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The reaction kinetics of forming TiB in a mixed powder compact were analyzed using internal standard and dilution methods. The dilution method was not successful due to insufficient dilution, while the internal standard method was satisfactory to confirm that diffusion is the rate controlling mechanism. Difficulties analyzing metal powders and diffusional film products in mixed powders are discussed.
We present spectroscopic data of 3 isolated Vega-type systems which exhibit the 3.3 μm‘PAH’ feature ascribed to stretching of the C-H bonds in aromatic hydrocarbons. These are part of a sample of mainly hot stars. We discuss the implications of Vega-type stars having an organic component to their surroundings and compare them with the unique star, HD135344 (SAO 206462).
New photometry of main-sequence debris discs has been carried out at 850 and 450/μm; the derived SEDs indicate that the dust can lie in either thin rings or radially-extended discs, as seen directly in the few nearby objects which are resolvable. All such objects are consistent with a long wavelength opacity index β of 1.0±0.2 - similar to T Tauri stars, but significantly lower than embedded objects.
Further observations of the submillimetre CO lines in 3 Vega-type stars are reported and interpreted for the gas temperatures they imply. Very low gas temperatures (∽15K) are deduced for all three stars, consolidating the suggestion that, if the gas and dust are remnants of the molecular cloud from which the star system formed, then much of the CO in these systems may be locked up in ices on the surfaces of dust grains.
Postprandial inflammation is an important factor for human health since chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with chronic diseases. Dairy products have a weak but significant anti-inflammatory effect on postprandial inflammation. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of a high-fat dairy meal (HFD meal), a high-fat non-dairy meal supplemented with milk (HFM meal) and a high-fat non-dairy control meal (HFC meal) on postprandial inflammatory and metabolic responses in healthy men. A cross-over study was conducted in nineteen male subjects. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after consumption of the test meals. Plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at each time point. IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were assessed at baseline and endpoint (6 h). Time-dependent curves of these metabolic parameters were plotted, and the net incremental AUC were found to be significantly higher for TAG and lower for CRP after consumption of the HFM meal compared with the HFD meal; however, the HFM and HFD meals were not different from the HFC meal. Alterations in IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were not significantly different between the test meals. The results suggest that full-fat milk and dairy products (cheese and butter) have no significant impact on the inflammatory response to a high-fat meal.
Converging evidence indicates that a considerable amount of variance in self-estimated emotional competency can be directly attributed to genetic factors. The current study examined the associations between the polymorphisms of the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Met158Val) and the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and specific measures of the self-estimated effectiveness of an individual’s emotion perception and regulation. Emotional competence was measured in a large sample of 289 healthy women by using the Self-report Emotional Ability Scale (SEAS), which includes two subscales for the assessment of emotion perception and regulation in the intra-personal domain and two subscales for the assessment of emotion perception and regulation in the inter-personal domain. Participants’ reports of effective emotion regulation in everyday life were associated with the COMT Met-allele, with women homozygous for the Val-allele scoring lowest on this scale. Self-estimated effectiveness of emotion perception of the individual’s own emotions was related to the 5-HTTLPR. Both homozygous groups (s/s and l/l) rated their intra-personal emotion perception less effective than participants in the heterozygous s/l group. Taken together, the results indicate that genetic variants of the COMT and 5HTTLPR genes are differentially associated with specific measures of the self-estimated effectiveness of an individual’s emotion perception and regulation in the intra-personal domain. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–9)
Fetal growth restriction in singletons has been shown to enhance fetal lung maturation and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome due to increased endogenous steroid production. However, data on lung maturation in growth-discordant monochorionic (thus, identical) twins are lacking. Our objective was to compare the risk of severe neonatal morbidity between the larger and the smaller twin in monochorionic twins with birth weight discordance (BWD). We included in the study all consecutive monochorionic diamniotic pregnancies with severe BWD (≥25%) and two live-born twins delivered at our center (n = 47 twin pairs). We compared the incidence of neonatal morbidity, particularly respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and cerebral lesions between the larger and the smaller co-twin. The incidence of severe neonatal morbidity in the larger and smaller twin was 38% (18/47) and 19% (9/47), respectively (odds ratio (OR) 2.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94–7.44) and was due primarily to the higher incidence of RDS, 32% (15/47) and 6% (3/47), respectively (OR 6.88, 95% CI 1.66–32.83). In conclusion, this study shows that the larger twin in monochorionic twin pairs with BWD is at increased risk of severe neonatal morbidity, particularly RDS, compared to the smaller twin.
