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Developing alternatives to antibiotics is an urgent need in livestock production. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are regarded as powerful antibiotic substitutes (ASs) because AMPs have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and growth-promoting ability. Here, we aimed to comprehensively assess the effects of AMPs on the growth performance, diarrhea rate, intestinal morphology and immunity of healthy or challenged piglets, compared with an antibiotics group or negative control group. We performed a set of meta-analyses of feeding trials from database inception to 27 May 2019. Among the 1379 identified studies, 20 were included in our meta-analyses (56 arms and 4067 piglets). The meta-analyses revealed that (1) compared with the negative control group, AMPs significantly improved the healthy piglets’ average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), gain : feed ratio (G/F), levels of immune globulin (Ig) IgM and IgG, and intestinal villus height : crypt depth ratio (V/C) (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, AMPs significantly increased the challenged piglets’ ADG, ADFI, G/F and V/C of the jejunum and ileum, and notably deceased the diarrhea rate (P < 0.05); (2) compared with antibiotics group, the effects of AMPs were slightly weaker than those of antibiotics in the healthy piglets, but AMPs have similar effects to those of antibiotics in challenged piglets. In a higher purity, the optimal dose of AMPs may be approximately 0.01%. Our findings indicate that AMPs can improve piglet growth performance, enhance immunity, benefit intestinal morphology and decrease the diarrheal rate. AMPs could be great ASs especially under infection conditions.
A new developed spatially targeted mollusciciding technology for snail control was utilised in a research site. This study aims to analyse whether this technology can achieve rational effectiveness compared with the routine method. Snail density was monitored every spring and autumn from 2010 to 2017 at the research site and routine mollusciciding for snail control was then performed. After snail density monitoring in spring 2018, spatially targeted mollusciciding technology was adopted. Log-linear regression and nonlinear regression models were used for snail density prediction in autumn 2018 and the predicted value was compared with the actual snail density in autumn 2018 to verify the effectiveness of the spatially targeted mollusciciding. Monitoring results showed that overall snail density in the research site decreased from 2010 to 2018. The monitored snail density in autumn 2018 was 0.014/0.1 m2. Predicted by the log-linear regression model, the snail density in autumn 2018 would be 0.028 (95% CI 0.11–0.072)/0.1 m2. Predicted by the nonlinear regression model, the snail density growth in autumn 2018 in contrast to spring 2018 would be 79.79% (95% CI 54.81%–104.77%) and the actual value was 55.56%. Therefore, the effectiveness of the first application of spatially targeted mollusciciding was acceptable. However, the validation of its sustainable effectiveness still needs a replicated study comparing areas where targeted and untargeted methods are applied simultaneously and both snail abundance and human infection are monitored.
This paper provides a solution to the active vibration control of a microsatellite with two solar panels. At first, the microsatellite is processed as a finite element model containing a rigid body and two flexible bodies, according to the principles of mechanics, and that the dynamic characteristics are solved by modal analysis. Secondly, the equation involving vibration control is established according to the finite element calculation results. There are several actuators composed of macro fibre composite on the two solar panels for outputting control force. Furthermore, the control voltage for driving actuator is calculated by using fuzzy algorithm. It is clear that the smart structure consists of the flexible bodies and actuators. Finally, the closed-loop control simulation for suppressing harmful vibration is established. The simulation results illustrate that the responses to the external excitation are decreased significantly after adopting fuzzy control.
This paper presents the integration and channel characterization of a highly integrated dual-band digital beamforming space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) receiver. The proposed SAR sensor is a low-cost, lightweight, low-power consumption, and dual-band (X/Ka) dual-polarized module ready for the next-generation space-borne SAR missions. In previous works, by the authors, the design and experimental characterization of each sub-system was already presented and discussed. This work expands upon the previous characterization by providing an exhaustive experimental assessment of the fully integrated system. As it will be shown, the proposed tests were used to validate all the instrument channels in a set-up where the SAR sensor was illuminated by an external source minim the ground reflected waves. Test results demonstrate how the system channels are properly operating allowing the reception of the input signals and their processing in the digital domain. The possibility to easily implement a calibration procedure has also been validated to equalize, in the digital domain, the unavoidable amplitude differences between the different channels.
