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Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in ocean water is a major sink of fossil fuel derived CO2. Carbon isotopes in DIC serve as tracers for oceanic water masses, biogeochemical processes, and air-sea gas exchange. We present a timeseries of surface DIC δ13C and Δ14C values from 2011 to 2022 from Newport Beach, California. This is a continuation of previous timeseries (Hinger et al. 2010; Santos et al. 2011) that together provide an 18-year record. These data show that DIC Δ14C values have declined by 42‰ and that DIC δ13C values have declined by 0.4‰ since 2004. By 2020, DIC Δ14C values were within analytical error of nearby clean atmospheric CO2 Δ14C values. These long-term trends are likely the result of significant fossil fuel derived CO2 in surface DIC from air-sea gas exchange. Seasonally, Δ14C values varied by 3.4‰ between 2011 and 2022, where seasonal δ13C values varied by 0.7‰. The seasonal variation in Δ14C values is likely driven by variations in upwelling, surface eddies, and mixed layer depth. The variation in δ13C values appears to be driven by isotopic fractionation from marine primary producers. The DIC δ13C and Δ14C values record the influence of the drought that began in 2012, and a major upwelling event in 2016.
The relationship between magmatism and gold mineralization has been a topic of interest in understanding the formation of ore deposits. The Baizhangzi gold deposit, located in the northern margin of the North China Craton, is hosted by the Baizhangzi granite (BZG) and provides a case to evaluate the relation between granite and gold mineralization in Late Triassic. In this study, we present petrography, bulk geochemistry, zircon U-Pb isotope and trace elements data, as well as major elements of biotite and plagioclase for the BZG to evaluate the petrogenesis and link with gold mineralization. The BZG comprises biotite monzogranite, biotite-bearing monzogranite and monzogranite (BZGs). Zircon U-Pb geochronology shows that all the granitoids of BZGs were coeval with a formation age of 232 Ma. The granitoids, with high SiO2, Al2O3 and Sr, while low Y and Yb, show adakitic affinity. They are enriched in LILFs (e.g., Rb, Ba, Th, U and Sr) and LREEs, while depletion in HFSEs (e.g., Nb, Ta, P and Ti). The geochemical and mineral chemical data suggest that the granitoids have experienced the fractional crystallization of biotite + plagioclase + K- feldspar + apatite. Crystallization temperature is estimated as ca. 700°C, and pressure is between 0.71 kbar and 1.60 kbar. The monzogranite shows higher values of logfO2, △FMQ and △NNO than the biotite-bearing monzogranite, ranging from −19.76 to −11.71, −4.93 to +3.67 and −5.48 to +3.11, respectively. The fractional crystallization, together with high fO2, K-metasomatism and low evolution degree, provided favourable conditions for gold mineralization.
Three polyphagous pest Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae) have recently invaded Australia and are damaging horticultural crops. Parasitic wasps are recognized as effective natural enemies of leafmining species globally and are expected to become important biocontrol agents in Australia. However, the hymenopteran parasitoid complex of agromyzids in Australia is poorly known and its use hindered due to taxonomic challenges when based on morphological characters. Here, we identified 14 parasitoid species of leafminers based on molecular and morphological data. We linked DNA barcodes (5′ end cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences) to five adventive eulophid wasp species (Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt), Diglyphus isaea (Walker), Hemiptarsenus varicornis (Girault), Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood), and Neochrysocharis okazakii Kamijo) and two braconid species (Dacnusa areolaris (Nees) and Opius cinerariae Fischer). We also provide the first DNA barcodes (5′ end COI sequences) with linked morphological characters for seven wasp species, with three identified to species level (Closterocerus mirabilis Edwards & La Salle, Trigonogastrella parasitica (Girault), and Zagrammosoma latilineatum Ubaidillah) and four identified to genus (Aprostocetus sp., Asecodes sp., Opius sp. 1, and Opius sp. 2). Phylogenetic analyses suggest C. pubicornis, D. isaea, H. varicornis, and O. cinerariae are likely cryptic species complexes. Neochrysocharis formosa and Aprostocetus sp. specimens were infected with Rickettsia. Five other species (Cl. mirabilis, D. isaea, H. varicornis, Opius sp. 1, and Opius sp. 2) were infected with Wolbachia, while two endosymbionts (Rickettsia and Wolbachia) co-infected N. okazakii. These findings provide background information about the parasitoid fauna expected to help control the leafminers.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Racial/ethnic minoritized children experience poorer cancer outcomes, which may be driven by structural racism. We apply an index that combines segregation and neighborhood vulnerability to a pediatric oncology population and assesses its association with acuity of illness at initial presentation. