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Optimum nutrition plays a major role in the achievement and maintenance of good health. The Nutrition Society of the UK and Ireland and the Sabri Ülker Foundation, a charity based in Türkiye and focused on improving public health, combined forces to highlight this important subject. A hybrid conference was held in Istanbul, with over 4,000 delegates from 62 countries joining the proceedings live online in addition to those attending in person. The primary purpose was to inspire healthcare professionals and nutrition policy makers to better consider the role of nutrition in their interactions with patients and the public at large to reduce the prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. The event provided an opportunity to share and learn from different approaches in the UK, Türkiye and Finland, highlighting initiatives to strengthen research in the nutritional sciences and translation of that research into nutrition policy. The presenters provided evidence of the links between nutrition and disease risk and emphasised the importance of minimising risk and implementing early treatment of diet related disease. Suggestions were made including improving health literacy and strengthening policies to improve the quality of food production and dietary behaviour. A multidisciplinary approach is needed whereby Governments, the food industry, non-governmental groups and consumer groups collaborate to develop evidence-based recommendations and appropriate joined up policies that do not widen inequalities. This summary of the proceedings will serve as a gateway for those seeking to access additional information on nutrition and health across the globe.
In porcine in vitro production (IVP) systems, the use of oocytes derived from prepubertal gilts, whilst being commercially attractive, remains challenging due to their poor developmental competence following in vitro maturation (IVM). Follicular fluid contains important growth factors and plays a key role during oocyte maturation; therefore, it is a common supplementation for porcine IVM medium. However, follicular fluid contains many poorly characterized components, is batch variable, and its use raises biosecurity concerns. In an effort to design a defined IVM system, growth factors such as cytokines have been previously tested. These include leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), the combination of which is termed ‘FLI’. Here, using abattoir-derived oocytes in a well established porcine IVP system, we compared follicular fluid and FLI supplementation during both IVM and embryo culture to test the hypothesis that FLI can substitute for follicular fluid without compromising oocyte nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. We demonstrate that in oocytes derived from prepubertal gilts, FLI supplementation enhances oocyte meiotic maturation and has a positive effect on the quality and developmental competence of embryos. Moreover, for the first time, we studied the effects of follicular fluid and FLI combined showing no synergistic effects.
For 20 years the UK Government has recognised that food advertising plays a part in food choices and hence diets of the population, particularly for children. In 2007 the UK brought in regulations to stop the advertising of less healthy foods on television (TV) during child-specific programming. Less healthy foods were defined using the 2004/2005 nutrient profiling model (NPM) as products high in saturated fat, salt and sugar (HFSS). Evaluations showed that children were still seeing and being affected by the adverts for less healthy foods. To try to mitigate childhood obesity, in 2018, the UK Government announced its intention to consult on further restrictions on the advertising of HFSS products on TV and online. Two years later, the intention to implement a 9pm advertising ban on TV and a further consultation on restricting online advertising of HFSS products was announced. New legislative controls on the advertising of HFSS foods are expected to be brought into legislation in the UK in January 2024. In the present paper, the history of advertising restrictions in the UK and the evidence informing them is reviewed. There will also be a reflection on where further actions might be needed in due course.
The energetic cost of walking varies with mass and speed; however, the metabolic cost of carrying loads has not consistently increased proportionally to the mass carried. The cost of carrying mass, and the speed at which human walkers carry this mass, has been shown to vary with load position and load description (e.g. child vs. groceries). Additionally, the preponderance of women carriers around the world, and the tendency for certain kinds of population-level sexual dimorphism has led to the hypothesis that women might be more effective carriers than men. Here, I investigate the energetic cost and speed changes of women (N = 9) and men (N = 6) walking through the woods carrying their own babies (mean baby mass = 10.6 kg) in three different positions – on their front, side and back using the same Ergo fabric baby sling. People carrying their babies on their backs are able to maintain their unloaded walking speed (1.4 m/s) and show the lowest increase in metabolic cost per distance (J/m, 17.4%). Women carry the babies for a lower energetic cost than men at all conditions (p < 0.01). Further energetic and kinematic evidence elucidates the preponderance of back-carrying cross-culturally, and illustrates the importance of relatively wider bi-trochanteric breadths for reducing the energetic costs of carrying.
