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Review findings on the role of dietary patterns in preventing depression are inconsistent, possibly due to variation in assessment of dietary exposure and depression. We studied the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in six population-based cohorts and meta-analysed the findings using a standardised approach that defined dietary exposure, depression assessment and covariates.
Included were cross-sectional data from 23 026 participants in six cohorts: InCHIANTI (Italy), LASA, NESDA, HELIUS (the Netherlands), ALSWH (Australia) and Whitehall II (UK). Analysis of incidence was based on three cohorts with repeated measures of depressive symptoms at 5–6 years of follow-up in 10 721 participants: Whitehall II, InCHIANTI, ALSWH. Three a priori dietary patterns, Mediterranean diet score (MDS), Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet were investigated in relation to depressive symptoms. Analyses at the cohort-level adjusted for a fixed set of confounders, meta-analysis used a random-effects model.
Cross-sectional and prospective analyses showed statistically significant inverse associations of the three dietary patterns with depressive symptoms (continuous and dichotomous). In cross-sectional analysis, the association of diet with depressive symptoms using a cut-off yielded an adjusted OR of 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.84–0.91) for MDS, 0.93 (0.88–0.98) for AHEI-2010, and 0.94 (0.87–1.01) for DASH. Similar associations were observed prospectively: 0.88 (0.80–0.96) for MDS; 0.95 (0.84–1.06) for AHEI-2010; 0.90 (0.84–0.97) for DASH.
Population-scale observational evidence indicates that adults following a healthy dietary pattern have fewer depressive symptoms and lower risk of developing depressive symptoms.
Migration has been reported to be associated with higher prevalence of mental disorders and suicidal behaviour.
To examine the prevalence of emotional and behavioural difficulties, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among migrant adolescents and their non-migrant peers.
A school-based survey was completed by 11 057 European adolescents as part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study.
A previous suicide attempt was reported by 386 (3.6%) adolescents. Compared with non-migrants, first-generation migrants had an elevated prevalence of suicide attempts (odds ratio (OR) 2.08; 95% CI 1.32–3.26; P=0.001 for European migrants and OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.06–3.27; P=0.031 for non-European migrants) and significantly higher levels of peer difficulties. Highest levels of conduct and hyperactivity problems were found among migrants of non-European origin.
Appropriate mental health services and school-based supports are required to meet the complex needs of migrant adolescents.
Periodicity and new properties of the frequency curve. Bruno Hanisch uses the method of autocorrelation introduced by W. Pollack in geophysics for the discovery of periods in the frequency series of sunspots from 1794 to 1925. Dividing the whole interval into three sections he finds an eleven- and an eight-year period common to the three sections, whereas other periods found in the three sections differ widely from each other. The new method gives for the length of the main period II-8 years for the interval 1880 to 1925. This result agrees strikingly with the revolution period of Jupiter (Gerlands Beiträge zur Geophysik, 46, 1935).
Mr Royds writes: “The original scheme for daily character figures called for integers ranging from 0—5 to characterise the solar activity for bright and dark flocculi. Since then it has appeared to some observatories to be desirable, particularly as the spot cycle has approached its minimum, to quote character figures intermediate between whole integers. Many observatories have introduced 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, etc., in addition to whole integers, whilst others have also used 0.2, 0.7, 1.2, etc. It seems to me that sufficient experience has now been gained to decide how far this subdivision between whole integers is to be carried. Kodaikanal would be willing to revert to the original proposal of whole integers on the scale 0.5. If it is considered desirable to interpolate half integers, I suggest that whole integers on the scale 0-10 would be easier to print and to read.”