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A retrospective analysis will be performed in a cohort of pediatric patients diagnosed with solid tumors at Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta (CHOA) from 2010-2018 (N=1149). The sample will be linked to a structural racism index (SRI) that has been established in our prior work. We abstract data from medical records to quantify initial acuity of illness based on the need for ICU-level resources. Differences in sociodemographic characteristics will be analyzed by the SRI, using chi-squared, Student t-tests, and ANOVA where appropriate. Logistic regression models will be used to assess the association of the SRI with acuity of illness. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate that relevant sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., race/ethnicity, insurance status) differ by the SRI. The CHOA Cancer Registry includes a racially and ethnically diverse group of patients: 63% of the cohort is White, 30% is Black,10% are Other, and 15% are Hispanic/Latino. Furthermore, we anticipate that pediatric patients with solid tumors living in counties with greater levels of structural racism as measured by the SRI experience an increased acuity of illness at initial presentation. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: By applying a novel index quantifying structural racism, we will provide new information about the structural barriers patients and families face prior to a pediatric cancer diagnosis. This work will allow us to identify areas for potential interventions in this vulnerable young patient population.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Determine if the Conserved Transcriptional Response to Adversity transcriptomic profile established in primary blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of chronically stress caregivers, is present in individuals with early Alzheimer’s disease. Chronic stress is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s, and may be an untapped biomarker for disease risk and pathology. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To collect preliminary data on the Conserved Transcriptional Response to Adversity profile in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease, we were able to utilize primary blood mononuclear cell samples from a small open label pilot study called Senolytic Therapy to Modulate the Progression of Alzheimer’s Disease, designed to clear stressed senescent cells. We hypothesized senolytics may beneficially reverse this stress profile. We developed a NanoString assay (measuring 19 inflammatory, 31 type-1 interferon, and 3 antibody synthesis genes) to compare these transcriptomic changes within 4 individuals measured at baseline, post-treatment with an intermittent 12-week senolytic therapy, and at an optional extended post-treatment follow-up time point > 3 months after their post treatment visit. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: There was relative downregulation of expression in transcription in 7 of 19 measured inflammatory genes (FOS, PTGS2, IL8, FOS, Il1b, JUNB, and JUN) in Alzheimer’s disease participants after receiving senolytic treatment (baseline vs. post-treatment). This is consistent with a decrease in the inflammatory arm of the Conserved Transcriptional Response to Adversity profile. These differences were not significant between baseline and the extended follow-up, indicative of a transient effect of senolytic. There were no changes in type 1 interferon or antibody synthesis genes. This data provides preliminary evidence for larger controlled studies to further establish this profile in Alzheimer’s disease, providing exciting evidence for transcript changes that may be reproducible with senolytic therapy. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Literature relevant to Alzheimer’s disease indicates global increases in inflammation paired with deficits in immune response, capturing some genes associated with the Conserved Transcriptional Response to Adversity. This profile may be a useful biomarker for prediction of disease severity or risk of dementia due to chronic stress.
The interaction of relativistically intense lasers with opaque targets represents a highly non-linear, multi-dimensional parameter space. This limits the utility of sequential 1D scanning of experimental parameters for the optimization of secondary radiation, although to-date this has been the accepted methodology due to low data acquisition rates. High repetition-rate (HRR) lasers augmented by machine learning present a valuable opportunity for efficient source optimization. Here, an automated, HRR-compatible system produced high-fidelity parameter scans, revealing the influence of laser intensity on target pre-heating and proton generation. A closed-loop Bayesian optimization of maximum proton energy, through control of the laser wavefront and target position, produced proton beams with equivalent maximum energy to manually optimized laser pulses but using only 60% of the laser energy. This demonstration of automated optimization of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step towards deeper physical insight and the construction of future radiation sources.
