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Frozen raw breaded chicken products (FRBCP) have been identified as a risk factor for Salmonella infection in Canada. In 2017, Canada implemented whole genome sequencing (WGS) for clinical and non-clinical Salmonella isolates, which increased understanding of the relatedness of Salmonella isolates, resulting in an increased number of Salmonella outbreak investigations. A total of 18 outbreaks and 584 laboratory-confirmed cases have been associated with FRBCP or chicken since 2017. The introduction of WGS provided the evidence needed to support a new requirement to control the risk of Salmonella in FRBCP produced for retail sale.
The inefficiencies of the current pipeline from discovery to clinical approval of drugs demand a surrogate method to indicate adverse drug reactions, e.g. liver damage. Organ-on-chip (OOC) models would be an ideal, rapid, and human-specific alternate, which would render animal testing obsolete. The ground-breaking ability of OOCs and Multi-OOC constructs is the accurate simulation of the in vivo conditions of human organs leading to precise drug screens for cytotoxicity and/or drug efficacy at a faster pace and lesser cost. Here we discuss the innovation, architecture, and the progress of OOCs towards human body-on-a-chip.
Through appropriate choices of elements in the underlying iterated function system, the methodology of fractal interpolation enables us to associate a family of continuous self-referential functions with a prescribed real-valued continuous function on a real compact interval. This procedure elicits what is referred to as an α-fractal operator on , the space of all real-valued continuous functions defined on a compact interval I. With an eye towards connecting fractal functions with other branches of mathematics, in this paper we continue to investigate the fractal operator in more general spaces such as the space of all bounded functions and the Lebesgue space , and in some standard spaces of smooth functions such as the space of k-times continuously differentiable functions, Hölder spaces and Sobolev spaces . Using properties of the α-fractal operator, the existence of Schauder bases consisting of self-referential functions for these function spaces is established.
This article features the importance of nanomaterial–protein interfaces, with a special interest on two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, for next generation sensors and electronics. Graphene, the first isolated and studied 2D nanomaterial, is taken as the material of most interest and then focused on its engineering by heteroatom doping. The success of graphene engineering for sensors widened the search for better and efficient biosensor platforms of other layered materials such as boron nitride and transition metal dichalcogenides. But functionalization of 2D backbones with biomolecules often ends up with the disruption of the biological activities due to various reasons. This has to be fundamentally studied and corrected for the clinical implementation of these materials based novel sensing platforms in point-of-care devices and micro-fluidic chips. At the end, importance of various 2D materials–biomolecule interfaces is discussed, and MoS2 based label-free biosensor is highlighted. A method for the modification of MoS2–biomolecule interaction via covalent functionalization of oxygen functionalities in MoS2 is also proposed.
The present study provides novel information on carapace width-weight (CWR) relationship and growth parameters of the mud crab Scylla olivacea (Herbst, 1796) inhabiting the Pichavaram mangroves, east coast of India based on length frequency data sets during June 2010 to May 2012. CWR revealed linear regression between carapace width and weight in both sexes, and overall CWR exponent (b) values acquired for males and females are 3.035 (r2 = 0.962) and 2.925 (r2 = 0.933) respectively. The growth parameters, CW∞, K and to derived for males and females were 148.05, 0.762 year−1 and −0.637 and 138.80 mm, 0.856 year−1 and −0.681 respectively. The growth of S. olivacea was assessed through various methods in such a way that the outcome of one method functions as a rider, check and control over the other.
This article explores the properties of fractal interpolation functions with variable scaling parameters, in the context of smooth fractal functions. The first part extends the Barnsley–Harrington theorem for differentiability of fractal functions and the fractal analogue of Hermite interpolation to the present setting. The general result is applied on a special class of iterated function systems in order to develop differentiability of the so-called
-fractal functions. This leads to a bounded linear map on the space
which is exploited to prove the existence of a Schauder basis for
consisting of smooth fractal functions.
The need for improved medical sensors based on lab-on-a-chip technologies has increased significantly because of the dramatic growth in the number of people with chronic diseases and the associated costs for their healthcare. Development and initial results of a hybrid plastic microfluidic device with an integrated graphene-protein biosensor chip for use in point-of-care (POC) is described. The initial prototype is a glucometer that uses optimized glucose oxidase bound to a graphene field effect sensor. Technologies required for development of the prototype include modification of the glucose oxidase for improved performance by protein engineering, methods to bind the enzyme to the graphene attached to the silicon oxide surface of sensor chip, and integration into a thermoplastic microfluidic device. Initial results indicate the prototype glucometer can measure glucose concentrations from low physiological levels to molar concentrations.
