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Indigenous women and children experience some of the most profound health disparities globally. These disparities are grounded in historical and contemporary trauma secondary to colonial atrocities perpetuated by settler society. The health disparities that exist for chronic diseases may have their origins in early-life exposures that Indigenous women and children face. Mechanistically, there is evidence that these adverse exposures epigenetically modify genes associated with cardiometabolic disease risk. Interventions designed to support a resilient pregnancy and first 1000 days of life should abrogate disparities in early-life socioeconomic status. Breastfeeding, prenatal care and early child education are key targets for governments and health care providers to start addressing current health disparities in cardiometabolic diseases among Indigenous youth. Programmes grounded in cultural safety and co-developed with communities have successfully reduced health disparities. More works of this kind are needed to reduce inequities in cardiometabolic diseases among Indigenous women and children worldwide.
Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a debilitating disorder (1). Based on neuromotor impairments it is divided to spastic, dyskinetic and ataxic types (2). Inborn Errors of Metabolism (IEMs), monogenic and chromosomal disorders mimic CP (3). We aimed to identify causal genetic variants in patients with atypical dyskinetic CP in whom known IEMs were ruled out. Timely diagnosis is essential for proper management, especially in conditions that mimic CP and are treatable. Methods: We enrolled 23 patients with unexplained atypical dyskinetic CP, for whole exome sequencing. Variants were filtered against public and in-house databases to identify variants predicted as damaging (in silico tools and ACMG criteria). We applied a virtual gene panel of known and suspected CP and movement disorder genes and investigated each sample. Results: The participants presented with symptoms including: spasticity, dystonia, choera-athetosis, ataxia and cognitive delays. We identified 23 diagnoses: 13 dominant,6 recessive and 4 X-linked. 12 patients had movement disorders. In 4, the diagnoses enabled targeted treatment (neurotransmitter supplements in Unverricht Lundborg diseases (CSTB) and PAK3 deficiency, deep brain stimulation in GNAO1 deficiency, medical diet in Glutaric Aciduria (GCDH). Conclusions: Whole Exome Sequencing contributes to establishing diagnosis in patients with atypical dyskinetic CP resulting in precision medicine and improved health outcomes.
Past research purporting to study employee resilience suffers from a lack of conceptual clarity about both the resilience construct and the methodological designs that examine resilience without ensuring the occurrence of significant adversity. The overall goal of this article is to address our contemporary understanding of employee resilience and identify pathways for the future advancement of resilience research in the workplace. We first address conceptual definitions of resilience both inside and outside of industrial and organizational psychology and make the case that researchers have generally failed to document the experience of significant adversity when studying resilience in working populations. Next, we discuss methods used to examine resilience, with an emphasis on distinguishing the capacity for resilience and the demonstration of resilience. Representative research is then reviewed by examining self-reports of resilience or resilience-related traits along with research on resilient and nonresilient trajectories following significant adversity. We then briefly address the issues involved in selecting resilient employees and building resilience in employees. The article concludes with recommendations for future research studying resilience in the workplace, including documenting significant adversity among employees, assessing multiple outcomes, using longitudinal designs with theoretically supported time lags, broadening the study of resilience to people in occupations outside the military who may face significant adversity, and addressing the potential dark side of an emphasis on resilience.
The detection of formaldehyde absorption of the microwave background radiation in a region of the Southern Coalsack (Sinclair and Brooks 1972) was made at about the same time as an optical study of this region (Tapia 1972) in which six globule-like clouds of interstellar dust were found. The size (0.3 pc) and position of the formaldehyde cloud were similar to the corresponding parameters of one of the globules (No. 2 on Tapia’s list).
We have measured the absorption spectra of the two principal lines of 018H at frequencies 1637 and 1639 MHz approximately in the directions of the sources Sgr A and Sgr B2. The use of 64 x 100 kHz filters enabled us to observe both lines simultaneously. The equipment and methods of observation and reduction are discussed by Gardner, McGee, and Sinclair.
Although only three antennas of the Australia Telescope Compact Array are currently operational, we have made use of the technique of bandwidth synthesis to make an image of the radio galaxy 2152 – 69. The three baselines were used to observe the source at three different frequencies, effectively resulting in nine baselines, which have been used to produce an image with a surprisingly high dynamic range, and with a slightly higher resolution than any existing image.
The production of such a worthwhile result, despite being made with a small subset of the capabilities of the Australia Telescope, bodes well for the future operation of the instrument.
Several extragalactic HI surveys using a λ21 cm 13-beam focal plane array will begin in early 1997 using the Parkes 64 m telescope. These surveys are designed to detect efficiently nearby galaxies that have failed to be identified optically because of low optical surface brightness or high optical extinction. We discuss scientific and technical aspects of the multibeam receiver, including astronomical objectives, feed, receiver and correlator design and data acquisition. A comparison with other telescopes shows that the Parkes multibeam receiver has significant speed advantages for any large-area λ21 cm galaxy survey in the velocity range range 0–14000 km s−1.
Preliminary mapping of the thioformaldehyde distribution in the direction of Sgr B2 followed the detection of the 211←212 transition of interstellar thioformaldehyde by Sinclair et al. (1973). Observations were made with the Parkes 64-m telescope in conjunction with a 9 cm parametric amplifier.
Does excluding food and energy prices from the Consumer Price Index (CPI) produce a measure that better captures permanent price changes? To examine this question, we decompose CPI inflation and “core” inflation into their permanent and transitory components, using a correlated unobserved-components model. The stationarity of inflation may be time-varying, so we examine the performance of the core measure of inflation separately for periods in which inflation is I(1) and I(0). For a period in which inflation appears to be I(1), we find that core inflation and the permanent component of overall inflation are closely related, but there are some caveats. For a period in which inflation appears to be I(0), we decompose the core and overall price levels and find that the permanent component of the core CPI is much more volatile than the actual core series and that the core excludes volatile permanent shocks to the overall price level.
