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Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is thought to be useful for chronic pain, with the pathology of the latter being closely associated with cognitive–emotional components. However, there are few resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies. We used the independent component analysis method to examine neural changes after CBT and to assess whether brain regions predict treatment response.
We performed R-fMRI on a group of 29 chronic pain (somatoform pain disorder) patients and 30 age-matched healthy controls (T1). Patients were enrolled in a weekly 12-session group CBT (T2). We assessed selected regions of interest that exhibited differences in intrinsic connectivity network (ICN) connectivity strength between the patients and controls at T1, and compared T1 and T2. We also examined the correlations between treatment effects and rs-fMRI data.
Abnormal ICN connectivity of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and inferior parietal lobule within the dorsal attention network (DAN) and of the paracentral lobule within the sensorimotor network in patients with chronic pain normalized after CBT. Higher ICN connectivity strength in the OFC indicated greater improvements in pain intensity. Furthermore, ICN connectivity strength in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) within the DAN at T1 was negatively correlated with CBT-related clinical improvements.
We conclude that the OFC is crucial for CBT-related improvement of pain intensity, and that the dorsal PCC activation at pretreatment also plays an important role in improvement of clinical symptoms via CBT.
Extensive reflection nebulae have been discovered around GGD27 IRS and around W75N IRS by mapping the infrared polarization in the K band.
It was found that the infrared radiation from both objects is extended at λ = 2.2 μm, by using the Agematsu 1-m, the UH 2.2-m, and the UKIR 3.8-m telescopes. We have carried out polarization mapping with the Kyoto polarimeter on the UKIRT in August 1985.
Metal Organic Decomposition (MOD)-made BaTiO3 (BT) thin films were prepared for Resistive Random Access Memory (ReRAM) under various annealing conditions and investigated for improving the properties of bipolar-type resistive switching, focusing on the relation between oxygen vacancies and the behavior of resistive hysteresis. BT thin films with both pre- and final- annealing in nitrogen showed the resistive hysteresis of bipolar-type switching with current ON/OFF ratios of 2 orders of magnitude for both bias polarities. Finally they showed the endurance property with the 106 switching cycles. It was suggested that oxygen vacancies near the oxide surface (both interfaces at metal electrode/oxide and between layer-by-layered oxide layers) are increased by N2 annealing and enhanced the interface-type resistive switching. Pre-annealing in N2 was also found to be very effective to improve endurance properties, implying that not only the electrode/oxide interface but also the middle part of the film would contribute the interface-type mechanism.
We have simulated the 3D growth of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the expanding envelope of SN 1987A using the Adaptive Mesh Refinement Scheme utilizing a resolution of 4096−3. When the sinusoidal velocity perturbation amplitude is 10%, heavy element tongues of the He/H interface penetrate into the envelope with a high velocity.
An extensive survey of [C II] line emission at 158 microns using the balloon borne telescope (BICE) has provided a complete map of the emission intensity distribution in the first and the fourth quadrants of the galactic plane (280° < l < 80°, −5° < b < 5°: Okuda et al. 1993). The emission is very extended throughout the galactic plane in which three intensity maxima are seen towards the tangential directions of the Scutum and the Norma arms as well as in the Galactic center region. However the Galactic center maximum is much less prominent compared with the two other distributions, unlike the case of far infrared continuum and CO emissions.
Much attempts of statistical approach have been made to study the origin of heavy elements, distribution of dark matter and evolution of clusters of galaxies. Henry et al.(1991) reported a power-law relation; LX ∝ kTγ, γ ~ 2.7. Edge and Stwert(1991) found significant scatter in the correlation using 45 clusters. David at al.(1993) reported γ ~ 3.4 using 104 clusters.
ASCA, Japanese X-ray Sattelite, can obtain the spatial distribution of density and temperature of the intracluster medium at the same time and greatly improve the accuracy for the derivation of the Hubble constant using the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. Table 1 shows the results of ASCA observations of 4 distant clusters of galaxies. The parameters of the density distribution were obtained assuming the β model.
Elucidating how the human brain is structured and how it functions is a fundamental aim of human neuroscience. To achieve such an aim, the activity of the human brain has been measured using noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, the most popular of which is functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (Ogawa et al. 1990). The fMRI signals are obtained at a spatial resolution of typically 3mm and measure changes of blood flow and blood oxygen consumption whose temporal dynamics are slower than that of neuronal electrical activities, resulting in a poor temporal resolution of the order of seconds. In contrast, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) can detect changes of neuronal activities by the millisecond measurement of magnetic and electric fields, respectively, outside the skull (Hämäläinen et al. 1993; Nunez & Srinivasan 2006). The high temporal resolution of MEG (and EEG) is useful, especially for studying the dynamic integration of functionally specialized brain regions, which is a subject of growing interest in human neuroscience (de Pasquale et al. 2012).