To compare efficacy and medical costs of typital and atypical antipsychotics in treating schizophrenic patients.
250 in patients in general hospital and psychiatric hospital were randomly allocated to one of the two groups, one treated with typital antipsychotics as chlorpromazine, haloperidol and so on with a mean daily dose of 500∼800 mg in chlorpromazine equivalents, and the other with atypical agents in cluding clozapine (mean daily dose of 400∼800mg ), risperidone of 6 mg, or olanzapine of 20 mg.
The total costs of the treatment were (3157±253) Yuan RMB for patients treated with typical agents in general hospital, and (3673±294) Yuan RMB for patients treated with typical agents in psychiatric hospital respectively. the costs for medicine were (774±903) Yuan RMB, (1061±903) Yuan RMB respectively. the costs in atypical group were(1120±390) Yuan RMB and (1637±325) Yuan RMB, and (108±157) Yuan RMB and (240±317) Yuan RMB respectively. the duration of patients treated with typical agents in hospital is longer than that with atypical agents.
It indicates that atypical antipsychotics have similar efficacy to typical agents in treating schizophrenic patients with less costs.
Many studies showed the differences in subjective response to sexual stimuli between heterosexual and homosexual men. However, the underlying neurobiological factors of sexual orientation are largely unknown. We addressed the question what is the major attribution of the expected differences in brain activation, i.e. neural circuits or different cognitive process. Twenty-eight healthy male volunteers, 14 heterosexuals and 14 homosexuals, were scanned by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging while subjects were viewing different types of stimuli, i.e. heterosexual couple stimuli (HCS), gay couple stimuli (GCS), lesbian couple stimuli (LCS) and neutral stimuli (NS). SPM02 was used for data analysis. Rating of sexual attractiveness was assessed. Subjective sexual arousal was induced by HCS and GCS in heterosexual and homosexual men, respectively. And sexual disgust was induced by GCS and LCS in heterosexual and homosexual men, respectively. As compared to viewing NS, viewing sexual stimuli induced significant different brain activations most of which had characteristic for cognitive process. These observations suggested that different cognitive pattern was major attribution of different subjective response to sexual stimuli between heterosexual and homosexual men.
Prolactin (PRL) data from adolescents treated with olanzapine are presented.
Data from 454 adolescents (13-18, mean=15.9 yrs) with schizophrenia or bipolar mania were pooled from 4 olanzapine (2.5-20.0mg/day) studies (4-32 weeks; 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled studies [combined for acute phase endpoint PRL levels] with open-label extensions; 2 open-label studies). Age- and sex-specific Covance reference ranges defined normal PRL; categorical increases were based on multiples of the upper limit of normal (ULN). Baseline-to-endpoint PRL changes in adolescents were compared with data pooled from 84 olanzapine clinical trials in adults with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.
Olanzapine-treated adolescents had mean PRL increases at both the acute (11.4μg/L) and open-label endpoints (4.7μg/L). Of those patients with normal PRL levels at baseline (N=311), high PRL occurred in 54.7% at anytime; 32.2% at endpoint. The percentage of patients in which PRL levels shifted from normal-to-abnormal was smaller at endpoint than at anytime during treatment; 26.7% shifted to a higher category. Among patients with normal baseline PRL, 32.7% remained <=1X ULN; 32.3% increased to 1¬<=2X; 6.0%, >2-<=3X; and 1.2%, >3X at anytime; 4.6% had at >=1 potentially PRL-related adverse event. Adolescents had significantly higher mean changes at endpoint (p=.004), and a greater incidence of high PRL levels at anytime during olanzapine treatment (p<.001) versus adults.
Incidence of high PRL was significantly higher, and mean increases in PRL were significantly greater in adolescents versus adults. Mean increases and high PRL incidence were lower at the open-label compared with the acute phase endpoint.
