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The paper describes the adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the Hungarian version of the quality of life in depression scale. The adaptation procedure involved: bilingual translation; field-testing for face and content validity; and assessment of instrument's reliability and construct validity. The new language version was shown to be well-accepted by respondents and to have excellent psychometric properties.
The proper functioning of central lines is imperative for the management of patients with cancer or on hemodialysis. However, these lifelines can become infected and can malfunction.
Chelators such as citrate and EDTA have been widely studied alone or in combination with other antimicrobial agents in catheter lock solutions to prevent catheter-related bloodstream infections and to maintain catheter patency. Given their anticoagulation, antiplatelet aggregation, antibiofilm, antimicrobial activity, safety profile, as well as their low cost, chelators have long been considered alternatives to heparin and a vital component of catheter lock solutions. In this review, we present a detailed summary of the properties of chelators and in vitro and in vivo studies of chelator-containing lock solutions.
Compliant walls offer the tantalising possibility of passive flow control. This paper examines the mechanics of compliant surfaces driven by wall shear stresses, with solely in-plane velocity response. We present direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flows at low (
) and intermediate (
) Reynolds numbers. In-plane spanwise and streamwise active controls proposed by Choi et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 262, 1994, pp. 75–110) are revisited in order to characterise beneficial wall fluctuations. An analytical framework is then used to map the parameter space of the proposed compliant surfaces. The direct numerical simulations show that large-scale passive streamwise wall fluctuations can reduce friction drag by at least
, whereas even small-scale passive spanwise wall motions lead to considerable drag penalty. It is found that a well-designed compliant wall can theoretically exploit the drag-reduction mechanism of an active control; this may help advance the development of practical active and passive control strategies for turbulent friction drag reduction.
Recent trends in multimedia technologies indicate the need for richer imaging modalities to increase user engagement with the content. Among other alternatives, point clouds denote a viable solution that offers an immersive content representation, as witnessed by current activities in JPEG and MPEG standardization committees. As a result of such efforts, MPEG is at the final stages of drafting an emerging standard for point cloud compression, which we consider as the state-of-the-art. In this study, the entire set of encoders that have been developed in the MPEG committee are assessed through an extensive and rigorous analysis of quality. We initially focus on the assessment of encoding configurations that have been defined by experts in MPEG for their core experiments. Then, two additional experiments are designed and carried to address some of the identified limitations of current approach. As part of the study, state-of-the-art objective quality metrics are benchmarked to assess their capability to predict visual quality of point clouds under a wide range of radically different compression artifacts. To carry the subjective evaluation experiments, a web-based renderer is developed and described. The subjective and objective quality scores along with the rendering software are made publicly available, to facilitate and promote research on the field.
To assess the association between food insecurity and depression symptom severity stratified by sex, and test for evidence of effect modification by social network characteristics.
A population-based cross-sectional study. The nine-item Household Food Insecurity Access Scale captured food insecurity. Five name generator questions elicited network ties. A sixteen-item version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Depression captured depression symptom severity. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between food insecurity and depression symptom severity while adjusting for potential confounders and to test for potential network moderators.
In-home survey interviews in south-western Uganda.
All adult residents across eight rural villages; 96 % response rate (n 1669).
Severe food insecurity was associated with greater depression symptom severity (b=0·4, 95 % CI 0·3, 0·5, P<0·001 for women; b=0·3, 95 % CI 0·2, 0·4, P<0·001 for men). There was no evidence of effect modification by social network factors for women. However, for men who are highly embedded within in their village social network, and (separately) for men who have few poor contacts in their personal network, the relationship between severe food insecurity and depression symptoms was stronger than for men on the periphery of their village social network, and for men with many poor personal network contacts, respectively.
In this population-based study from rural Uganda, food insecurity was associated with mental health for both men and women. Future research is needed on networks and food insecurity-related shame in relation to depression symptoms among food-insecure men.
Euclid is the next ESA mission devoted to cosmology. It aims at observing most of the extragalactic sky, studying both gravitational lensing and clustering over ~15,000 square degrees. The mission is expected to be launched in year 2020 and to last six years. The sheer amount of data of different kinds, the variety of (un)known systematic effects and the complexity of measures require efforts both in sophisticated simulations and techniques of data analysis. We review the mission main characteristics, some aspects of the the survey and highlight some of the areas of interest to this meeting.