On soils dominated by high proportions of clay and organic matter, soil acidity and poor nutrient use efficiency have a major impact on output potential. Due to the inherent chemical properties of these soils, reducing soil acidity and the prevalence of undesirable metallic cations poses challenges. As a result, these soils have a large capacity for phosphorus (P) fixation, therefore reducing plant P availability. Limestone (CaCO3 or MgCO3) is applied to agricultural soils to counteract soil acidity and reduce P fixation. The current study investigates the effects of four contrasting annual P application rates (0, 50, 100, 150 kg P/ha); split (50:50) between spring and summer, across soils with a range of soil pH values from a previous liming trial. The effect of soil pH ranges and P treatment rates on seasonal herbage growth and herbage P concentration was investigated over three years. Soil nutrient status was also investigated. Soil pH had a significant impact on the rate of mineralization and soil P concentration across each site. A soil pH of 6.2 caused a 1.8 mg/l increase in soil test P. An annual P application was necessary to maintain sufficient herbage P concentration for animal dietary requirements (0.35% DM), however there was no effect of P application or liming rate on herbage productivity across the three sites as all sites possessed sufficient soil P reserves. The current experiment has shown that despite optimal soil fertility status, ensuring sufficient plant available P is a problem on these particular soils.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: #NAME? METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Cell culture & protein identification: human T cells were purified from healthy blood, then activated & cultured for 5d. CAR-T cells were collected from infusion bags of cancer patients undergoing CAR-T. Silver staining of naive & activated healthy T-cell lysates was compared; B-II spectrin was upregulated and confirmed by Western blot. Migration assays: naive & activated T-cells were imaged during migration on ICAM-1 and ICAM-1 + CXCL12 coated plates. T-cells were transfected with BII-spectrin cDNA & the chemokine dependence of migration was compared with controls. In-vivo studies: in a melanoma mouse model, BII-spectrin transfected or control T-cells were injected; tumors were followed with serial imaging. Human patient records were examined to correlate endogenous BII-spectrin levels and CAR-T response. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Activated T-cells downregulate the cytoskeletal protein B-II spectrin compared to naive cells, leading to chemokine-independent migration in in vitro assays and off-target trafficking when CAR-T cells are given in vivo. Restoration of B-II spectrin levels via transfection restores chemokine-dependence of activated T-cells. In a mouse melanoma model, control mice injected with standard activated T-cells showed fewer cells in the tumor site and more cells in the off-target organs (spleen, lungs) when compared to mice injected with B-II spectrin transfected cells. Furthermore, among 3 human patients undergoing CAR-T therapy, those with higher endogenous B-II spectrin levels experienced fewer side-effects, measured by the neurotoxicity and cytokine release syndrome grades. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: A major hurdle to widespread CAR-T therapy for cancer is significant, often fatal side-effects. Our work shows that the protein B-II spectrin is downregulated during CAR-T production, and that restoring B-II spectrin levels decreases side-effects while increasing tumor clearance--hopefully translating to better CAR-T regimens for the future.
A nationally generalisable cohort (n 5770) was used to determine the prevalence of non-timely (early/late) introduction of complementary food and core food groups and associations with maternal sociodemographic and health behaviours in New Zealand (NZ). Variables describing maternal characteristics and infant food introduction were sourced, respectively, from interviews completed antenatally and during late infancy. The NZ Infant Feeding Guidelines were used to define early (≤ 4 months) and late (≥ 7 months) introduction. Associations were examined using multivariable multinomial regression, presented as adjusted relative risk ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (RRR; 95% CI). Complementary food introduction was early for 40·2 % and late for 3·2 %. The prevalence of early food group introduction were fruit/vegetables (23·8 %), breads/cereals (36·3 %), iron-rich foods (34·1 %) and of late were meat/meat alternatives (45·9 %), dairy products (46·2 %) and fruits/vegetables (9·9 %). Compared with infants with timely food introduction, risk of early food introduction was increased for infants: breastfed < 6months (2·52; 2·19–2·90), whose mothers were < 30 years old (1·69; 1·46–1·94), had a diploma/trade certificate v. tertiary education (1·39; 1·1–1·70), of Māori v. European ethnicity (1·40; 1·12–1·75) or smoked during pregnancy (1·88; 1·44–2·46). Risk of late food introduction decreased for infants breastfed < 6 months (0·47; 0.27–0·80) and increased for infants whose mothers had secondary v. tertiary education (2·04; 1·16–3·60) were of Asian v. European ethnicity (2·22; 1·35, 3·63) or did not attend childbirth preparation classes (2·23; 1·24–4·01). Non-timely food introduction, specifically early food introduction, is prevalent in NZ. Interventions to improve food introduction timeliness should be ethnic-specific and support longer breast-feeding.
