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Acetyl Co-enzyme A carboxylase- (ACCase) resistant rice allows quizlaofop-p-ethyl to be applied as a postemergence control of troublesome grass weeds. A field study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 at the H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station near Crowley, LA to evaluate the influence of a crop oil concentrate (COC), a silicon based surfactant plus a nitrogen source (SNS), or a high concentrate COC (HCOC) in overcoming the grass weed control antagonism of quizalofop-p-ethyl when mixed with bispyribac-Na. Quizalofop-p-ethyl was applied at 120 g ai ha-1, bispyribac-Na was applied at 34 g ai ha-1, and all adjuvants were applied at 1% v/v. Antagonistic interactions were observed at 14 d after treatment (DAT) when quizalofop-p-ethyl was mixed with bispyribac-Na with no adjuvant for control of barnyardgrass, the non-ACCase-tolerant rice cultivars CL-111 and CLXL-745, and red rice. At 14 DAT, antagonism of quizalofop-p-ethyl for control of barnyardgrass was observed when mixed with bispyribac-Na plus COC, SNS, or HCOC with an observed control of 43%, 63%, and 86%, respectively, compared with an expected control of 95% for quizalofop-p-ethyl alone. However, the antagonism of quizalofop-p-ethyl when mixed with bispyribac-Na plus HCOC for barnyardgrass control at 14 DAT was overcome by 28 DAT with an observed control of 91%, compared with an expected control of 97%. Synergistic or neutral interactions were observed at 14 and 28 DAT when COC, SNS, or HCOC was added to a mixture of quizalofop-p-ethyl plus bispyribac-Na for CL-111, CLXL-745, and red rice control. The results from this study conclude that HCOC is the most effective adjuvant for quizalofop-p-ethyl and bispyribac-Na mixtures for control of weedy rice and barnyardgrass.
Six on-farm studies determined the effects of a rolled rye cover crop, herbicide program, and planting technique on cotton stand, weed control, and cotton yield in Georgia. Treatments included: (1) rye drilled broadcast with 19-cm row spacing and a broadcast-herbicide program (2) rye drilled with a 25-cm rye-free zone in the cotton row and a broadcast-herbicide program (3) rye drilled with a 25-cm rye-free zone in the cotton row with PPI and PRE herbicides banded in the cotton planting row, and (4) no cover crop (i.e., weedy cover) with broadcast herbicides. At two locations, cotton stand was lowest with rye drilled broadcast; at these sites the rye-free zone maximized stand equal to the no-cover system. At a third location, cover crop systems resulted in greater stand, due to enhanced soil moisture preservation compared with the no-cover system. Treatments did not influence cotton stand at the other three locations and did not differ in the control of weeds other than Palmer amaranth at any location. Treatments controlled Palmer amaranth equally at three locations; however, differences were observed at the three locations having the greatest glyphosate-resistant plant densities. For these locations, when broadcasting herbicides, Palmer amaranth populations were reduced 82% to 86% in the broadcast rye and rye-free zone systems compared with the no-cover system at harvest. The system with banded herbicides was nearly 21 times less effective than the similar system broadcasting herbicides. At these locations, yields in the rye broadcast and rye-free zone systems with broadcast herbicides were increased 9% to 16% compared with systems with no cover or a rye-free zone with PPI and PRE herbicides banded. A rolled rye cover crop can lessen weed emergence and selection pressure while improving weed control and cotton yield, but herbicides should be broadcast in fields heavily infested with glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth.
To establish the reliability of the application of National Health and Safety Network (NHSN) central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) criteria within established reporting systems internationally.
Diagnostic-test accuracy systematic review.
We conducted a search of Medline, SCOPUS, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL (EbscoHost), and PubMed (NCBI). Cohort studies were eligible for inclusion if they compared publicly reported CLABSI rates and were conducted by independent and expertly trained reviewers using NHSN/Centers for Disease Control (or equivalent) criteria. Two independent reviewers screened, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias using the QUADAS 2 tool. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values were analyzed.