The major problem of MEG is that spatial brain activity patterns are not easily understandable from sensor measurements. This is because the magnetic fields produced by neuronal current sources are superimposed to form rather uninterpretable spatial patterns of signals on sensors. Estimating the position and intensity of these current sources from the sensor measurements is called source reconstruction, or source localization. Solving the source reconstruction problem allows the mapping of temporally dynamic electrical activities in the human brain (Baillet et al. 2001). Since how brain regions are dynamically integrated to produce a variety of functions is of great interest in human neuroscience research, the mission of MEG source reconstruction is not only to localize position of the current sources, but also to identify directed interactions between these sources. A possible approach to this involves constructing a dynamic model of brain electrical activities, as well as developing an estimation algorithm for the source positions and interactions that are parametrized in this model.
Cosmic X-rays were observed with three sets of proportional counters covering the energy range between 0.15 and 20 keV. The detector born on a spinning rocket scanned a celestial region in which the galactic latitude bII changed from 30° to −55° across the galactic plane in the Cygnus-Cassiopeia region. The spectrum of Cyg XR-2 thus obtained is represented by a thermal bremsstrahlung of temperature 3.4 keV modified by the interstellar absorption for the hydrogen column density of 3 × 1021 cm−2. The diffuse component showed an interstellar absorption effect, which was however found much weaker than one would expect if the diffuse component were due entirely to be of extragalactic origin. The spectrum obtained in the highest latitude region is represented approximately by a power law E−1.8 but shows a possible trough at about 1 keV.
We succeeded in photovoltaic power generation of p-i-n solar cells utilizing epitaxial ZnInON film with a wide band gap of 3.1 eV as the intrinsic layer, suitable for a top cell of tandem solar cells. The solar cell shows a high open circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.68 V under solar simulator light irradiation of 3.2 mW/cm2. The solar cell performance becomes worse under 100 mW/cm2, which is mainly attributed to the leakage current caused by crystal defects and grain boundaries. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the ZnInON film has rather large tilt and twist angles and a high dislocation density of 7.62×1010 cm-2. Such low crystallinity is a bottleneck for high performance of the solar cells. Our results demonstrate a potential of epitaxial ZnInON films as an intrinsic layer of wide band gap p-i-n solar cells with a high Voc.
Effects of surface morphology of buffer layers on ZnO/sapphire heteroepitaxial growth have been investigated by means of “nitrogen mediated crystallization (NMC) method”, where the crystal nucleation and growth are controlled by absorbed nitrogen atoms. We found a strong correlation between the height distribution profile of NMC-ZnO buffer layers and the crystal quality of ZnO films. On the buffer layer with a sharp peak in height distribution, a single-crystalline ZnO film with atomically-flat surface was grown. Our results indicate that homogeneous and high-density nucleation at the initial growth stages is critical in heteroepitaxy of ZnO on lattice mismatched substrates.
The sensor team at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is an integrated multidisciplinary group that develops both core technologies as well as accessory tools for efficient biodetection. We have developed a waveguide-based optical biosensor for the efficient and ultra-sensitive, rapid detection of biological agents. We have previously demonstrated the use of this technology for the detection of biomarkers associated with many diseases. Herein, we present the preliminary data demonstrating the extension of this technology to the discovery and detection of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). TBI afflicts a significant percentage of US troops deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan, but is difficult to diagnose efficiently. Currently, only neuropsychological questionnaires are being used for the diagnosis of this condition, which can range from mild concussion to severe brain damage. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop a rapid biomarker-based diagnostic for TBI in blood. However, this cannot be accomplished until a comprehensive repertoire of biomarkers secreted during brain injury is established. This requires an integrated biomarker discovery and detection approach that is sampled directly from human serum and cerebrospinal fluid.
The results reported here are preliminary steps in that direction wherein we aim to develop two different methods for the discovery of novel biomarkers of TBI in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, as well as develop assays for two biomarkers on an ultra-sensitive waveguide-based platform that was developed at LANL. We were able to evaluate two different methods for biomarker discovery: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in serum samples. In addition to development of depletion protocols to remove abundant proteins in serum, we were also able to detect spiked TBI biomarkers using both methods. However, the results clearly show that for protein biomarkers, MALDI MS is much more sensitive than 2-DE. We also developed a sandwich immunoassay on a waveguide-based platform for a TBI biomarker, procalcitonin, using commercially available antibodies. We show with our methods that we were able to directly detect procalcitonin from human serum. While our discovery and detection methods show promising results, these methods need to be further optimized before we can apply it to clinically relevant samples.