The president calls attention to the large and increasing membership of Commission 12 and the policy of concentrating in it all matters relating to the sun. The result makes it comparable in breadth of field and in membership to the former Union for Co-operation in Solar Research. The main point in favour of this policy is the increased interest in the meetings of the Commission and the larger number of individuals reached compared with the meetings of small committees. One recalls the general sessions of the Solar Union in which each one present felt himself a part of the Union and in real touch with the work of different sections and after the discussions went away with fuller knowledge of what it was all about. This was a valuable result not attained to the same degree from the general sessions of the present Union, but in a measure it does follow from the meetings of the Solar Physics Committee. On the other hand the question may be raised whether or not the merging of independent commissions into subdivisions of a large commission lessens their interest to an extent not balanced by the advantages. If the present policy holds, it seems to the president that a re-organisation of Commission 12 is advisable by which more responsibility is laid upon the directors of centres. The basis of membership in the Commission may well be considered and recommendations formulated for transmission to the Executive Committee.
We have studied the dependence of the absorption edge and the refractive index of wurtzite AlxGa1−xN films on composition using transmission, ellipsometry and photothermal deflection spectroscopy. The Al molar fraction of the AlxGa1−xN films grown by plasma-induced molecular beam epitaxy was varied through the entire range of composition (0 ≤ x ≤ 1). We determined the absorption edges of AlxGa1−xN films and a bowing parameter of 1.3 ± 0.2 eV. The refractive index below the bandgap was deduced from the interference fringes, the dielectric function between 2.5 and 25 eV from ellipsometry measurements. The measured absorption coefficients and refractive indices were used to calculate the design and reflectivity of AlGaN-based Bragg reflectors working in the blue and near-ultraviolet spectral region.
Interfacial reactions induced by ion beam mixing and furnace annealing in Al/Mo bilayers are investigated. The amount of interfacial ion m'xing, 4Dt, follows a linear dose dependence for irradiation temperatures ≤80 C. Below room temperature, the mixing efficiency, defined as d(4Dt)/dø, is temperature independent, and agrees fairly well with the prediction of the phenomenological model based on chemically biased diffusion in thermal spike. We conclude that thermal spike mixing dominates for Xe irradiation of Al/Mo at low temperatures. The mixing efficiency becomes temperature-dependent above room temperature with an apparent activation enthalpy of about 0.17±0.02eV. A layer of 15–20 at.% Mo forms by ion mixing, while oAl12 Mo forms upon thermal annealing in a nonuniform fashion starting at 500°C. Reaction of Mo with large-grained Al substrates shows the same nonuniform characteristics as in evaporated Al/Mo bilayers, implying a minor role of grain boundary effects. Oxygen gettered in the Mo film could be an important factor that influences the interfacial reaction.
A three-generation family with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome and an isolated case are presented. The proband presented with conductive hearing loss. His mother and grandmother showed minor features of the syndrome including conductive hearing loss.
Symptoms of the craniosynostosis syndromes can include stapes ankylosis, a fixed ossicular chain in a too small epitympanum, and small or even absent mastoids. The proband was treated with a boneanchored hearing aid (BAHA) instead of reconstructive middle ear surgery. Current literature on the results of ear surgery is reviewed. In general, reconstructive middle ear surgery should only be considered if congenital anomalies of the middle ear are the only presenting symptom. In cases with additional anomalies such as atresia of the ear canal or damage due to chronic ear infections, the outcome of reconstructive surgery to correct the anomalous ossicular chain is unsatisfactory. In such cases the BAHA is probably the best solution.
Every knot admits a special projection with the property that under the projection discs in the canonical Seifert surface project disjointly. Under an isotopy, such a projection can be turned into a connected sum of what we call inseparable projections. The main result is that if there is no band in an inseparable projection with half-twisting number +1 or −1, then the projection is not a projection of the trivial knot. To prove this a non-cyclic Coxeter group is constructed as a quotient of the knot group. The construction is possibly of interest in itself. The techniques developed are applied to give a criterion to decide when an inseparable projection with 3 discs comes from the trivial knot.
The problems concerning the development of high f-number spectrographs with high spectral and spatial resolution using holographic reflecting gratings, for the study of processes of harmonic generation in laser plasmas are considered. The concave holographic gratings and spectrograph schemes used in the “Delfin-1” installation are described. The anomalous generation of ω0 and 2ω0 harmonics from the subcritical density plasma region has been observed experimentally. Possible interpretations of the observed effect are given.
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