A systematic search identified 1,259 publications; 9 studies were eligible for inclusion (n = 7,160 central lines). Publicly reported CLABSI rates were more likely to be underestimated (7 studies) than overestimated (2 studies). Specificity ranged from 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58–0.81) to 0.99 (95% CI, 0.99–1.00) and sensitivity ranged from 0.42 (95% CI, 0.15–0.72) to 0.88 (95% CI, 0.77–0.95). Four studies, which included a consecutive series of patients (whole cohort), reported CLABSI incidence between 9.8% and 20.9%, and absolute CLABSI rates were underestimated by 3.3%–4.4%. The risk of bias was low to moderate in most included studies.
Our findings suggest consistent underestimation of true CLABSI incidence within publicly reported rates, weakening the validity and reliability of surveillance measures. Auditing, education, and adequate resource allocation is necessary to ensure that surveillance data are accurate and suitable for benchmarking and quality improvement measures over time.
A study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 at the H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station near Crowley, LA, to evaluate quizalofop at 120 g ai ha−1 applied independently or in a mixture with clomazone, pendimethalin, clomazone plus pendimethalin, or a prepackaged mixture of clomazone plus pendimethalin when PVLO1 rice reached the two- to three-leaf stage. A second application of quizalofop at 120 g ha−1 was applied 21 d after the initial application. At 7 days after treatment (DAT), antagonism of quizalofop occurred when mixed with clomazone at 334 g ai ha−1, clomazone at 334 g ai ha−1 plus pendimethalin at 810 g ai ha−1, or a prepackaged mixture of clomazone plus pendimethalin at 334 plus 810 g ai ha−1, respectively, when applied to barnyardgrass. At 7 DAT, a neutral interaction occurred with a mixture of quizalofop plus pendimethalin at 810 g ha−1. These data indicate the antagonism of quizalofop was overcome at 14, 28, and 42 DAT with a neutral interaction for barnyardgrass control, 94% to 98%, with all herbicide mixtures evaluated. A neutral interaction occurred for CL-111, CLXL-745, and red rice control when treated with all the herbicide mixtures evaluated across all evaluation dates. Rice yield decreased when not treated with the initial quizalofop application.
We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
Background: Biallelic variants in POLR1C are associated with POLR3-related leukodystrophy (POLR3-HLD), or 4H leukodystrophy (Hypomyelination, Hypodontia, Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism), and Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). The clinical spectrum of POLR3-HLD caused by variants in this gene has not been described. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study involving 25 centers worldwide was conducted between 2016 and 2018. The clinical, radiologic and molecular features of 23 unreported and previously reported cases of POLR3-HLD caused by POLR1C variants were reviewed. Results: Most participants presented between birth and age 6 years with motor difficulties. Neurological deterioration was seen during childhood, suggesting a more severe phenotype than previously described. The dental, ocular and endocrine features often seen in POLR3-HLD were not invariably present. Five patients (22%) had a combination of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy and abnormal craniofacial development, including one individual with clear TCS features. Several cases did not exhibit all the typical radiologic characteristics of POLR3-HLD. A total of 29 different pathogenic variants in POLR1C were identified, including 13 new disease-causing variants. Conclusions: Based on the largest cohort of patients to date, these results suggest novel characteristics of POLR1C-related disorder, with a spectrum of clinical involvement characterized by hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with or without abnormal craniofacial development reminiscent of TCS.
A study was conducted at the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center’s H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station in 2017 and 2018 to evaluate a prepackaged mixture of clomazone plus pendimethalin applied delayed preemergence (DPRE) or POST within an herbicide residual overlay with saflufenacil, clomazone, or quinclorac. POST applications included penoxsulam or halosulfuron in combination with the second residual application. No differences were observed in barnyardgrass control (92% to 98%) at 14 days after treatment (DAT). At 42 DAT, barnyardgrass treated with clomazone plus pendimethalin in combination with either clomazone or quinclorac at either timing was controlled 95% to 96%. However, when saflufenacil was applied PRE, regardless of the POST herbicide or when saflufenacil was applied POST with halosulfuron, barnyardgrass control was reduced to 78% to 81%, compared with 95% to 96% with the control with all other residual combinations. Yellow nutsedge and rice flatsedge control increased when treated with halosulfuron compared with penoxsulam across all evaluation dates. At 28 and 42 DAT, texasweed treated with saflufenacil PRE, regardless of POST applications, was controlled 83% and 87%, respectively, and this was greater control than provided by clomazone or quinclorac applied PRE regardless of POST herbicide program.
