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Annually resolved radiocarbon (14C) measurements on tree rings led to the discovery of abrupt variations in 14C production attributed to large solar flares. We present new results of annual and subannual 14C fluctuations in tree rings from a middle-latitude sequoia (California) and a high-latitude pine (Finland), analyzed for the period 1030–1080 CE, to trace a possible impact of the Crab supernova explosion, occurring during the Oort minimum of solar activity. Our results indicate an increase of Δ14C around 1054/55 CE, which we estimate is higher in magnitude than the cyclic variability due to solar activity at a 2σ significance level. The net signal appears to be synchronized in the studied locations. Several sources of this event are possible including γ-rays from the Crab supernova, an unusually weak solar minimum or a solar energetic particle incident. More data are needed to provide more insight into the origin of this 14C event.
This work presents updates in the diagnostics systems, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) calculations and simulations of microwave heating scenarios of the small modular Stellarator of Costa Rica 1 (SCR-1). Similarly, the design of a flexible bolometer and magnetic diagnostics (a set of Mirnov coils, Rogowski coils and two diamagnetic loops) are introduced. Furthermore, new MHD equilibrium calculations for the plasma of the SCR-1 device were performed using the VMEC code including the poloidal cross-section of the magnetic flux surfaces at different toroidal positions, profiles of the rotational transform, magnetic well, magnetic shear and total magnetic field norm. Charged particle orbits in vacuum magnetic field were computed by the magnetic field solver BS-SOLCTRA (Vargas et al. In 27th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2018), 2018. IAEA). A visualization framework was implemented using Paraview (Solano-Piedra et al. In 23rd IAEA Technical Meeting on the Research Using Small Fusion Devices (23rd TM RUSFD), 2017) and compared with magnetic mapping results (Coto-Vílchez et al. In 16th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), 2017, pp. 43–46). Additionally, simulations of microwave heating scenarios were performed by the IPF-FDMC full-wave code. These simulations calculate the conversion of the ordinary waves to extraordinary waves and allow us to identify the location where the conversion takes place. Finally, the microwave heating scenarios for the
toroidal position are presented. The microwave heating scenarios showed that the O–X–B mode conversion is around 12–14 %. It was possible to identify the spatial zone where the conversion takes place (upper hybrid frequency).
This article examines the succession of Maria Theresia as ‘king’ of Hungary in 1741, by questioning the notion of the ‘king's two bodies’, an interpretation that has dominated the scholarship. It argues that Maria Theresia's coming to the throne challenged both conceptions of gender and the understanding of kingship in eighteenth-century Hungary. The female body of the new ruler caused anxieties which were mitigated by the revival of the medieval rex femineus tradition as well as ancient legal procedures aiming to stress the integrity of royal power when it was granted to a woman.
We assessed the impact of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic on code stroke activations in the emergency department, stroke unit admissions, and referrals to the stroke prevention clinic at London’s regional stroke center, serving a population of 1.8 million in Ontario, Canada. We found a 20% drop in the number of code strokes in 2020 compared to 2019, immediately after the first cases of COVID-19 were officially confirmed. There were no changes in the number of stroke admissions and there was a 22% decrease in the number of clinic referrals, only after the provincial lockdown. Our findings suggest that the decrease in code strokes was mainly driven by patient-related factors such as fear to be exposed to the SARS-CoV-2, while the reduction in clinic referrals was largely explained by hospital policies and the Government lockdown.
Technological and mathematical advances have provided opportunities to investigate new approaches for the holistic quantification of complex biological systems. One objective of these approaches, including the multi-inverse deterministic approach proposed in this paper, is to deepen the understanding of biological systems through the structural development of a useful, best-fitted inverse mechanistic model. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the capacity of a deterministic approach, that is, the multi-inverse approach (MIA), to yield meaningful quantitative nutritional information. To this end, a case study addressing the effect of diet composition on sheep weight was performed using data from a previous experiment on saccharina (a sugarcane byproduct), and an inverse deterministic model (named Paracoa) was developed. The MIA successfully revealed an increase in the final weight of sheep with an increase in the percentage of corn in the diet. Although the soluble fraction also increased with increasing corn percentage, the effective nonsoluble degradation increased fourfold, indicating that the increased weight gain resulted from the nonsoluble substrate. A profile likelihood analysis showed that the potential best-fitted model had identifiable parameters, and that the parameter relationships were affected by the type of data, number of parameters and model structure. It is necessary to apply the MIA to larger and/or more complex datasets to obtain a clearer understanding of its potential.