Most psychiatric disorders are associated with several risk factors, but a few underlying psychopathological dimensions account for the common co-occurrence of disorders. If these underlying psychopathological dimensions mediate associations of the risk factors with psychiatric disorders, it would support a trans-diagnostic orientation to etiological research and treatment development.
An analysis was performed of the 2012–2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (NESARC-III), a US nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized civilian adults, focusing on respondents who were aged ⩾21 (n = 34 712). Structural equation modeling was used to identify the psychopathological dimensions underlying psychiatric disorders; to examine associations between risk factors, psychopathological dimensions and individual disorders; and to test whether associations of risk factors occurring earlier in life were mediated by risk factors occurring later in life.
A bifactor model of 13 axis I disorders provided a good fit (CFI = 0.987, TLI = 0.982, and RMSEA = 0.011) including an overall psychopathology factor as measured by all 13 disorders and 2 specific factors, one for externalizing disorders and one for fear-related disorders. A substantial proportion of the total effects of the risk factors occurring early in life were indirectly mediated through factors occurring later in life. All risk factors showed a significant total effect on the general psychopathology, externalizing and fear-related factors. Only 23 of 325 direct associations of risk factors with psychiatric disorders achieved statistical significance.
Most risk factors for psychiatric disorders are mediated through broad psychopathological dimensions. The central role of these dimensions supports trans-diagnostic etiological and intervention research.
Background: Intoxicated patients injured in off road vehicle (ORV) crashes have higher rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and intensive care unit (ICU) admission, as well as prolonged ICU length of stay. This study evaluated the impact of alcohol intoxication on mortality among major TBI patients injured in off-road vehicle crashes. Methods: A retrospective analysis (2002-2014) of off-road vehicle injuries in Nova Scotia resulting in major TBI was performed. ORVs included ATVs, snowmobiles, and dirt bikes. A logistic regression model was constructed to test for in-hospital mortality and adjusted for age, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) Head, Injury Severity Score, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Results: There were 176 drivers and passengers of off-road vehicles. Overall mortality was 28%. BAC testing was performed in 61% patients; 85% of pre-hospital deaths were BAC positive (mean BAC=31 ± 17.39 mmol/L) and 70% in-hospital deaths were BAC positive (mean BAC=26 ± 23.12 mmol/L). After adjusting for confounders, high injury severity and intoxication increased the likelihood of in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that alcohol intoxication is a significant risk factor for mortality among off-road vehicle collisions; for every mmol/L change in BAC, there was a 10% increase in the chance of in-hospital mortality.
Dietary pattern analysis is typically based on dimension reduction and summarises the diet with a small number of scores. We assess ‘joint and individual variance explained’ (JIVE) as a method for extracting dietary patterns from longitudinal data that highlights elements of the diet that are associated over time. The Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study, in which participants completed an FFQ at ages 3·5 (n 549), 7 (n 591) and 11 (n 617), is used as an example. Data from each time point are projected onto the directions of shared variability produced by JIVE to yield dietary patterns and scores. We assess the ability of the scores to predict future BMI and blood pressure measurements of the participants and make a comparison with principal component analysis (PCA) performed separately at each time point. The diet could be summarised with three JIVE patterns. The patterns were interpretable, with the same interpretation across age groups: a vegetable and whole grain pattern, a sweets and meats pattern and a cereal v. sweet drinks pattern. The first two PCA-derived patterns were similar across age groups and similar to the first two JIVE patterns. The interpretation of the third PCA pattern changed across age groups. Scores produced by the two techniques were similarly effective in predicting future BMI and blood pressure. We conclude that when data from the same participants at multiple ages are available, JIVE provides an advantage over PCA by extracting patterns with a common interpretation across age groups.
Although the DSM-5 was adopted in 2013, the validity of the new substance use disorder (SUD) diagnosis and craving criterion has not been investigated systematically across substances.