The treatment of refractory schizophrenia has been a clinical challenge for most psychiatrists. The possible mechanism of the refractory schizophrenia included diagnostic errors, medical conditions and brain dysgensis. Here, we described a patient with childhood-onset schizophrenia who had severe psychiatric symptoms such as auditory hallucination and persecutory delusion and so on. We reexamined all his possible medical conditions and found the patient had an abnormal enlarged Cavus Septum Pellucidum (CSP) combined with Cavum Vergae (CV) (maximum length>30 mm). Some reports suggested that abnormal CSP(length>6 mm) has an significant association with schizophrenia. However, abnormally large CSP or CSP/CV and related prognosis were reported rarely. This case suggested that abnormally enlarged CSP or CSP/CV may lead to schizophrenia and worse prognosis.
To investigate the effect of Chinese herb Danshen-Dahuang on learning and memory ability in rats with Alzheimer disease (AD) induced by D-galactose and AlCl3 and its possible mechanisms.
The AD model was produced by injecting D-galactose and AlCl3 intraperitoneally for 90 days. Since the 20th day of D-galactose and AlCl3 intraperitoneal injection, the rats in Danshen-Dahuang group had been treated with Danshen-Dahuang extraction by intragastric administration for 70 days. Subsequently,learning and memory ability of the mice was evaluated by Morris water maze and hippocampal gene expression of APP, PS1 was tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Rats intragastric administration with Danshen-Dahuang, mice had shorter latency (P< 0.05) and less error times (P< 0.05) in water maze test compared with those in AD model group. At the same time, Danshen-Dahuang down regulated the expression of APP, PS1 mRNA (P< 0.05) in hippocampus.
Danshen-Dahuang improves the learning and memory ability of AD rats, its mechanism may be related to the downregulated expression of APP, PS1 mRNA.
To study on mental health status of the freshman and graduates in five different universities.
The 1022 freshman and 956 college graduates from five different universities were tested with the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). They came from one was general university, two technological universities, one is medical university, one is agricultural university.
All of the freshman and college graduates’ mental health status is inferior to the contemporaries; there are about 8.5% freshman and 11.4% graduates who have psychological problems. the SCL-90 factor scores of liberal arts students are higher than those of the science in freshman and graduates. There is significant difference between two groups (P< 0.05~P< 0.01). among the five different universities, freshman is same, but in graduates of five different universities, medical graduates have a better mental health status than other college's students do.
It is necessary that positive educating mental health status to college students’ and trained always-cheerful character and stable mood so level of mental health status of college freshman and graduates will be improved.
The changes in metabolic parameters in olanzapine-treated adolescents were examined.
Data from 454 adolescents (13–18, mean=15.9 years) with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder were pooled from 4 olanzapine (2.5–20.0mg/day) studies (4–32 weeks). Changes in metabolic parameters in adolescents were compared with those of olanzapine-treated adults (pooled from 84 clinical trials); changes in weight and BMI were compared with US age- and sex-adjusted standardized growth curves.
Olanzapine-treated adolescents had significant increases from baseline-to-endpoint in fasting glucose (p=.021); total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides (p<.001); and significant decreases in HDL (p<.001). Significantly more adolescents gained >=7% of their baseline weight versus adults (65.1% vs. 35.6%, p<.001); mean change from baseline-to-endpoint in weight was significantly greater in adolescents (7.0 vs. 3.3kg, p<.001). Adolescents had significantly lower mean changes from baseline-to-endpoint in fasting glucose (0.3 vs. 0.1mmol/L, p=.002) and triglycerides (0.3 vs. 0.2mmol/L, p=.007) versus adults. Significantly more adults experienced treatment-emergent normal-to-high changes at anytime in fasting glucose (4.8% vs. 1.2%, p=.033), total cholesterol (6.9% vs. 1.1%, p=.001), LDL (5.8% vs. 1.5%, p=.014), and triglycerides (25.7% vs. 17.4%, p=.030). Compared with standardized growth curves, olanzapine-treated adolescents had greater increases from baseline-to-endpoint in weight (1.0 vs. 7.1kg, p<.001), height (0.5 vs. 0.7cm, p<.001), and BMI (0.2 vs. 2.2kg/m2, p<.001).
Olanzapine-treated adolescents may gain significantly more weight compared with adults, but may have smaller changes in other metabolic parameters. Clinicians may want to consider both efficacy and changes in metabolic parameters when selecting treatment options for individual adolescent patients.
