and NGC 1333 are derived, possibly indicating the outflow motions from the YSOs as well as the systemic motions of the powering sources.
The tactile sensors for human support robots which can detect both normal stress and shear stress and have human-friendly surface have been proposed. Micro-cantilevers adequately inclined by Cr deflection control layer were fabricated by the surface micromachining on SOI wafer. The cantilevers were covered with the PDMS elastomer for human-friendly surface. When the stress is added to the surface of elastomer, the deformation of cantilevers along with elastomer is detected as piezoresistive layer in the cantilevers. The piezoresistive response of the cantilever is analyzed by FEM calculation. The response of the fabricated tactile sensor to normal stress and shear stress was measured by output from this resistance. The tactile sensor with PDMS elastomer can detect both normal stress and shear stress. On the other hand, it hardly has sensitivity to shear stress of orthogonal direction to the cantilever. It means that the tactile sensor can distinguish the direction of shear stress. The sensitivity of tactile sensor vary widely with cantilever pattern and relation between direction of cantilever and crystallite orientation of Si. It is suggested that the sensitivity of tactile sensor can be improved by using FEM estimation and selective ion implantation.