The link between the experience of peer victimization (PV) and future psychological maladjustment has been consistently documented; however, little is known about intermediary cognitive processes that underlie this relation or how these processes vary across childhood. The present study examined the prospective relations between physical and relational PV and the development of negative and positive automatic thoughts and self-cognitions. Self-reports of cognitions and peer nomination measures of victimization were obtained from 1,242 children and young adolescents (Grades 3 through 6) in a two-wave longitudinal study. The results revealed that PV predicted significant increases in negative views of the self, world, and future and decreases in self-perceived competence for girls under 11 years of age, with the effect being stronger for younger girls. PV was not significantly associated with changes in positive or negative self-cognitions for older girls or for boys of any age. These findings support the hypothesis that PV may be linked to future psychopathology through its influence on self-cognitions, but only for girls.
Digital signal processing is one of many valuable tools for suppressing unwanted signals or inter-ference. Building hardware processing engines seems to be the way to best implement some classes of interference suppression but is, unfortunately, expensive and time-consuming, especially if several miti-gation techniques need to be compared. Simulations can be useful, but are not a substitute for real data. CSIRO’s Australia Telescope National Facility has recently commenced a ‘software radio telescope’ project designed to fill the gap between dedicated hardware processors and pure simulation. In this approach, real telescope data are recorded coherently, then processed offline. This paper summarises the current contents of a freely available database of base band recorded data that can be used to experiment with signal processing solutions. It includes data from the following systems: single dish, multi-feed receiver; single dish with reference antenna; and an array of six 22 m antennas with and without a reference antenna. Astronomical sources such as OH masers, pulsars and continuum sources subject to interfering signals were recorded. The interfering signals include signals from the US Global Positioning System (GPS) and its Russian equivalent (GLONASS), television, microwave links, a low-Earth-orbit satellite, various other transmitters, and signals leaking from local telescope systems with fast clocks. The data are available on compact disk, allowing use in general purpose computers or as input to laboratory hardware prototypes.
The X-linked telomeric P elements (TPs) TP5 and TP6 regulate the activity of the entire P element family because they are inserted in a major locus for the production of Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). The potential for this cytotype regulation is significantly strengthened when either TP5 or TP6 is combined with a non-telomeric X-linked or autosomal transgene that contains a P element. By themselves, none of the transgenic P elements have any regulatory ability. Synergism between the telomeric and transgenic P elements is much greater when the TP is derived from a female. Once an enhanced regulatory state is established in a female, it is transmitted to her offspring independently of either the telomeric or transgenic P elements – that is, it works through a strictly maternal effect. Synergistic regulation collapses when either the telomeric or the transgenic P element is removed from the maternal genotype, and it is significantly impaired when the TPs come from stocks heterozygous for mutations in the genes aubergine, piwi or Su(var)205. The synergism between telomeric and transgenic P elements is consistent with a model in which P piRNAs are amplified by alternating, or ping-pong, targeting of primary piRNAs to sense and antisense P transcripts, with the sense transcripts being derived from the transgenic P element and the antisense transcripts being derived from the TP.
Insulin plays an important role in regulating the partitioning of nutrients to the mammary gland, particularly in lactating ruminants fed concentrate-based diets. There is evidence that the nutritional status of the animals might also affect their response to insulin. This is largely untested in early lactating ruminants fed fresh forage. To investigate nutritional effects on insulin response, 12 lactating sheep, housed indoors, were allocated to one of two treatment groups (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp (HEC) or control) in a randomised block design and fed perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)/white clover (Trifolium repens) pasture. Mammary amino acid (AA) net uptake from plasma and utilisation for milk protein synthesis was measured during the 4th day of the HEC using arterio–venous concentration differences, and 1-13C-leucine was used to estimate whole body and mammary gland leucine kinetics. There was no change in feed intake, milk protein output and mammary blood flow during the HEC (P > 0.1). The HEC decreased (P < 0.1) the arterial concentrations of all essential AA (EAA) except histidine. The mammary net uptake of some EAA (isoleucine, leucine, methionine and phenylalanine) was reduced by the HEC (P < 0.1). Leucine oxidation in the mammary gland was not altered during the HEC (P > 0.1) but mammary protein synthesis was reduced by the HEC (P < 0.05). These results show that sheep mammary gland can adapt to changing AA precursor supply to maintain milk protein production during early lactation, when fed fresh forage. How this occurs remains unclear, and this area deserves further study.
The investigation, epidemiology, and effectiveness of control procedures during an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease involving three immunosuppressed patients are described. The source of infection appeared to be a network of fire hydrant spurs connected directly to the incoming hospital mains water supply. Removal of these hydrants considerably reduced, but failed to eliminate, contamination of water storage facilities. As an emergency control procedure the incoming mains water was chlorinated continuously. Additional modifications to improve temperature regulation and reduce stagnation also failed to eliminate the legionellae.
A perspex test-rig was constructed to model the pre-existing hospital water supply and storage system. This showed that through the hydraulic mechanism known as ‘temperature buoyancy’, contaminated water could be efficiently and quickly exchanged between a stagnant spur pipe and its mains supply. Contamination of hospital storage tanks from such sources has not previously been considered a risk factor for Legionnaires' disease. We recommend that hospital water storage tanks are supplied by a dedicated mains pipe without spurs.