A glasshouse study was conducted on the Louisiana State University campus in Baton Rouge, LA, to evaluate the control of brook crowngrass, rice cutgrass, southern watergrass, and water paspalum. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl was applied at 30 g ai ha−1 to each grass species at the 3- to 4-leaf or 1- to 2-stolon stage of growth. Brook crowngrass treated with florpyrauxifen was controlled 71% at 21 d after treatment. Southern watergrass and water paspalum control did not exceed 56% and 36%, respectively, across all evaluations. Rice cutgrass treated with florpyrauxifen did not reach 15% control. Plants treated with florpyrauxifen, except rice cutgrass, displayed reduction in leaf number, stolon number, plant height, and plant fresh weight. These results indicate florpyrauxifen-benzyl can help manage a brook crowngrass infestation and suppress southern watergrass. However, florpyrauxifen-benzyl has little to no activity on water paspalum and rice cutgrass, and other management options should be employed if these weeds are present.
A field study was conducted in 2015 and 2016 near Crowley, LA, to evaluate antagonistic, synergistic, or neutral interactions of quizalofop when mixed with contact herbicides labeled for use in rice production. Quizalofop was applied at 120 g ai ha−1. Mixture herbicides included bentazon at 1,050 g ai ha−1, carfentrazone at 18 g ai ha−1, propanil at 3,360 g ai ha−1, saflufenacil at 25 g ai ha−1, and thiobencarb at 3,360 g ai ha−1. A second application of quizalofop at 120 g ha−1 was made at 28 d after the initial application (DAIT) to evaluate control of weeds escaping the initial treatment. At 14 and 28 DAIT, red rice, ‘CLXL-745’, and ‘CL-111’ treated with quizalofop plus propanil indicated an antagonistic response with an observed control of 69% to 71% compared with an expected control of 92% to 94%. Barnyardgrass treated with the same mixture also indicated an antagonistic response at 14 and 28 DAIT with an observed control of 16% compared with an expected control of 94%. Barnyardgrass treated with quizalofop plus saflufenacil indicated an antagonistic response at 14 DAIT; however, the same mixture produced a neutral response by 28 DAIT. In addition, a second application of quizalofop was not able to overcome the antagonism observed with a quizalofop plus propanil mixture at 14 and 28 DAIT for red rice, CLXL-745, CL-111, or barnyardgrass control. Quizalofop mixed with carfentrazone or thiobencarb produced a neutral response for all weeds evaluated at each evaluation date.
We provide the first in situ measurements of antenna element beam shapes of the Murchison Widefield Array. Most current processing pipelines use an assumed beam shape, which can cause absolute and relative flux density errors and polarisation ‘leakage’. Understanding the primary beam is then of paramount importance, especially for sensitive experiments such as a measurement of the 21-cm line from the epoch of reionisation, where the calibration requirements are so extreme that tile to tile beam variations may affect our ability to make a detection. Measuring the primary beam shape from visibilities is challenging, as multiple instrumental, atmospheric, and astrophysical factors contribute to uncertainties in the data. Building on the methods of Neben et al. [Radio Sci., 50, 614], we tap directly into the receiving elements of the telescope before any digitisation or correlation of the signal. Using ORBCOMM satellite passes we are able to produce all-sky maps for four separate tiles in the XX polarisation. We find good agreement with the beam model of Sokolowski et al. [2017, PASA, 34, e062], and clearly observe the effects of a missing dipole from a tile in one of our beam maps. We end by motivating and outlining additional on-site experiments.
We describe the motivation and design details of the ‘Phase II’ upgrade of the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. The expansion doubles to 256 the number of antenna tiles deployed in the array. The new antenna tiles enhance the capabilities of the Murchison Widefield Array in several key science areas. Seventy-two of the new tiles are deployed in a regular configuration near the existing array core. These new tiles enhance the surface brightness sensitivity of the array and will improve the ability of the Murchison Widefield Array to estimate the slope of the Epoch of Reionisation power spectrum by a factor of ∼3.5. The remaining 56 tiles are deployed on long baselines, doubling the maximum baseline of the array and improving the array u, v coverage. The improved imaging capabilities will provide an order of magnitude improvement in the noise floor of Murchison Widefield Array continuum images. The upgrade retains all of the features that have underpinned the Murchison Widefield Array’s success (large field of view, snapshot image quality, and pointing agility) and boosts the scientific potential with enhanced imaging capabilities and by enabling new calibration strategies.
