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This chapter examines the networks and connections within the early modern legal community of Aberdeen, Scotland. It reconstructs a particular master-apprentice network of the early-seventeenth to the mid-eighteenth centuries, showing the importance of this educational mechanism both for entrance into the local legal profession and for establishing professional contacts. This chapter also reconstructs the networks which were focused on two of Aberdeen’s most important courts of the period—the sheriff and commissary courts. It shows the extent to which the men who held offices in these courts were interconnected, both personally and professionally, and reflects on what this discovery reveals about contemporaneous local court practice. Finally, this chapter concludes by reflecting on how men of law may have regarded their own networks, through an examination of their children’s god-parentage records.
After emancipation, most African Americans remained tethered to agricultural economies, while others migrated to cities seeking better opportunities. Although bioarchaeologists have made significant interventions in researching people of African descent, there are relatively few published comparative studies that address their morbidity and mortality after slavery. This study compares the bioarchaeological evidence for rural and urban southern United States populations to address disparities in health and longevity. It considers the biological effects of racism, including the health impacts of poverty, disease, and malnourishment. Although historians and demographers argue that urban life was especially detrimental to health, the results of this research suggest greater complexity in African American well-being. Whereas urban adults had higher midlife mortality and reduced longevity compared to their rural counterparts, both rural and urban children experienced poor health. Rural child mortality and morbidity varied significantly, suggesting differences in diet and disease exposure across rural communities. With regard to gender, rural and urban women died at younger ages than men. This disparity in mortality is partly attributed to black women's working and reproductive lives within the context of racism and gender inequality.
Changes to the general practice (GP) contract in England (April 2019) introduced a new quality improvement (QI) domain. The clinical microsystems programme is an approach to QI with limited evidence in primary care.
To explore experiences of GP staff participating in a clinical microsystems programme.
Design and setting:
GPs within one clinical commissioning group (CCG) in South East England. Normalisation process theory informed qualitative approach.
Review of all CCG clinical microsystems projects using pre-existing data. The Diffusion of Innovation Cycle was used to inform the sampling frame and GPs were invited to participate in interviews or focus groups. Ten practices participated; 11 coaches and 16 staff were interviewed.
The majority of projects were process-driven activities related to administrative systems. Projects directly related to health outputs were fewer and related to externally imposed targets. Four key elements facilitated practices to engage: feeling in control; receiving enhanced service payment; having a senior staff member championing the approach; and good practice–coach relationship. There appeared to be three key benefits in addition to project-specific ones: improved working relationships between CCG and practice; more cohesive practice team; and time to reflect.
Small projects with clear parameters were more successful than larger ones or those spanning organisations. However, there was little evidence suggesting the key benefits were unique attributes of the microsystems approach and sustainability was problematic. Future research should focus on cross-organisational approaches to QI and identify what, if any, added value the approach provides.
The false codling moth (FCM), Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an insect pest which represents an important threat to the production and marketing of a wide range of agricultural crops in the African-Caribbean-Pacific (ACP) countries. The FCM reduces not only the yield and quality of the crop but also as a quarantine insect pest, restricts the trade of susceptible agricultural produce on the international market. In addition, little research has been conducted in the ACP countries on the bio-ecology and sustainable management of this pest, especially on vegetables for export. Thus, action-oriented research aimed at understanding the bio-ecology of this important pest is essential to achieve effective management. Various management interventions against this pest have been used in some parts of the world, especially in South Africa on citrus. Currently, farm sanitation is regarded as the key management strategy. Exploring and improving on other interventions such as Sterile Insect Technique, monitoring and mass trapping of male moths, augmentative biological control, use of bio-pesticides, protected cultivation and cold treatment may help to mitigate the expansion of FCM into other countries, especially in the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization region where it has become a regulated insect pest since 2014. This review discussed the bio-ecology of FCM and highlighted some of the challenges and opportunities for its effective management and its implication for international trade, especially the export of chillies from the ACP countries into the European Union market which requires strict phytosanitary regulations.