We present the development and characterization of a high-stability, multi-material, multi-thickness tape-drive target for laser-driven acceleration at repetition rates of up to 100 Hz. The tape surface position was measured to be stable on the sub-micrometre scale, compatible with the high-numerical aperture focusing geometries required to achieve relativistic intensity interactions with the pulse energy available in current multi-Hz and near-future higher repetition-rate lasers ($>$kHz). Long-term drift was characterized at 100 Hz demonstrating suitability for operation over extended periods. The target was continuously operated at up to 5 Hz in a recent experiment for 70,000 shots without intervention by the experimental team, with the exception of tape replacement, producing the largest data-set of relativistically intense laser–solid foil measurements to date. This tape drive provides robust targetry for the generation and study of high-repetition-rate ion beams using next-generation high-power laser systems, also enabling wider applications of laser-driven proton sources.
Prior evidence indicates that negative symptom severity and cognitive deficits, in people with schizophrenia (PSZ), relate to measures of reward-seeking and loss-avoidance behavior (implicating the ventral striatum/VS), as well as uncertainty-driven exploration (reliant on rostrolateral prefrontal cortex/rlPFC). While neural correlates of reward-seeking and loss-avoidance have been examined in PSZ, neural correlates of uncertainty-driven exploration have not. Understanding neural correlates of uncertainty-driven exploration is an important next step that could reveal insights to how this mechanism of cognitive and negative symptoms manifest at a neural level.
We acquired fMRI data from 29 PSZ and 36 controls performing the Temporal Utility Integration decision-making task. Computational analyses estimated parameters corresponding to learning rates for both positive and negative reward prediction errors (RPEs) and the degree to which participates relied on representations of relative uncertainty. Trial-wise estimates of expected value, certainty, and RPEs were generated to model fMRI data.
Behaviorally, PSZ demonstrated reduced reward-seeking behavior compared to controls, and negative symptoms were positively correlated with loss-avoidance behavior. This finding of a bias toward loss avoidance learning in PSZ is consistent with previous work. Surprisingly, neither behavioral measures of exploration nor neural correlates of uncertainty in the rlPFC differed significantly between groups. However, we showed that trial-wise estimates of relative uncertainty in the rlPFC distinguished participants who engaged in exploratory behavior from those who did not. rlPFC activation was positively associated with intellectual function.
These results further elucidate the nature of reinforcement learning and decision-making in PSZ and healthy volunteers.
Avian radar systems are effective for wide-area bird detection and tracking, but application significances need further exploration. Existing radar data mining methods provide long-term functionalities, but they are problematic for bird activity modelling especially in temporal domain. This paper complements this insufficiency by introducing a temporal bird activity extraction and interpretation method. The bird behaviour is quantified as the activity degree which integrates intensity and uncertainty characters with an entropy weighing algorithm. The method is applicable in multiple temporal scales. Historical radar dataset from a system deployed in an airport is adopted for verification. Temporal characters demonstrate good consistency with understandings from local observers and ornithologists. Daily commuting and roosting characters of local birds are well reflected, evening bat activities are also extracted. Night migration activities are demonstrated clearly. Results indicate the proposed method is effective in temporal bird activity modelling and interpretation. Its integration with bird strike risk models might be more useful for airport safety management with wildlife interference.
This systematic literature review aimed to provide an overview of the characteristics and methods used in studies applying the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) concept for infectious diseases within European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA)/European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries and the United Kingdom. Electronic databases and grey literature were searched for articles reporting the assessment of DALY and its components. We considered studies in which researchers performed DALY calculations using primary epidemiological data input sources. We screened 3053 studies of which 2948 were excluded and 105 studies met our inclusion criteria. Of these studies, 22 were multi-country and 83 were single-country studies, of which 46 were from the Netherlands. Food- and water-borne diseases were the most frequently studied infectious diseases. Between 2015 and 2022, the number of burden of infectious disease studies was 1.6 times higher compared to that published between 2000 and 2014. Almost all studies (97%) estimated DALYs based on the incidence- and pathogen-based approach and without social weighting functions; however, there was less methodological consensus with regards to the disability weights and life tables that were applied. The number of burden of infectious disease studies undertaken across Europe has increased over time. Development and use of guidelines will promote performing burden of infectious disease studies and facilitate comparability of the results.