The human gut microbiota has been identified as a possible novel CVD risk factor. This review aims to summarise recent insights connecting human gut microbiome activities with CVD and how such activities may be modulated by diet. Aberrant gut microbiota profiles have been associated with obesity, type 1 and type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Transfer of microbiota from obese animals induces metabolic disease and obesity in germ-free animals. Conversely, transfer of pathogen-free microbiota from lean healthy human donors to patients with metabolic disease can increase insulin sensitivity. Not only are aberrant microbiota profiles associated with metabolic disease, but the flux of metabolites derived from gut microbial metabolism of choline, phosphatidylcholine and l-carnitine has been shown to contribute directly to CVD pathology, providing one explanation for increased disease risk of eating too much red meat. Diet, especially high intake of fermentable fibres and plant polyphenols, appears to regulate microbial activities within the gut, supporting regulatory guidelines encouraging increased consumption of whole-plant foods (fruit, vegetables and whole-grain cereals), and providing the scientific rationale for the design of efficacious prebiotics. Similarly, recent human studies with carefully selected probiotic strains show that ingestion of viable microorganisms with the ability to hydrolyse bile salts can lower blood cholesterol, a recognised risk factor in CVD. Taken together such observations raise the intriguing possibility that gut microbiome modulation by whole-plant foods, probiotics and prebiotics may be at the base of healthy eating pyramids advised by regulatory agencies across the globe. In conclusion, dietary strategies which modulate the gut microbiota or their metabolic activities are emerging as efficacious tools for reducing CVD risk and indicate that indeed, the way to a healthy heart may be through a healthy gut microbiota.
The rate of postmastectomy tissue expander (TE) infection remains excessively high, ranging between 2% and 24%. We hypothesized that current perioperative antimicrobial regimens utilized for breast TE reconstruction may be outdated as a result of recent changes in microflora and susceptibility patterns.
Design and Methods.
We reviewed the records of all patients who had a TE reconstructive procedure and developed a definite breast TE infection between 2003 and 2010 at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Antimicrobials were stratified into 3 groups: systemic perioperative, local irrigation, and oral immediate postoperative antimicrobials. These were considered discordant if they did not target the isolated organisms, while a breakthrough infection was defined as an infection that occurred despite concordant antimicrobial coverage.
Overall, 75 patients with a definite TE infection were identified. The most common organisms identified were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (29%), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (15%), and gram-negative rods (26%). The use of systemic perioperative antimicrobials was deemed discordant in 51% of the cases. Although 79% of the patients received broad-spectrum perioperative local antimicrobial irrigation, 63% developed a breakthrough infection. Even though 61% received oral postoperative prophylactic antimicrobials, 63% of the times they were deemed discordant.
Contrary to the proven effectiveness of a single dose of perioperative antibiotics, the common use of local antimicrobial irrigation and prolonged postoperative oral antibiotics appears to be an inadequate component of our preventive armamentarium. Also, because methicillin-resistant staphylococcal and pseudomonal infections occurred approximately 60% of the time, at institutions that have observed an increase of these organisms, it may be prudent that perioperative antimicrobials target these microorganisms.
The influence of material properties on bacterial attachment to surfaces needs to be understood when applying polymer-based biomaterials. Positively charged materials can kill adhered bacteria when the charge density is sufficiently high  but such materials initially increase the adherence of some bacteria such as Escherichia coli . On the other hand, negatively charged materials have been shown to inhibit initial bacterial adhesion , but this effect has only been demonstrated in relatively few biomaterial classes and needs to be evaluated using additional systems. Gradients in surface charge can impact bacterial adhesion and this was tested in our experimental setup.
Moreover, the evaluation of bacterial adhesion to biomaterials is required to assess their potential for biological applications. Here, we studied the bacterial adhesion of E. coli and Bacillus subtilis on the surfaces of acrylonitrile-based copolymer samples with different amounts of 2-methyl-2-propene-1-sulfonic acid sodium salt (NaMAS) comonomer. The content related to NaMAS based repeating units nNaMAS varied in the range from 0.9 to 1.5 mol%.