Monoamines, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, play a crucial role in the regulation of emotion processing and mood. In this study, we investigated how polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) influence emotion recognition abilities. We recruited 88 female undergraduate students and assessed 5-HTT genotype and the COMT Val158Met polymorphism. The subjects completed two computerized tasks: The Penn Emotion Recognition Test (ER40) and the Penn Emotion Acuity Test (PEAT). For the ER40, we found that s-allele carriers performed significantly worse in the recognition of happy faces, but did better in the recognition of fearful faces, compared with homozygous l-carriers of the 5-HTT gene. Neither 5-HTT nor COMT genotypes influenced the ability to discriminate between different intensities of sadness or happiness on the PEAT. Moreover, there was no significant interaction between the two polymorphisms in their effect on performance on the ER40 or the PEAT. (JINS, 2011, 17, 1014–1020)
In this paper we review recent progress achieved in our development of type-I GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb quantum-well (QW) lasers with emission wavelength in the 1.74–2.34 μm range. Triple-QW (3-QW) and single-QW (SQW) diode lasers having broadened waveguide design emitting around 2.26 μm have been studied in particular. Comparing the two designs we have find that the threshold current density at infinite cavity length as well as the transparency current density scale with the number of QWs. Maximum cw operating temperature exceeding 50°C and 90°C has been obtained for ridge waveguide lasers emitting above and below 2 μm, respectively. Ridge waveguide diode lasers emitting at 1.94 μm exhibited internal quantum efficiencies in excess of 77%, internal losses of 6 cm−1, and threshold current density at infinite cavity length as low as 121 A/cm2 reflecting the superior quality of our diode lasers, all values recorded at 280 K. A high characteristic temperature TOof 179 K for the threshold current along with a value of T1 = 433 K for the characteristic temperature of the external efficiency have been attained for the 240–280 K temperature interval. Room temperature cw output powers exceeding 1.7 W have been demonstrated for broad area single element devices with highreflection/ antireflection coated mirror facets, mounted epi-side down. The latter result is a proof for the high power capabilities of these GaSb-based mid-ir diode lasers.
Biasing the substrate during deposition and the substrate's surface morphology may both have major effects on the structural properties of thin films. We present the results of structural investigations (Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, SAXS) of thin silicon films that were prepared at low temperatures by electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) chemical-vapor deposition. The effect of substrate bias during the deposition was investigated for positive DC susceptor biases VB ranging from 0 to 45 V. For stainless steel substrates with an artificially enlarged surface roughness (smart substrates), an increase of the crystallinity could be observed with Raman spectroscopy. Films prepared under a susceptor bias of +15 V exhibited a texture inversion of preferential (220)- to (111)- oriented grains, which was accompanied by an increase in grain size from 18 to 42 nm. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed the films as deposited on Al foil to exhibit significant free volume fractions (microvoids). The ability of tailoring the structure of thin Si films by applying a bias is discussed in terms of controlling the energy and intensity of ion flux to the surface of the growing film. This can efficiently be achieved in an ECR system, where the mean free path of gas particles exceeds the thickness of the plasma sheath.
The interest in the phenomenon of islanding in a range of semiconductor systems is in part due to the fundamental importance of the Stranski-Krastanow transition but also driven by potential device applications of self-organized quantum dot arrays. However, the mechanism underlying the island formation is still to a significant degree unclear. In the present work, we focus on the epitaxial InGaAs / GaAs(001) system, with layer deposition by molecular beam epitaxy. Atomic force microscopy is used to measure the surface topography of nominally 4nm thick InxGa1-xAs films. It is shown that the growth mode switches abruptly from flat layer to island growth if a critical Indium composition of x(In)≍0.25 is reached. The structure of such layers during early stages of growth is examined using energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy. Indium gradients in the islanded layers are measured and the driving force for the islanding transition itself is considered.