The pulsed jet is a novel and effective active mixing enhancement approach. For the transverse pulsed jet in the supersonic crossflow, the frequency influence is investigated using the three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with the SST k-ω turbulence model. The averaged flow field properties of the pulsed jet are better than those of the steady jet when considering mixing efficiency and jet penetration depth, especially for the case with the pulsed frequency being 50kHz. The flow field structures of the pulsed jet are connected with the time, with periodic wave structures generating in the flow field and moving downstream. The size of the wave structures and its distance are related to the frequency, namely the size and flow distance are relatively small at 50kHz, and it takes some time for the pulsed jet to establish its influence in the full flow field. At low frequencies, the flow field produces large fluctuations, and this may be detrimental to the stable operation of the engine.
The effect of sheared E × B flow on the blob dynamics in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of HL-2A tokamak has been studied during the plasma current ramp-up in ohmically heated deuterium plasmas by the combination of poloidal and radial Langmuir probe arrays. The experimental results indicate that the SOL sheared E × B flow is substantially enhanced as the plasma current exceeds a certain value and the strong sheared E × B flow has the ability to slow the blob radial motion via stretching its poloidal correlation length. The locally accumulated blobs are suggested to be responsible for the increase of plasma density just outside the Last Closed Flux Surface (LCFS) observed in this experiment. The results presented here reveal the significant role played by the strong sheared E × B flow on the blob dynamics, which provides a potential method to control the SOL width by modifying the sheared E × B flow in future tokamak plasmas.
An assimilation bias occurs when people’s evaluative judgment is positively influenced by a previously observed signal. We study this effect by examining investors’ appraisal of M&A deals announced 1 day after other firms in the same 1-digit SIC as the merging parties release earnings surprises. Consistent with assimilation effects, acquirers’ M&A announcement stock return initially correlates with the previous day’s earnings surprises. This effect reverses after 1 week. Assimilation generates other distortions as more positive surprises are related to increases in bid competition, takeover premiums, and withdrawn M&As. Evidence from IPOs corroborates the presence of assimilation effects in financial markets.
Here, we report a case study implementation of reinforcement learning (RL) to automate operations in the scanning transmission electron microscopy workflow. To do so, we design a virtual, prototypical RL environment to test and develop a network to autonomously align the electron beam position without prior knowledge. Using this simulator, we evaluate the impact of environment design and algorithm hyperparameters on alignment accuracy and learning convergence, showing robust convergence across a wide hyperparameter space. Additionally, we deploy a successful model on the microscope to validate the approach and demonstrate the value of designing appropriate virtual environments. Consistent with simulated results, the on-microscope RL model achieves convergence to the goal alignment after minimal training. Overall, the results highlight that by taking advantage of RL, microscope operations can be automated without the need for extensive algorithm design, taking another step toward augmenting electron microscopy with machine learning methods.
The great demographic pressure brings tremendous volume of beef demand. The key to solve this problem is the growth and development of Chinese cattle. In order to find molecular markers conducive to the growth and development of Chinese cattle, sequencing was used to determine the position of copy number variations (CNVs), bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the function of ZNF146 gene, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used for CNV genotyping and one-way analysis of variance was used for association analysis. The results showed that there exists CNV in Chr 18: 47225201-47229600 (5.0.1 version) of ZNF146 gene through the early sequencing results in the laboratory and predicted ZNF146 gene was expressed in liver, skeletal muscle and breast cells, and was amplified or overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, which promoted the development of tumour through bioinformatics. Therefore, it is predicted that ZNF146 gene affects the proliferation of muscle cells, and then affects the growth and development of cattle. Furthermore, CNV genotyping of ZNF146 gene was three types (deletion type, normal type and duplication type) by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR). The association analysis results showed that ZNF146-CNV was significantly correlated with rump length of Qinchuan cattle, hucklebone width of Jiaxian red cattle and heart girth of Yunling cattle. From the above results, ZNF146-CNV had a significant effect on growth traits, which provided an important candidate molecular marker for growth and development of Chinese cattle.
Data from the National Healthcare Safety Network were analyzed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on the incidence of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) during 2021. Standardized infection ratios were significantly higher than those during the prepandemic period, particularly during 2021-Q1 and 2021-Q3. The incidence of HAI was elevated during periods of high COVID-19 hospitalizations.