To study on Personal Characteristics of the freshman and graduates in five different universities.
The 1022 freshman and 956 graduates from five different universities were tested with the Eysenck Personality Questiornaire (EPQ). They came from one was general university, two technological universities, one is medical university, one is agricultural university.
Distribution of freshman and graduates personal characteristics in various sexes and universities is different. There are 19% and 12% of freshman with some psychological problem were P type and N type respectively according to neuroticism scale of EPQ, 64% of that were unstable temperament; 31% of the freshman who were unstable temperament and 25% were mental health status was extroversion disposition. But in graduates are 42% and 34% ( P type and N type) respectively according to neuroticism scale of EPQ. Unstable temperament is 58% and mental health status was extroversion disposition is 39%.
The freshman and graduates psychological health of Shanxi Province of China is poor and should be paid more attention. the psychological state is related to different universities. the freshman and graduates are associated with personal characteristics, unstable professions, emotional trouble and passive attitude to the value and so on.
Metabolic syndrome induced by atypical antipsychotics is more prevalence in schizophrenic patients. Much less is known regarding paliperidone ER. The objective of this study was to compare matched paliperidone-ER- and olanzapine-treated schizophrenic patients on measures of glucose and lipid metabolism. Eighty hospitalized patients with schizophrenia (DSM-) were randomly assigned to treatment with paliperidone ER or olanzapine for 12 weeks. At baseline and every 4 weeks, we assessed weight, subcutaneous fat, waist and hip circumferences, fasting glucose, insulin, glycohemoglobin A1, cholesterol, triglycerides, high density level (HDL) cholesterol, low density level (LDL) cholesterol and prolactin. And we also evaluate the body mass index (BMI), homeostasis insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and homeostasis β-cell function (HOMA-B). 33 patients randomly assigned to paliperidone ER and 23 patients randomly assigned to olanzapine completed the entire 12-week treatment. Within-group overall analysis showed that the fasting measures were increased in weight, BMI, waist circumferences, hip circumferences, subcutaneous fat, cholesterol, triglyceride and prolactin for two groups, and fasting glucose, LDL and HOMA-B were increased for olanzapine group. There was significantly difference in serum prolactin between paliperidone ER and olanzapine group. And there was a trend for HOMA-B to increase in olanzapine group over 12 weeks compared to paliperidone ER group. However, there were no overall differential drug effects over 12 weeks on the fasting measures of BMI, glucose, glycohemoglobin A1, insulin, HDL, LDL, cholesterol, triglyceride and HOMA-IR. The study further reinforces the necessity of regular monitoring the metabolic parameters in schizophrenic patients with atypical antipsychotics including paliperidone ER.
Recent imaging studies have shown that brain morphology and neural activity during sexual arousal differ between homosexual and heterosexual men. Whether the structural and task-related functional differences also exist in the resting state is unknown. The purpose of the study is to characterize the association of homosexual preference with measures of regional homogeneity and functional connectivity in the resting state. Participants were 26 homosexual men and 26 age-matched heterosexual men. The sexual orientation of every participant was evaluated using the Kinsey Scale. We first assessed group differences in regional homogeneity and then, taking the identified differences as seed regions, we compared groups in measures of functional connectivity from those seeds. The behavioral significances of the differences in regional homogeneity and functional connectivity were assessed by examining their associations with scores on the Kinsey Scale. Homosexual participants showed significantly reduced regional homogeneity in the left inferior occipital gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus, right superior occipital gyrus, left cuneus, right precuneus, and increased regional homogeneity in the rectal gyrus, bilateral midbrain, and left temporal lobe. Regional homogeneity correlated positively with Kinsey scores in the left inferior occipital gyrus. The homosexual group also showed reduced functional connectivity in left middle temporal gyrus, left supra-marginal gyrus and right cuneus. In addition, the connection between the left inferior occipital gyrus and right thalamus in the homosexual group was correlated positively with Kinsey scores. This differences in homogeneity and fucntional connectivity may contribute to a better understanding of the neural basis of male sexual orientation.
