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Wafer-level three-dimensional (3D) integration as an emerging architecture
for future chips offers high interconnect performance by reducing delays of
global interconnects and high functionality with heterogeneous integration
of materials, devices, and signals. Various 3D technology platforms have
been investigated, with different combinations of alternative alignment,
bonding, thinning and inter-wafer interconnection technologies. Precise
alignment on the wafer level is one of the key challenges affecting the
performance of the 3D interconnects. After a brief overview of the
wafer-level 3D technology platforms, this paper focuses on waferto-wafer
alignment fundamentals. Various alignment methods are reviewed. A higher
emphasis lies on the analysis of the alignment accuracy. In addition to the
alignment accuracy achieved prior to bonding, the impacts of wafer bonding
and subsequent wafer thinning will be discussed.
Anodic bonding is a powerful technique used in MEMS manufacturing. This process is applied mainly for building three-dimensional structures for microfluidic applications or for wafer level packaging. Process conditions will be evaluated in present paper. An experimental solution for bonding three wafers in one single process step (“triple-stack bonding”) will be introduced.
Wafer-level three-dimensional (3D) integration is an emerging technology to increase the performance and functionality of integrated circuits (ICs). Aligned wafer-to-wafer bonding with dielectric polymer layers (e.g., benzocyclobutene (BCB)) is a promising approach for manufacturing of 3D ICs, with minimum bonding impact on the wafer-to-wafer alignment accuracy essential. In this paper we investigate the effects of thermal and mechanical bonding parameters on the achievable post-bonding wafer-to-wafer alignment accuracy for polymer wafer bonding with 200 mm diameter wafers. Our baseline wafer bonding process with softbaked BCB (∼35% cross-linked) has been modified to use partially cured (∼ 43% crosslinked) BCB. The partially cured BCB layer does not reflow during bonding, minimizing the impact of inhomogeneities in BCB reflow under compression and/or slight shear forces at the bonding interface. As a result, the non-uniformity of the BCB layer thickness after wafer bonding is less than 0.5% of the nominal layer thickness and the wafer shift relative to each other during the wafer bonding process is less than 1 μm (average) for 200 mm diameter wafers. The critical adhesion energy of a bonded wafer pair with the partially cured BCB wafer bonding process is similar to that with soft-baked BCB.
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