We found a reduced colonized area of E. coli for NaMAS containing copolymers in comparison to pure PAN materials, whereby the bacterial colonization was similar for copolymers with different nNaMAS amounts. A different adhesion behavior was obtained for the second tested organism B. subtilis, where the implementation of negative charges into PAN did not change the overall adhesion pattern. Furthermore, it was observed that B. subtilis adhesion was significantly increased on copolymer samples that exhibited a more irregular surface roughness.
Fe-50 wt% Co alloy powders with average particle size of 10 μm were compacted by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 700, 800, 900 and 950oC by applying 40, 80, 100 MPa uniaxial pressures for 2, 5, 10 minutes. The densities of the samples were found to increase with temperature from 700 to 900oC for constant sintering pressure and time and to decrease for the material sintered at 950oC. The effects of sintering time on density were more significant in samples sintered at 700oC and 800oC than those densified at 900oC. The consequences of small increases in mechanical pressure during sintering on density values were significant for samples sintered at 700oC. The coercivity (Hc) of the compacts decreased significantly with increasing sintering temperature, and with increasing dwell time at sintering temperatures lower than 700oC. The sample sintered at 950oC, which contains the largest grains among the prepared samples and porous microstructure, exhibited the minimum coercivity. Unlike Hc, the remanence (Br) and saturation induction (Bsat) values were more strongly affected by the specimen density than by grain size. Br and Bsat values were found to vary linearly with sintering temperature and pressure owing to increasing density. An increase in soaking time at 800 and 900 oC, although enabling higher density, exhibited contradicting effects on Bsat values. The SPS parameters to obtain maximum density and optimum magnetic properties for Fe-50% Co alloy were found to be 900oC, 80 MPa and 2-5 minutes.
In this study, using a combined data set of SSU rDNA and gGAPDH gene sequences, we provide phylogenetic evidence that supports clustering of crocodilian trypanosomes from the Brazilian Caiman yacare (Alligatoridae) and Trypanosoma grayi, a species that circulates between African crocodiles (Crocodilydae) and tsetse flies. In a survey of trypanosomes in Caiman yacare from the Brazilian Pantanal, the prevalence of trypanosome infection was 35% as determined by microhaematocrit and haemoculture, and 9 cultures were obtained. The morphology of trypomastigotes from caiman blood and tissue imprints was compared with those described for other crocodilian trypanosomes. Differences in morphology and growth behaviour of caiman trypanosomes were corroborated by molecular polymorphism that revealed 2 genotypes. Eight isolates were ascribed to genotype Cay01 and 1 to genotype Cay02. Phylogenetic inferences based on concatenated SSU rDNA and gGAPDH sequences showed that caiman isolates are closely related to T. grayi, constituting a well-supported monophyletic assemblage (clade T. grayi). Divergence time estimates based on clade composition, and biogeographical and geological events were used to discuss the relationships between the evolutionary histories of crocodilian trypanosomes and their hosts.
In this study, we addressed the phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships of Trypanosoma vivax and related trypanosomes nested in the subgenus Duttonella through combined morphological and phylogeographical analyses. We previously demonstrated that the clade T. vivax harbours a homogeneous clade comprising West African/South American isolates and the heterogeneous East African isolates. Herein we characterized a trypanosome isolated from a nyala antelope (Tragelaphus angasi) wild-caught in Mozambique (East Africa) and diagnosed as T. vivax-like based on biological, morphological and molecular data. Phylogenetic relationships, phylogeographical patterns and estimates of genetic divergence were based on SSU and ITS rDNA sequences of T. vivax from Brazil and Venezuela (South America), Nigeria (West Africa), and from T. vivax-like trypanosomes from Mozambique, Kenya and Tanzania (East Africa). Despite being well-supported within the T. vivax clade, the nyala trypanosome was highly divergent from all other T. vivax and T. vivax-like trypanosomes, even those from East Africa. Considering its host origin, morphological features, behaviour in experimentally infected goats, phylogenetic placement, and genetic divergence this isolate represents a new genotype of trypanosome closely phylogenetically related to T. vivax. This study corroborated the high complexity and the existence of distinct genotypes yet undescribed within the subgenus Duttonella.