Sugarbeet, grown for biofuel, is being considered as an alternate cool-season crop in the southeastern United States. Previous research identified ethofumesate PRE and phenmedipham + desmedipham POST as herbicides that controlled troublesome cool-season weeds in the region, specifically cutleaf evening-primrose. Research trials were conducted from 2014 through 2016 to evaluate an integrated system of sweep cultivation and reduced rates of ethofumesate PRE and/or phenmedipham+desmedipham POST for weed control in sugarbeet grown for biofuel. There were no interactions between the main effects of cultivation and herbicides for control of cutleaf evening-primrose and other cool-season species in two out of three years. Cultivation improved control of cool-season weeds, but the effect was largely independent of control provided by herbicides. Of the herbicide combinations evaluated, the best overall cool-season weed control was from systems that included either a 1/2X or 1X rate of phenmedipham+desmedipham POST. Either rate of ethofumesate PRE was less effective than phenmedipham+desmedipham POST. Despite improved cool-season weed control, sugarbeet yield was not affected by cultivation each year of the study. Sugarbeet yields were greater when treated with any herbicide combination that included either a 1/2X or 1X rate of phenmedipham+desmedipham POST compared with either rate of ethofumesate PRE alone or the nontreated control. These results indicate that cultivation has a very limited role in sugarbeet grown for biofuel. The premise of effective weed control based on an integration of cultivation and reduced herbicide rates does not appear to be viable for sugarbeet grown for biofuel.
In Cameroon, there is a national programme engaged in the control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. In certain locations, the programme is transitioning from morbidity control towards local interruption of parasite transmission. The volcanic crater lake villages of Barombi Mbo and Barombi Kotto are well-known transmission foci and are excellent context-specific locations to assess appropriate disease control interventions. Most recently they have served as exemplars of expanded access to deworming medications and increased environmental surveillance. In this paper, we review infection dynamics through time, beginning with data from 1953, and comment on the short- and long-term success of disease control. We show how intensification of local control is needed to push towards elimination and that further environmental surveillance, with targeted snail control, is needed to consolidate gains in preventive chemotherapy as well as empower local communities to take ownership of interventions.
40% of people with dementia have disturbed sleep but there are currently no known effective treatments. Studies of sleep hygiene and light therapy have not been powered to indicate feasibility and acceptability and have shown 40–50% retention. We tested the feasibility and acceptability of a six-session manualized evidence-based non-pharmacological therapy; Dementia RElAted Manual for Sleep; STrAtegies for RelaTives (DREAMS-START) for sleep disturbance in people with dementia.
We conducted a parallel, two-armed, single-blind randomized trial and randomized 2:1 to intervention: Treatment as Usual. Eligible participants had dementia and sleep disturbances (scoring ≥4 on one Sleep Disorders Inventory item) and a family carer and were recruited from two London memory services and Join Dementia Research. Participants wore an actiwatch for two weeks pre-randomization. Trained, clinically supervised psychology graduates delivered DREAMS-START to carers randomized to intervention; covering Understanding sleep and dementia; Making a plan (incorporating actiwatch information, light exposure using a light box); Daytime activity and routine; Difficult night-time behaviors; Taking care of your own (carer's) sleep; and What works? Strategies for the future. Carers kept their manual, light box, and relaxation recordings post-intervention. Outcome assessment was masked to allocation. The co-primary outcomes were feasibility (≥50% eligible people consenting to the study) and acceptability (≥75% of intervention group attending ≥4 intervention sessions).
In total, 63out of 95 (66%; 95% CI: 56–76%) eligible referrals consented between 04/08/2016 and 24/03/2017; 62 (65%; 95% CI: 55–75%) were randomized, and 37 out of 42 (88%; 95% CI: 75–96%) adhered to the intervention.
DREAM-START for sleep disorders in dementia is feasible and acceptable.