The Institute of Medicine's Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events hosted a workshop at the request of the Federal Interagency Committee on Emergency Medical Services (FICEMS) that brought together a range of stakeholders to broadly identify and confront gaps in rural infrastructure that challenge mass casualty incident (MCI) response and potential mechanisms to fill them. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions around 6 major issues specific to rural MCI preparedness and response: (1) improving rural response to MCI through improving daily capacity and capability, (2) leveraging current and emerging technology to overcome infrastructure deficits, (3) sustaining and strengthening relationships, (4) developing and sharing best practices across jurisdictions and sectors, (5) establishing metrics research and development, and (6) fostering the need for federal leadership to expand and integrate EMS into a broader rural response framework.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6:297–302)
We study convective motion in vertically vibrated three-dimensional granular beds by comparing the predictions of a model based on a hydrodynamic description to Navier–Stokes order with experimental results obtained using positron emission particle tracking (PEPT). The three-dimensional conservation equations relating mass, momentum and energy are solved using the finite element (FE) method for a viscous vibrofluidized bed by using only observable system parameters such as particle number, size, mass and coefficients of restitution. The mean velocity profiles from the viscous model show reasonable agreement with the experimental results at relatively low altitudes for the range of experimental values studied, though the velocity fields at higher altitudes were systematically underestimated by the model. We confirm that the convection rolls are influenced by the sidewall coefficient of restitution and demonstrate the scaling relationships that operate, where increasing amplitude of vibration leads to a reduction in the angular velocity of the rolls.
The central idea underlying theoretical studies of the movement of organisms is that they need to encounter their targets. The targets can be other organisms of the same species (e.g., mates) or of a different species (e.g., prey) or, more generally, anything else sought (e.g., nesting sites). In the context of reactiondiffusion processes, the reactions (e.g., eating and mating) only take place when the relevant organisms successfully diffuse toward each other and meet. We next discuss a general theoretical approach to the study of encounter rates.
A general theory of searchers and targets
We classify the two interacting reactive-diffusive species (i.e., organisms) as either searcher (e.g., predator, forager, parasite, pollinator, male) or target (e.g., prey, food, female). Both searchers and targets move stochastically. We can now include most of the interactions in real ecosystems in this general framework , including the classical predator-prey interactions where an organism eats (usually smaller) organisms. It also includes diverse other interactions, such as osmotrophs looking for substrates and nutrients; parasites (including viruses) infecting organisms much larger than themselves (classical host-parasite interactions); organisms looking for aggregates (mixtures of amorphous organic matter, micro-organisms and/or inorganic particles), swarms, wakes, etc., also larger than themselves; and even mating encounters in which both male and female may have similar sizes (although sexual dimorphism is common) .
According to the theory of optimal foraging [128, 364], evolution through natural selection has led over time to highly efficient – even optimal – strategies.
From the previous chapters, we see that (1) superdiffusion optimizes search efficiencies under specific (but common) circumstances and that (2) many animals move superdiffusively. Assuming these two facts, does it follow that there is a causal relation between them? Lévy strategies indeed optimize random searches, but does it necessarily follow that selective pressures systematically forced organism adaptation toward this optimal solution?
This is an important question because an adaptive pathway toward an optimal solution can prematurely stop at some suboptimal point that decreases the selection pressure on this particular feature to a level below the selective pressures on other issues . Biology and physiology are replete with suboptimal solutions. The classic example is the structure of the human retina, which has blood vessels on the wrong side of the photosensitive layer . Compromise solutions arise because adaptation (1) includes a stochastic component, (2) has to build on preexisting designs, and (3) occurs in a complex field where other pressures may be present and may possibly be stronger.
Dolphins, in the context of (mammalian) swimming adaptations, perform well, but how can we know whether or not their shape represents an optimal design? Some species of shark may have an even better hydrodynamic shape. Also, why did dolphins return to the ocean when selective pressures were pushing for improved terrestrial adaptation? The complex evolutionary history of real organisms contains many such contingent situations, such as changing selective pressures, genetic drift, low-number bottlenecks, and rare catastrophic events.
According to conventional wisdom concerning the scientific method, good theories come from good experimental data, and bad theories from bad experimental data. Yet the history of the physics of foraging is a remarkable counterexample. To illustrate this, we briefly recount one of the important scientific investigations in the field, published in Nature in 1996. The original study of wandering albatrosses  inspired dozens of other studies, yet later required correction due to its spurious data.
Lévy flights of the wandering albatross
The albatross can fly great distances, at exceptional speeds. There are significant differences among species of albatross . Wandering albatrosses in southern Georgia can sustain a speed in excess of 100 km/h by taking advantage of the local wind field . They frequently fly 500 km per day, with an upper limit in the range 750–950 km per day. Phillips et al.  report that one gray-headed albatross circumnavigated the Southern Ocean in only 46 days. Because of their great mobility and large size, we decided to focus on the albatross (instead of, e.g., the sparrow) in our original study. The foraging strategy of the wandering albatross  stands apart from that of other seabirds . Weimerskirch et al.  studied the distribution of prey encounters for wandering albatrosses and reported results that strongly suggest a foraging strategy that differs from those of most seabirds.