Blood examination by microhaematocrit and haemoculture of 459 snakes belonging to 37 species revealed 2·4% trypanosome prevalence in species of Viperidae (Crotalus durissus and Bothrops jararaca) and Colubridae (Pseudoboa nigra). Trypanosome cultures from C. durissus and P. nigra were behaviourally and morphologically indistinguishable. In addition, the growth and morphological features of a trypanosome from the sand fly Viannamyia tuberculata were similar to those of snake isolates. Cross-infection experiments revealed a lack of host restriction, as snakes of 3 species were infected with the trypanosome from C. durissus. Phylogeny based on ribosomal sequences revealed that snake trypanosomes clustered together with the sand fly trypanosome, forming a new phylogenetic lineage within Trypanosoma closest to a clade of lizard trypanosomes transmitted by sand flies†. The clade of trypanosomes from snakes and lizards suggests an association between the evolutionary histories of these trypanosomes and their squamate hosts. Moreover, data strongly indicated that these trypanosomes are transmitted by sand flies. The flaws of the current taxonomy of snake trypanosomes are discussed, and the need for molecular parameters to be adopted is emphasized. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular phylogenetic study of snake trypanosomes.
We examined for the presence of trypanosomes in blood samples from 259 anurans (47 species from 8 families), the majority of which were from the Brazilian Amazonia, Atlantic Forest and Pantanal biomes. Trypanosomes were detected by a combination of microhaematocrit and haemoculture methods in 45% of the anurans, and 87 cultures were obtained: 44 from Hylidae, 22 from Leptodactylidae, 15 from Bufonidae, 5 from Leiuperidae and 1 from an unidentified anuran. High morphological diversity (11 morphotypes) was observed among blood trypanosomes from anurans of different species and of the same species as well as among trypanosomes from the same individual. Conversely, morphologically similar trypanosomes were found in anurans from distinct species and biomes. ITS and SSU rDNA polymorphisms revealed high diversity among the 82 isolates examined.† Twenty-nine genotypes could be distinguished, the majority distributed in 11 groups. Phylogenetic relationships based on rDNA sequences indicated that isolates from more phylogenetically related anurans are more closely related. Comparison of anuran trypanosomes from Brazil and other countries revealed several new species among the isolates examined in this study. Phylogenetic relationships suggest that host restriction, host switching and overall ecogeographical structure may have played a role in the evolution of the anuran trypanosomes.
A large atmospheric field experiment STABLEDC (STudy of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Environmental at Dome C plateau station) was held at the Franco-Italian station of Concordia at Dome C during 2004–2005. The aim of the field experiment was to study the processes occurring in the long-lived stable and the weak convective atmospheric boundary layers, observed during winter and summer respectively, and to collect the relevant parameters for the atmospheric models. We used both in situ and ground based remote sensing sensors to monitor the meteorological parameters.
The thermal structure of the atmosphere and the diurnal behavior of the height of the atmospheric boundary layer, as seen by a minisodar, for a typical summer and winter day is shown. The behaviour of the surface temperature during the year evidences that, on average, the lowest surface temperatures occur in April and mid-August. Warming events were observed periodically during the winter with temperatures sometimes reaching the summer values. Average temperature profiles for each season are shown. During the winter the temperature strongly decreases in the first 100–200 m. However a detailed analysis of the potential temperature gradients evidence that generally the strongest gradients occur in a narrow layer of 10–40 m. Finally the potential to investigate the fine structure of the PBL with a high resolution minisodar, developed by ISAC/CNR, is discussed.
Much of the research done by different authors on the lattice of kernel functors (equivalently, linear topologies) has been summarized by Golan in . More recently, the rings whose lattices of kernel functors are linearly ordered were introduced in  as a categorical generalization of valuation rings in the non-commutative case. Results (and examples) in  show that there is an abundance of non-commutative rings R whose lattices (R), both in Mod-R and R-Mod, are simultaneously linearly ordered; however, the question of the symmetry of this condition remained open. Here we will prove that, for every natural number n≥3, there exists a ring Rn such that (Mod-Rn) is a linearly ordered lattice of n elements, whereas (Rn-Mod) is not linearly ordered.