Hydrogen passivation was applied to the initial epitaxial growth of n-type β-FeSi2 thin films on p-type Si(111) substrates by facing-targets direct-current sputtering (FTDCS) in order to reduced the formation of interface states and terminate dangling bonds in the β-FeSi2 films, and the passivation effects were studied on basis of the electrical evaluation results of the formed n-type β-FeSi2/p-type Si heterojunction photodiodes. The initial growth was made at different gas inflow H2/Ar ratios ranging from 0 to 0.2. The photodetection performance of the photodiode fabricated at the ratio of 0.2 was markedly improved as compared to those of the other samples. The quantum efficiency and detectivity were 2.08 % and 1.75 × 1010 cm√Hz/W, respectively. The sample exhibited the minimum junction capacitance density of 9.2 nF/cm2. The enhanced photodetective performance should be mainly because dangling bonds that act as trap centers for photocarriers are effectively inactivated by the passivation.
A Xe flash lamp (FL) heating technique was applied to the post deposition annealing process (PDA) for HfAlOx/SiO2 gate insulator with poly-Si or W/TiN gate electrode in a gate last based process. In the case of W/TiN/HfAlOx/SiO2, CV hysteresis with less than 10mV was achieved using the FL-PDA. However, the FL-PDA increased hysteresis width up to over 100 mV when poly-Si was used as a gate electrode. That occurred also with low temperature (700 °C) rapid thermal PDA process. The lower thermal budget achieved by the flash lamp annealing and the metal gate is effective to suppress the interfacial reaction which causes the traps responsible for the hysteresis. Charge trapping in the W/TiN/HfAlOx/SiO2 was evaluated using CV hysteresis characteristics in the MISFETs and the MIS capacitors. Electron was major trapped charge of the HfAlOx.
A sudden break-down of a heat-exchanger in vinyl chloride plant resulted in that 141 °C, 23% concentration of hydrochloric acid spouted out over the workers around it. Eight workers suffered and Ichihara City Fire Department was deployed in response to the call 3 minutes after the onset of the incident, 17 vehicles including 5 fire engines, 6 ambulances, and two helicopters. Finally three severely (> 80% of TBSA) burned, two moderately (20–80%) burned, and three slightly (< 20%) burned victims were identified and triaged. One severely burned was transferred at first to the closest tertiary care hospital (TUCMC) which existed within 2.5 km distance by an ambulance and other two and one moderately burned were transferred by helicopters to the neighboring tertiary care hospitals. Another moderately burned one was sent to TUCMC by an ambulance about 30 minutes later than the first one. Three slightly burned victims were sent to a local hospital and treated as an outpatient. This casualty mission was ended by 120 minutes after the call. Two among the three severely burned patients lost their lives but another severe one and two moderately burned were survived. Conclusions: With these considerations, the management of this multiple burn casualty was successful, partly because of small number of the victims and of that the incident occurred in a weekday morning.
Oxide dispersion strengthened austenitic stainless steel (ODS316), which is based on advanced SUS316 steel, has been developed by mechanically alloying and hot extrusion. Hafnium and titanium were added to make a fine distribution of oxide particles. The stability of oxide particles dispersed in ODS316 under irradiation was evaluated after 250 keV Fe+ irradiation up to high doses at 500 °C. TEM observation and EDS analysis indicated that fine complex oxide particles with Y, Hf and Ti were mainly dispersed in the matrix. There are no significant changes in the distribution and the size of oxide particles after irradiation. It was also revealed that the constitution ratio of Ti in complex oxide appeared to be decreased after irradiation. This diffuse-out of Ti during irradiation could be explained by the difference in oxide formation energy among alloying elements.
We have studied the polarized hydroxyapatite (HAp) whose surface was negatively or positively charged. In this study, we assessed the interfaces in vitro and in vivo periodically. As in vitro experiment, samples were immersed in simulated body fluid for 7 days and the surface was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). As in vivo experiments, cortical bone defects were created on the femoral trochanters and the condyles of the six Japanese white rabbits and the samples were implanted. The rabbits were sacrificed at 1, 2 and 4 W after the operation to analyze the surfaces by the SEM and the optical microscopy. In this study, a new thick apatite layer was formed on the negatively charged surface (N-surface) after 1week immersion in SBF in vitro. Besides, significant new bone formation was found at 2 weeks after the operation on N-surface in vivo, which was earlier than positively charged or non-polarized HAp surface. From this study negatively charged HAp surface by polarization accelerated the HAp crystal growth or the new bone formation. Thus, this N-surface will be promising for earlier fixation of the prosthesis or better recovery of the bone defect.