Two field studies were conducted in Louisiana to determine the impact of Nealley’s sprangletop on rough rice yield under multiple environments in 2014, 2015, and 2016. The first study evaluated optimal timings of Nealley’s sprangletop removal for optimizing rough rice yields. The second study evaluated the impact of Nealley’s sprangletop densities on rough rice yield. Nealley’s sprangletop was removed with applications of fenoxaprop at 122 g ai ha–1 at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 d after emergence (DAE). Nealley’s sprangletop removal at 7 and 14 DAE resulted in higher rough rice yields of 7,880 and 6,960 kg ha–1, respectively, when compared with the rice from the season-long Nealley’s sprangletop competition with a 6,040 kg ha-1 yield. Delaying herbicide application from 7 DAE to 42 DAE resulted in a yield loss of 1,740 kg ha–1. Over the 35-d delay in application, rough rice yield loss from Nealley’s sprangletop interference was equivalent to 50 kg ha–1 d–1. Nealley’s sprangletop densities were established at 1, 3, 7, 13, and 26 plants m–2 by transplanting Nealley’s sprangletop when rice reached the one- to two-leaf stage. At Nealley’s sprangletop densities of 1 to 26 plants m–2, rough rice yields were reduced 10 to 270 kg ha–1, compared with the rice from weed-free plots. Based on regression analysis, Nealley’s sprangletop densities of 1, 35, 70, and 450 plants m–2 reduced rough rice yield 0.14%, 5%, 10%, and 50%, respectively.
A glasshouse study was established at Louisiana State University campus in Baton Rouge, LA, to evaluate the control of fall panicum and Nealley’s sprangletop treated with florpyrauxifen-benzyl. Florpyrauxifen was applied at 30 g ai ha–1 to each grass species at the three- to four-leaf and one- to two-tiller stages of growth. At 21 d after treatment (DAT), fall panicum control was 91% when treated with florpyrauxifen at the three- to four-leaf stage, and Nealley’s sprangletop control was 78% to 82%, regardless of application timing 21 DAT. Leaf number, tiller number, plant height, and plant fresh weight were reduced when fall panicum and Nealley’s sprangletop were treated with florpyrauxifen. This information can be useful for developing weed management strategies with this herbicide for rice production, and it provides an additional mode of action to help manage and/or delay the development of herbicide-resistant weeds.
The causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis, Schistosoma haematobium, was thought to be the only schistosome species transmitted through Bulinus snails on Unguja and Pemba Island (Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania). For insights into the environmental risk of S. haematobium transmission on Pemba Island, malacological surveys collecting Bulinus globosus and B. nasutus, two closely related potential intermediate hosts of S. haematobium were conducted across the island in November 2016. Of 1317 B. globosus/B. nasutus collected, seven B. globosus, identified through sequencing a DNA region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), were observed with patent infections assumed to be S. haematobium. However, when the collected cercariae were identified through sequencing a region of the cox1 and the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 + 2), schistosomes from five of these B. globosus collected from a single locality were in fact S. bovis. The identified presence of S. bovis raises concerns for animal health on Pemba, and complicates future transmission monitoring of S. haematobium. These results show the pertinence for not only sensitive, but also species-specific markers to be used when identifying cercariae during transmission monitoring, and also provide the first molecular confirmation for B. globosus transmitting S. bovis in East Africa.
Human fascioliasis infection sources are analysed for the first time in front of the new worldwide scenario of this disease. These infection sources include foods, water and combinations of both. Ingestion of freshwater wild plants is the main source, with watercress and secondarily other vegetables involved. The problem of vegetables sold in uncontrolled urban markets is discussed. Distinction between infection sources by freshwater cultivated plants, terrestrial wild plants, and terrestrial cultivated plants is made. The risks by traditional local dishes made from sylvatic plants and raw liver ingestion are considered. Drinking of contaminated water, beverages and juices, ingestion of dishes and soups and washing of vegetables, fruits, tubercles and kitchen utensils with contaminated water are increasingly involved. Three methods to assess infection sources are noted: detection of metacercariae attached to plants or floating in freshwater, anamnesis in individual patients, and questionnaire surveys in endemic areas. The infectivity of metacercariae is reviewed both under field conditions and experimentally under the effects of physicochemical agents. Individual and general preventive measures appear to be more complicated than those considered in the past. The high diversity of infection sources and their heterogeneity in different countries underlie the large epidemiological heterogeneity of human fascioliasis throughout.