There is growing international interest in cross-cultural research of depressed patients to contribute to the aetiology discussion of the disorder and to find culture specific treatment strategies.
The aim of this study is to investigate the psychodynamic conflicts and structures of Chinese and German depressed patients and their influence on symptomatology.
A total of 111, SCID-I assessed depressed patients (57 Chinese and 64 German patients) were included in this study. the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the conflict and the structure axes of the Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnostics (OPD-2) were applied for evaluating the severity of the symptomatology and the psychodynamic profiles, respectively.
After controlling socioeconomic factors (age, gender, familial status and employment) German patients compared with Chinese patients showed significantly lower BDI total scores (24.16 ± 8.67 vs. 28.66 ± 11.01, p < 0.05). in terms of the OPD-2 parameters, German patients suffered from more frequent conflicts like the “desire for care vs. self-sufficiency conflict” (1.84 ± 1.13 vs. 1.12 ± 1.07, p < 0.01) as well as the “guilt conflict” (1.02 ± 0.85 vs. 0.65 ± 0.95, p < 0.05). in contrast, we found more frequent “dependence vs. individuation” conflicts in the Chinese sample compared with German patients (1.21 ± 1.19 vs. 0.78 ± 0.98, p < 0.05). there was no relationship between the psychodynamic profiles and the symptoms’ severity.
The findings suggest more culture specific psychodynamic psychotherapy strategies for depressed patients coming from different countries and cultures.
Increasing evidence indicates that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with cognitive as well as mood disturbances.
To evaluate cognitive function and white matter structure, resting-state brain function in first-episode, treatmentnaive patients with MDD.
To explore brain structure and function mechanisms of cognitive impairment in MDD.
46 Han Chinese MDD patients aged 18–45 year and 46 controls were assessed by a series of validated test procedures.Then, 30 patients and 30 controls were obtained by MRI scan.White matter abnormalities evaluated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were analyzed using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) and resting-state brain function was evaluated using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis.
Cognitive impairment in patients with MDD was demonstrated by reduced accuracy in the Wisconsin Card Sorting test (WSCT) and to a lesser extent the Continuous Performance test (CPT) and Trail Making tests (TMT). White matter abnormalities found in the left cerebellum, and resting-state abnormalities present in the left inferior parietal gyrus, left anterior cingulate nucleus and left hippocampal gyrus were associated with impaired performance in the WSCT and CPT tests. We also showed that poor WSCT performance was associated with increased interconnectivity between the left ventral anterior cingulate nucleus and the medial frontal lobe areas.
The present study indicates cognitive disturbances in patients with MDD are associated with white matter and resting-state changes and altered interconnections in specific brain areas.
The association between gray matter and cognitive dysfunction in young major depression remains unclear.
To investigate the brain gray matter and the correlation with cognitive function in first-episode, treatment-naive patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
To explore brain structural pathological mechanisms of cognitive impairment in MDD.
46 MDD aged 18-45 year and 46 controls were assessed by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Trail making test (TMT). Then, 30 patients and 30 controls were obtained by MRI scan.
The total number of errors, number of preservative errors, random errors of WSCT in MDD were significantly more than that in controls, and the completion time in the TMT-A and TMT-B was longer than that in controls. MDD showed significant less gray matter volumns than controls in frontal lobe (right precentral gyrus, bilateral superior frontal gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus), parietal lobe (left postcentral gyrus, left paracentral lobule, and bilateral precuneus), temporal lobe (right superior temporal gyrus), and occipital lobe (left superior occipital gyrus). There was a significant negative correlation between left postcentral gyrus and left superior occipital gyrus gray matter density and the TMT-B completion time (r=-0.462, P=0.017; r=-0.448, P=0.022).
The first-episode MDD patient exhibiteded cognitive impairment and showed significant lower gray matter density than controls in frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe. Decreased gray matter density in left postcentral gyrus and left superior occipital gyrus may be involved in the executive dysfunction.
Patients with schizophrenia are at high risk for diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity, which can be exacerbated by some atypical antipsychotics.
To evaluate the effect of lurasidone on weight and metabolic parameters.