Adults (N = 588) who engaged in binge drinking or illicit drug use and endorsed at least one DSM-5 SUD criterion were included. DSM-5 SUD criteria were assessed for alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, heroin, and opioids. Craving was considered positive if “wanted to use so badly that could not think of anything else” (severe craving) or “felt a very strong desire or urge to use” (moderate craving) was endorsed. Baseline information on substance-related variables and psychopathology was collected, and electronic daily assessment queried substance use for the following 90 days. For each substance, logistic regression estimated the association between craving and validators, i.e. variables expected to be related to craving/SUD, and whether association with the validators differed for DSM-5 SUD diagnosed with craving as a criterion v. without.
Across substances, craving was associated with most baseline validators (p values<0.05); neither moderate nor severe craving consistently showed greater associations. Baseline craving predicted subsequent use [odds ratios (OR): 4.2 (alcohol) – 234.3 (heroin); p's ⩽ 0.0001], with stronger associations for moderate than severe craving (p's < 0.05). Baseline DSM-5 SUD showed stronger associations with subsequent use when diagnosed with craving than without (p's < 0.05).
The DSM-5 craving criterion as operationalized in this study is valid. Including craving improves the validity of DSM-5 SUD diagnoses, and clinical relevance, since craving may cause impaired control over use and development and maintenance of SUD.
Using data from a nationally generalisable birth cohort, we aimed to: (i) describe the cohort’s adherence to national evidence-based dietary guidelines using an Infant Feeding Index (IFI) and (ii) assess the IFI’s convergent construct validity, by exploring associations with antenatal maternal socio-demographic and health behaviours and with child overweight/obesity and central adiposity at age 54 months. Data were from the Growing Up in New Zealand cohort (n 6343). The IFI scores ranged from zero to twelve points, with twelve representing full adherence to the guidelines. Overweight/obesity was defined by BMI-for-age (based on the WHO Growth Standards). Central adiposity was defined as waist-to-height ratio > 90th percentile. Associations were tested using multiple linear regression and Poisson regression with robust variance (risk ratios, 95 % CI). Mean IFI score was 8·2 (sd 2·1). Maternal characteristics explained 29·1 % of variation in the IFI score. Maternal age, education and smoking had the strongest independent relationships with IFI scores. Compared with children in the highest IFI tertile, girls in the lowest and middle tertiles were more likely to be overweight/obese (1·46, 1·03, 2·06 and 1·56, 1·09, 2·23, respectively) and boys in the lowest tertile were more likely to have central adiposity (1·53, 1·02, 2·30) at age 54 months. Most infants fell short of meeting national Infant Feeding Guidelines. The associations between IFI score and maternal characteristics, and children’s overweight/obesity/central adiposity, were in the expected directions and confirm the IFI’s convergent construct validity.
Soil acidity and poor nutrient use efficiency are major limiting factors as regards output potential on heavy soils, soils which are dominated by high proportions of clay and organic matter, with impeded drainage, high buffering capacity and located in high rainfall areas. Lime is applied in order to counteract these limiting factors and in turn improve agricultural output and productivity. The current study investigates the effects of two commonly used lime products at three comparable treatment rates, ground lime (7.5, 5 and 2.5 tonne/ha) and granulated lime (7.5, 2.5 and 1.5 tonne/ha), applied across three distinct sites. The ability of each lime product and treatment rate to counteract soil acidity, increase nutrient availability and influence soil physical structure was assessed over time. On average across sites, 1 tonne/ha of each lime product increased soil pH by 0.15 and 0.21 pH units between ground and granulated lime, respectively. Site 3 experienced the greatest increase change in soil pH in comparison to the other two sites, largely due to lower clay content and cation exchange capacity. Granulated lime was 5.7 times more expensive than ground lime in its ability to reduce soil acidity. The high treatment rate showed the greatest reduction in soil acidity, aluminium and iron concentration as a mean across all sites. Morgan's soil test phosphorus concentration increased across all sites, with treatment rates having no effect on the rate of increase. There was evidence of reduced soil compaction and lime application showed no negative implication on soil physical structure.
An open-label extension study (NCT02873208) evaluated the long-term tolerability, safety, and efficacy of combination olanzapine/samidorphan (OLZ/SAM) treatment in patients with schizophrenia. This qualitative sub study explored perceptions of benefit, burden, and satisfaction with previous medications and OLZ/SAM.
Semi-structured interviews (60 minutes; audio-recorded) were conducted. Interviewer sensitivity training, senior interviewer oversight, and a list of common medications to aid recall supported data collection. Interview transcripts were content coded and analyzed (NVivo v11.0).
