Relationships between genetic merit for milk production and animal parameters and various parameters of reproductive performance were examined using multilevel binary response analysis in a study of 19 dairy herds for three successive years, representing approximately 2500 cows per year. The proportion of cows intended for rebreeding that were back in-calf again within 100 days of calving (ICR-100) and the proportion of cows that reappeared again with 365 (RR-365) and 400 days (RR-400) of a previous calving were considered in addition to the traditional measures of reproductive performance. Each 100-kg increase in genetic merit for milk yield was associated with an increased interval to first service (IFS) and calving index (CI) of 1.4 ( P < 0.001) and 1.8 days ( P < 0.001), respectively, a 0.5% increase ( P < 0.05) in calving rate to first insemination (CR-1) and 0.8% increase in RR-400. Each £10 increase in £PIN (the economically weighted yield selection index used in the UK that takes account of butterfat and protein yields) was associated with an increased IFS and CI of 1.5 ( P < 0.001) and 3.0 days ( P < 0.001), respectively. Cows with increased genetic merit for milk yield and £PIN were more likely to re-calve (RR-overall; P < 0.001). Each 1000-kg increase in 305-day milk yield was associated with an increased IFS and CI of 3.2 ( P < 0.001) and 7.8 days ( P < 0.001), respectively, and a 13.6 ( P < 0.001), 22.4 ( P < 0.001), 19.9 ( P < 0.001) and 19.0% ( P < 0.001) decrease in CR-1, ICR-100, RR-365 and RR-400, respectively. A 10-kg increase in maximum yield was associated with a 6.6-day increase in CI ( P < 0.001) and a 14.9 ( P < 0.001), 18.3 ( P < 0.001), 9.6 ( P < 0.05) and 14.2% ( P < 0.001) decrease in CR-1, ICR-100, RR-365 and RR-400, respectively. Fertility performance was also associated with season of calving, lactation number and dystocia score. Level of production had a larger effect on fertility performance than genetic merit for milk production suggesting that infertility at an individual cow level is more likely to be associated with increased production and an inability to meet the nutritional requirements of the cow.