An Al–Cu–Li aerospace alloy has been investigated to determine the order in which corrosion at different types of sites occurs in AA2099-T83. Specifically, the sequence of galvanic attack on intermetallic (IM) particles and other sites of AA2099-T83 was determined as a function of time, in 0.1 M NaCl, through the use of scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction characterization techniques. The earliest attack occurred at isolated grains and grain boundaries and on Li-containing dispersoids. Similarly, some constituent IM particles showed evidence of trenching in the surrounding alloy matrix. These IM particles included Al7Cu2Fe and another group of unidentified particles which displayed complete trenching within the first 10 min of exposure. Al13(Fe, Mn)4 were next most active followed by Al37Fe12Cu2 with Al6(Fe,Mn) and large TiB2 particles being the least active.
We review research on age differences in decision making across adulthood, focusing on behavioral decision-making tasks that measure processes fundamental to decision-making competence. We highlight mechanisms underlying decision-making competence and how to leverage research on mechanisms to design interventions to support decisions. The chapter begins with research showing that complex, multi-attribute decisions challenge aging decision makers but that this is attenuated when older adults are motivated to apply their cognitive resources. Next, we summarize research that shows that experience and knowledge can compensate for age-related fluid cognitive declines to promote better financial decision-making competence. We then highlight research showing that life-span changes in motivation, along with improvements in emotional well-being, are important for understanding age differences in decision making. We provide recommendations for designing interventions to improve health and financial decisions. We conclude by discussing gaps in the literature and directions for future research.
For patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization, a traditional fist-bump greeting did not significantly reduce MRSA transfer in comparison to a handshake. However, transfer was reduced with a modified fist bump that minimized the surface area of contact and when hand hygiene was performed before the handshake.
Samples from the sphalerite-dominated zone of a seafloor massive sulfide chimney, the Satanic Mills Chimney of the PACMANUS hydrothermal field, have been investigated to determine the internal macrostructure and microstructure of this zone, the phases present, and the distribution of metals. A combination of electron probe microanalysis, electron backscattered diffraction, and x-ray diffraction has been used. At the macroscale, this zone of the chimney wall is heavily porous and is comprised primarily of sphalerite, enclosing minor chalcopyrite, pyrite, and wurtzite. A Pb–As sulfosalt layer of possible microbial origins is present at the outer edge of the sphalerite matrix, next to a pore. The sphalerite has grown in globules on the order of 300 μm in diameter. At the microscale, the sphalerite features a colloform texture and a duplex-type grain structure consisting of either fine-grain regions in the center surrounded by coarse-grained regions or radiating coarse grains only. Pb- and As-rich bands have been detected in the colloform sphalerite, and growth twins have been observed in both the sphalerite and chalcopyrite crystals. A qualitative description of the growth of a typical globule is given, including nucleation, crystal growth, and solute redistribution.
Accurate elemental quantification of materials by X-ray detection techniques in electron microscopes or microprobes can only be carried out if the appropriate mass absorption coefficients (MACs) are known. With continuous advancements in experimental techniques, databases of MACs must be expanded in order to account for new detection limits. Soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) is a characterization technique that can detect emitted X-rays whose energies are in the range of 10 eV to 2 keV by using a varied-line-spaced grating. Transitions producing soft X-rays can be detected and accurate MACs are required for use in quantification. This work uses Monte Carlo modeling coupled with multivoltage SXES measurements in an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) to compute MACs for the L2,3-M and Li Kα transitions in a variety of aluminum alloys. Electron depth distribution curves obtained by the software MC X-ray are used in a parametrized fitting equation. The MACs are calculated using a least-squares regression analysis. It is shown that X-ray distribution cross-sections at such low energies need to take into account additional contributions, such as Coster–Kronig transitions, Auger yields, and wave function effects in order to be accurate.
There is a requirement in some beef markets to slaughter bulls at under 16 months of age. This requires high levels of concentrate feeding. Increasing the slaughter age of bulls to 19 months facilitates the inclusion of a grazing period, thereby decreasing the cost of production. Recent data indicate few quality differences in longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle from conventionally reared 16-month bulls and 19-month-old bulls that had a grazing period prior to finishing on concentrates. The aim of the present study was to expand this observation to additional commercially important muscles/cuts. The production systems selected were concentrates offered ad libitum and slaughter at under 16 months of age (16-C) or at 19 months of age (19-CC) to examine the effect of age per se, and the cheaper alternative for 19-month bulls described above (19-GC). The results indicate that muscles from 19-CC were more red, had more intramuscular fat and higher cook loss than those from 16-C. No differences in muscle objective texture or sensory texture and acceptability were found between treatments. The expected differences in composition and quality between the muscles were generally consistent across the production systems examined. Therefore, for the type of animal and range of ages investigated, the effect of the production system on LT quality was generally representative of the effect on the other muscles analysed. In addition, the data do not support the under 16- month age restriction, based on meat acceptability, in commercial suckler bull production.