To establish the cardiometabolic safety of lurasidone.
Short-term data were pooled from seven, double-blind, 6-week studies of subjects with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia treated with lurasidone 20-160 mg/day (N=1508); haloperidol 10 mg/day (N=72); olanzapine 15 mg/day (N=122); risperidone 4 mg/day (N=65); quetiapine XR 600 mg/day (N=119) or placebo (N=708). Long-term data (6-22 months) were pooled from patients treated with lurasidone 40-120 mg/day (flexibly dosed).
Proportions of patients experiencing ≥7% weight gain during short-term treatment were: lurasidone 4.8%, haloperidol 4.2%, olanzapine 34.4%, risperidone 6.2%, quetiapine XR 15.3%, and placebo 3.3%. Median lipid changes were: triglycerides (mg/dL), lurasidone -4.0, haloperidol -3.0, olanzapine +25.0, risperidone +4.0, quetiapine XR +9.5, and placebo -6.0; total cholesterol (mg/dL), lurasidone -5.0, haloperidol -8.0, olanzapine +9.0, risperidone +6.5, quetiapine XR +6.0, and placebo -5.0; trends were similar for LDL. Median changes in glucose (mg/dL) were similar for lurasidone (0.0) and placebo (0.0), and higher for haloperidol (+2.0), olanzapine (+4.0), risperidone (+3.0), and quetiapine XR (+3.0). Minimal-to-no changes in HbA1c were observed. With long-term lurasidone treatment, mean weight change after 12-month exposure was -0.73 kg and median metabolic changes were: -2.0 mg/dL for total cholesterol and -5.0 mg/dL for triglycerides.
Short- and long-term treatment with lurasidone showed minimal changes in weight and decrease in mean total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides.
The main aim of this study is to investigate the capacity of a number of variables from four dimensions (clinical, psychosocial, cognitive and genetic domains) to predict the antidepressant treatment outcome, and combined the predictors in one integrate regression model with the aim to investigate which predictor contributed most.
In a semi-naturalistic prospective cohort study with a total of 241 fully assessed MDD patients, decrease in HAM-D scores from baseline to after 6 weeks of treatment was used to measure the antidepressant treatment outcome.
The clinical and psychosocial model (R2 = 0.451) showed that HAM-D scores at baseline and MMPI-2 scale paranoia was the best clinical and psychosocial predictor of treatment outcome respectively. The cognitive model (R2 = 0.502) revealed that combination of better performance on TMT-B test and worse performance on TOH and WAIS-R Digit Backward testes could predict decline in HAM-D scores. The genetics analysis only found median of percent improvement in HAM-D scores in G-allele of GR gene BclI polymorphism carriers (72.2%) was significant lower than that in non-G allele carriers (80.1%). The integrate model showed that three predictors, combination of HAM-D scores at baseline, MMPI-2 scale paranoia and TMT-B test, explained 57.1% of the variance.
Three markers, HAM-D scores at baseline, MMPI-2 scale paranoia and TMT-B test, might serve as predictor of antidepressant outcome in daily psychiatric practice.
In this study, we aimed to identify protein molecules in the hypothalamus in the female rats injected exogenous androgen before sexual differentiation.
Neonatal female SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group and control female group. Four neonatal male SD rats were control male group. All animals were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of testosterone propionate as experimental group or aseptic oil as control. The rats were sacrificed 90 days after the injection and the brains were collected. 2-DE were performed in order to establish profiles of proteome from rat hypothalamus and followed by MALDITOF- TOF mass spectrometry was used to identify proteins differentially expressed in rat hypothalamus from experimental group as compared to normal control group.
11 differential spots were cut off from the Silver stained gel, and 9 of the spots were identified, which were Dihydropyrimidinase-like 3 (DPYSL3), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K(hnRNP K), Profilin2, Triosephosphate isomerase 1(Tpi 1), Carbonic anhydrase II(CA II), Annexin A3, Protein disulfide isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3), Creatine kinase-B and Secernin 1.
The results of the present study indicate that the development of sexual differentiation may be associated with the alteration in the expression of a large number of cytosolic proteins in the hypothalamus.