We report a comparison of the room temperature recrystallization of electroplated (EP) copper in blanket films as a function of thickness measured by focused ion beam (FIB) microscope images and sheet resistance measurements. Both sets of data show an increase in rate with film thickness from 0.75νm up to 5νm, while little recrystallization is observed in films thinner than 0.75νm. Interestingly, the recrystallization rates from FIB analysis are consistently faster than those from the sheet resistance measurements. These data suggest that the recrystallization is initiated close to the top surface of the EP Cu film, but that in thinner films a high surface-to-volume ratio allows surface inhibition or pinning to retard the transformation. A Johnson-Mehl-AvramiKolmogorov (JMAK) analysis of the two data sets yields unusually high values for the Avrami exponent μ of up to 7 for the FIB data, while lower values of around 4 are obtained for the sheet resistance data. X-ray diffraction pole figures of the films have also been collected and correlations between the crystallographic texture, film thickness and recrystallization are discussed.
The way in which the Stranski-Krastanow epitaxial islanding transition can be controlled by strain due to elemental segregation within the initially-formed flat ‘wetting’ layer is examined in detail. Experimentally measured critical ‘wetting’ layer thicknesses for the InxGa1−xAs/GaAs system (x = 0.25 - 1) are demonstrated to show good agreement with values calculated using a segregation model. The strain energy associated with the segregated surface layer is determined for the complete range of deposited In concentrations using atomistic simulations. The segregation-mediated driving force for the Stranski-Krastanow transition is considered to be important also for all other epitaxial systems exhibiting the transition.
Thin—film transistors (TFTs) were prepared by the glow—discharge deposition of amorphous silicon nitride (a—SiNx:H) and amorphous silicon (a—Si:H). The properties of these TFTs were varied in two ways: a) doping of the amorphous silicon film with phosphine or diborane and b) exposure of the a—SiNx:H film to an oxygen plasma prior to the deposition of the a—Si:H layer. The TFTs are characterized by measurements of the transfer characteristic, ISD(VG) and of the effective density of interface states, Ni(E), using a transient current spectroscopy (TCS). The dependence of Ni(E) on the Fermi—level position in the a—Si:H film suggests that for EC—EF > 0.6eV this quantity is mainly determined by interface related defect states whereas for Ec,—EF <0.6eV it is determined by doping—induced defect states. The exposure to the oxygen plasma results in a reduction of Ni in both the upper and lower half of the gap and in an improvement of the characteristic, in particular in p—channel TFTs. These changes are discussed in terms of the chemical-equilibrium or defect—pool concept.
A theoretical study of the properties of a-Si:H thin-film transistors (TFTs) has been performed using uniform and non-uniform distributions of gap states in the a-Si:H layer. The potential profile in the semiconductor is calculated in a straightforward way by solving Poisson's equation numerically. From the band bending the source-drain current ISD(VG) of the TFT is predicted. In addition we calculate the transient discharge current I(t) generated by switching the gate voltage from positive to negative values. In experimental studies such transients are analyzed to obtain an effective density of interface states, Ni(E). We find that N;(E) depends little on the spatial variation of gap states, N(E,x), but sensitively on the energy distribution of N(E,x). It is shown that experimental N;(E) curves and ISD(VG) characteristics from the same sample can be fitted by the same N(E,x) which however cannot be unequivocally determined.
We report on room temperature cw operation of type-I semiconductor quantum well (QW) laser diodes based on the GaInAsSb/AIGaAsSb/GaSb material system emitting beyond 2.2 µm. Lasing is observed in cw mode up to at least 320 K. A high internal quantum efficiency of 65% and a low internal loss coefficient of 5 cm1have been achieved for a single QW (SQW)large optical cavity laser at 280 K. An extrapolated threshold current density for infinite cavity length of 144 A/cm2and 55 A/cm2has been deduced for the 3 QW and SQW lasers, respectively, which scales with the number of QWs. A maximum cw light output power of 230 mW at 280 K heatsink temperature was obtained for a 3 QW large optical cavity laser with HR/AR coated mirror facets, mounted substrate-side down.
The optical and electrical properties of InAs/GaInSb superlattice mesa photodiodes with a cutoff wavelength around 8 pim are investigated. The influence of the surface potential at the mesa sidewalls on the device properties was studied by fabricating gate-controlled diodes. At least two mechanisms determining the dark current in the reverse bias region can be identified. At high reverse biases bulk bandto- band tunneling dominates while the current at low reverse biases is most likely governed by surface effects. Bulk interband tunneling is further investigated by applying magnetic fields B up to 7 T parallel and perpendicular to the electric field E across the p-n junction.