All 41 patients reported a lifetime burden with schizophrenia adversely impacting employment, relationships, emotional health, social activities, and daily tasks. Hospitalization for schizophrenia management was another reported aspect of disease burden. Although most (n=32) patients reported previous medication benefits, side effects affecting physical, emotional/behavioral, and cognitive functioning were reported by all (n=41). Following OLZ/SAM treatment, 39/41 patients (95%) reported improvements in symptoms including hallucinations, paranoia, depression, sleep, and concentration. Furthermore, patients described improvements in self-esteem, social activities, relationships, and daily activities. Twenty-three patients (56%) reported side effects attributed to OLZ/SAM; lack of energy (n=12 [29%]) and dry mouth (n= 5 [12%]) were most common. Twenty-four (59%) patients were “very satisfied” with OLZ/SAM; most (n=35 [85%]) preferred to continue OLZ/SAM vs switching to another medication. As most substudy patients (n=40; 98%) completed the extension study, satisfied patients may be overrepresented in this analysis.
This qualitative interview approach provided valuable insight into patients’ experiences with previous medications and OLZ/SAM. Overall, most patients reported treatment satisfaction and improvements in symptoms, function, and health-related quality of life with OLZ/SAM.
The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide threatening human health. To reduce transmission, a ‘lockdown’ was introduced in Ireland between March and May 2020. The aim of this study is to capture the experiences of consultant psychiatrists during lockdown and their perception of it’s impact on mental health services.
A questionnaire designed by the Royal College of Psychiatrists was adapted and circulated to consultant members of the College of Psychiatrists of Ireland following the easing of restrictions. The questionnaire assessed the perceived impact on referral rates, mental health act provision, availability of information technology (IT), consultant well-being and availability of personal protective equipment (PPE). Thematic analysis was employed to analyse free-text sections.
Response rate was 32% (n = 197/623). Consultants reported an initial decrease/significant decrease in referrals in the first month of lockdown (68%, n = 95/140) followed by an increase/significant increase in the second month for both new (83%, n = 100/137) and previously attending patients (65%, n = 88/136). Social isolation and reduced face-to-face mental health supports were among the main reasons identified. The needs of children and older adults were highlighted. Most consultants (76%, n = 98/129) felt their working day was affected and their well-being reduced (52%, n = 61/119). The majority felt IT equipment availability was inadequate (67%, n = 88/132). Main themes identified from free-text sections were service management, relationship between patients and healthcare service and effects on consultants’ lives.
The COVID-19 pandemic has placed increased pressure on service provision and consultant wellness. This further supports the longstanding need to increase mental health service investment.
To develop and test–retest the reproducibility of an ethnic-specific FFQ to estimate nutrient intakes for South Asians (SA) in New Zealand (NZ).
Using culturally appropriate methods, the NZFFQ, a validated dietary assessment tool for NZ adults, was modified to include SA food items by analysing foods consumed by SA participants of the Adult Nutrition Survey, in-person audit of ethnic food stores and a web scan of ethnic food store websites in NZ. This was further refined via three focus group discussions, and the resulting New Zealand South Asian Food Frequency Questionnaire (NZSAFFQ) was tested for reproducibility.
Auckland and Dunedin, NZ.
Twenty-nine and 110 males and females aged 25–59 years of SA ethnicity participated in the focus group discussions and the test–retest, respectively.
The development phase resulted in a SA-specific FFQ comprising of 11 food groups and 180 food items. Test–retest of the NZSAFFQ showed good reproducibility between the two FFQ administrations, 6 months apart. Most reproducibility coefficients were within or higher than the acceptable range of 0·5–0·7. The lowest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were observed for β-carotene (0·47), vitamin B12 (0·50), fructose (0·55), vitamin C (0·57) and selenium (0·58), and the highest ICC were observed for alcohol (0·81), iodine (0·79) and folate (0·77). The ICC for fat ranged from 0·70 for saturated fats to 0·77 for polyunsaturated fats. The ICC for protein and energy were 0·68 and 0·72, respectively.
The developed FFQ showed good reproducibility to estimate nutrient intakes and warrants the need for validation of the instrument.
Mass shootings account for a small fraction of annual worldwide murders, yet disproportionately affect society and influence policy. Evidence suggesting a link between mass shootings and severe mental illness (i.e. involving psychosis) is often misrepresented, generating stigma. Thus, the actual prevalence constitutes a key public health concern.