Acute change in mental status (ACMS), defined by the Confusion Assessment Method, is used to identify infections in nursing home residents. A medical record review revealed that none of 15,276 residents had an ACMS documented. Using the revised McGeer criteria with a possible ACMS definition, we identified 296 residents and 21 additional infections. The use of a possible ACMS definition should be considered for retrospective nursing home infection surveillance.
Since April 2004, Government policy in England upholds that clinicians should send copies of their clinical letters to their patients. However, some argue that patients already have the right to access their records under the Data Protection Act, 1998. Others suggest it wiser not to provide a letter in certain circumstances. Little evidence is available examining the factors that impact on and underlie patients’ views in relation to this.
To inform professionals about patients’ views on receiving clinical letters.
To establish the proportion and characteristics of patients who would like to receive clinical letters and to elicit underlying reasons for decisions.
Subjects were randomly sampled from an outpatient clinic and data collected using an 11-item questionnaire, between October 2010 and July 2013.
The majority (60%) of patients wished to receive their clinical letter. Most (62%) favoured wanting to know about treatment primarily. Of those who did not wish to have a copy, greatest concerns were of loss in the post and ‘unnecessary paperwork’ (each 11%). This group of patients were characteristically male, aged 61-80, of asian ethnicity, unmarried and unemployed. Patients with a diagnosis of adult personality and behaviour (ICD-10 F60-69) were most likely to opt to receive their clinical letter.
Although the majority preferred to receive clinical letters, reasons for preferences varied widely. With an increasing drive towards greater transparency in the health service, approaches to enhancing patient involvement will need to be flexible to the individual to enable truly meaningful patient participation.
Alluvial mineral sands rank among the most complex subjects for mineral characterization due to the diverse range of minerals present in the sediments, which may collectively contain a daunting number of elements (>20) in major or minor concentrations (>1 wt%). To comprehensively characterize the phase abundance and chemistry of these complex mineral specimens, a method was developed using hyperspectral x-ray and cathodoluminescence mapping in an electron probe microanalyser (EPMA), coupled with automated cluster analysis and quantitative analysis of clustered x-ray spectra. This method proved successful in identifying and quantifying over 40 phases from mineral sand specimens, including unexpected phases with low modal abundance (<0.1%). The standard-based quantification method measured compositions in agreement with expected stoichiometry, with elemental detection limits in the range of <10–1,000 ppm, depending on phase abundance, and proved reliable even for challenging mineral species, such as the multi-rare earth element (REE) bearing mineral xenotime [(Y,REE)PO4] for which 24 elements were analyzed, including 12 overlapped REEs. The mineral identification procedure was also capable of characterizing mineral groups that exhibit significant compositional variability due to the substitution of multiple elements, such as garnets (Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cr), pyroxenes (Mg, Ca, Fe), and amphiboles (Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Al).
Hyperspectral soft X-ray emission (SXE) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrometry have been used to investigate a carbonaceous-rich geological deposit to understand the crystallinity and morphology of the carbon and the associated quartz. Panchromatic CL maps show both the growth of the quartz and the evidence of recrystallization. A fitted CL map reveals the distribution of Ti4+ within the grains and shows subtle growth zoning, together with radiation halos from 238U decay. The sensitivity of the SXE spectrometer to carbon, together with the anisotropic X-ray emission from highly orientated pyrolytic graphite, has enabled the C Kα peak shape to be used to measure the crystal orientation of individual graphite regions. Mapping has revealed that most grains are predominantly of a single orientation, and a number of graphite grains have been investigated to demonstrate the application of this new SXE technique. A peak fitting approach to analyzing the SXE spectra was developed to project the C Kα 2pz and 2p(x+y) orbital components of the graphite. The shape of these two end-member components is comparable to those produced by electron density of states calculations. The angular sensitivity of the SXE spectrometer has been shown to be comparable to that of electron backscatter diffraction.