We examined global personal-cause mass murders from 1900 to 2019, amassed by review of 14 785 murders publicly described in English in print or online, and collected information regarding perpetrator, demographics, legal history, drug use and alcohol misuse, and history of symptoms of psychiatric or neurologic illness using standardized methods. We distinguished whether firearms were or were not used, and, if so, the type (non-automatic v. semi- or fully-automatic).
We identified 1315 mass murders, 65% of which involved firearms. Lifetime psychotic symptoms were noted among 11% of perpetrators, consistent with previous reports, including 18% of mass murderers who did not use firearms and 8% of those who did (χ2 = 28.0, p < 0.01). US-based mass shooters were more likely to have legal histories, use recreational drugs or misuse alcohol, or have histories of non-psychotic psychiatric or neurologic symptoms. US-based mass shooters with symptoms of any psychiatric or neurologic illness more frequently used semi-or fully-automatic firearms.
These results suggest that policies aimed at preventing mass shootings by focusing on serious mental illness, characterized by psychotic symptoms, may have limited impact. Policies such as those targeting firearm access, recreational drug use and alcohol misuse, legal history, and non-psychotic psychopathology might yield more substantial results.
Maintaining nutritional adequacy contributes to successful ageing. B vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism regulation (folate, riboflavin, vitamins B6 and B12) are critical nutrients contributing to homocysteine and epigenetic regulation. Although cross-sectional B vitamin intake in ageing populations is characterised, longitudinal changes are infrequently reported. This systematic review explores age-related changes in dietary adequacy of folate, riboflavin, vitamins B6 and B12 in community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years at follow-up). Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, databases (MEDLINE, Embase, BIOSIS, CINAHL) were systematically screened, yielding 1579 records; eight studies were included (n 3119 participants, 2–25 years of follow-up). Quality assessment (modified Newcastle–Ottawa quality scale) rated all of moderate–high quality. The estimated average requirement cut-point method estimated the baseline and follow-up population prevalence of dietary inadequacy. Riboflavin (seven studies, n 1953) inadequacy progressively increased with age; the prevalence of inadequacy increased from baseline by up to 22·6 and 9·3 % in males and females, respectively. Dietary folate adequacy (three studies, n 2321) improved in two studies (by up to 22·4 %), but the third showed increasing (8·1 %) inadequacy. Evidence was similarly limited (two studies, respectively) and inconsistent for vitamins B6 (n 559; −9·9 to 47·9 %) and B12 (n 1410; −4·6 to 7·2 %). This review emphasises the scarcity of evidence regarding micronutrient intake changes with age, highlighting the demand for improved reporting of longitudinal changes in nutrient intake that can better direct micronutrient recommendations for older adults. This review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018104364).
The Eating Assessment in Toddlers FFQ (EAT FFQ) has been shown to have good reliability and comparative validity for ranking nutrient intakes in young children. With the addition of food items (n 4), we aimed to re-assess the validity of the EAT FFQ and estimate calibration factors in a sub-sample of children (n 97) participating in the Growing Up Milk – Lite (GUMLi) randomised control trial (2015–2017). Participants completed the ninety-nine-item GUMLi EAT FFQ and record-assisted 24-h recalls (24HR) on two occasions. Energy and nutrient intakes were assessed at months 9 and 12 post-randomisation and calibration factors calculated to determine predicted estimates from the GUMLi EAT FFQ. Validity was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients, weighted kappa (κ) and exact quartile categorisation. Calibration was calculated using linear regression models on 24HR, adjusted for sex and treatment group. Nutrient intakes were significantly correlated between the GUMLi EAT FFQ and 24HR at both time points. Energy-adjusted, de-attenuated Pearson correlations ranged from 0·3 (fibre) to 0·8 (Fe) at 9 months and from 0·3 (Ca) to 0·7 (Fe) at 12 months. Weighted κ for the quartiles ranged from 0·2 (Zn) to 0·6 (Fe) at 9 months and from 0·1 (total fat) to 0·5 (Fe) at 12 months. Exact agreement ranged from 30 to 74 %. Calibration factors predicted up to 56 % of the variation in the 24HR at 9 months and 44 % at 12 months. The GUMLi EAT FFQ remained a useful tool for ranking nutrient intakes with similar estimated validity compared with other FFQ used in children under 2 years.