A group of schizophrenic patients perform well in known theory of mind (ToM) tasks. Still most of them have difficulties to understand social situations in real life.
We used a new test of ToM to find out if this group of patients really have the ability to understand other people´s mental states or they might use some compensatory strategies.
49 schizophrenic patients and 38 matched control inviduals were evaluated. Participants were asked to read short stories and answer simple yes/no comprehension questions. We used three experimental conditions: “false-irony” condition (FI), “control” condition (C), and “false-irony with linguistic help” condition (FIH).
P atients with schizophrenia performed sinificantly worse than control subjects in each of the three conditions (FI:p=0.01;C:p=0.04;FIH:p=0.01). Among the 49 patients 22 did well the FIH tasks (44.89%). Among these 22 patients 12 did the FI tasks well (24.48%) and the other 10 did the FIH tasks well (20.4%).
P atients with schizophrenia performed a sinificant impairment in the new ToM test. Beside a group of patients is able to understand other people´s mental states. To understand these situations some patients probably use real mentalisation strategies, some of them can use the given linguistic help as a compensatory strategy, and some patients have difficulties in representing of the mental states of others.
Irony is a form of speech used to convey feelings in an indirect way. Patients with schizophrenia demonstrated an impaired irony processing, associated with poor theory of mind.
We used fMRI to examine neural circuitry underlying deficits in understanding irony in schizophrenia.
11 right-handed patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 11 right-handed healthy subjects were studied. Participants were asked to listen short scenarios. The 15 irony condition consisted an ironic statement, and the 15 control condition was physical causality. We used an event-related design. Every scenario started with a two sentences long context, followed by a 2-4 s (jittered) inter-stimulus interval. The third, critical ironic sentence appeared next, and finally a simple yes/no comprehension question followed. Between trials an inter-trial interval of 5-7 s (jittered) were used.
The schizophrenic group performed significantly worse in the irony condition than the control group (p=0.0008). Ironic statements resulted in significant activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and insula, right superior and medial frontal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, posterior division of right superior and left middle temporal gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left cuneus and right inferior parietal lobule in the schizophrenic group. The control group showed significantly greater activity in the left IFG and insula compared to the schizophrenic group.
Among schizophrenic patients we found a significant underactivation in the left IFG and insula during irony comprehension, which may contribute to the impairements of social behavior in schizophrenia.
Theory of mind (ToM) has been proved to play a crucial role in social cognition and functioning. In our study, higher order mentalization performance of euthymic bipolar I patients were compared with that of healthy controls. The impact of demographic data, course of the disorder and patients’ current functioning were also considered while interpreting mentalization data.
The mentalizing performance (computerized faux pas task and false irony task), neurocognitive functioning, and IQ of twenty-three euthymic bipolar I patients and 31 matched (IQ, age) healthy controls were examined. In the patients group, the age at onset, the occurrence of psychotic symptoms, age, education, current employment status, and global functioning were also taken into account.
Bipolar patients scored significantly lower in false irony tasks than healthy controls (p< 0,02). The deficit in irony tasks positively correlated with the number of episodes. Among the examined variables, the performance in the faux pas task predicted most closely the functional outcome in bipolar I disorder. No correlation was found between the ToM and irony deficits and the occurrence of psychotic symptoms, the length of the bipolar disorder or neurocognitive functioning.
Our results showed impaired performance in faux pas and irony tasks, which correlates with the number of previous episodes. Additionally, the impairment of ToM functions predicts a worse functional outcome.
Deficits of social cognition are a relevant predictor of functioning and outcome. Several studies have found that euthymic bipolar patients perform worse in social cognition tasks than healthy controls. Some data show a higher relapse risk in bipolar patients with concomitant mentalization deficits. However, relatively little is known about the neurobiological base of these deficits.
12 euthymic bipolar I patients and 14 age- and IQ-matched healthy controls underwent event-related functional MRI study while performing 15 irony, and 15 control tasks (auditory stimulus) in the scanner. Both within group (irony versus control task) and random effects between group analyses were performed on fMRI data.
Bipolar patients were significantly compromised in their ability to appropriately answer irony tasks. Bipolar patients showed a reduced activation in right cingulate, right anterior paracingulate cortex, right precuneus, left superior parietal lobule, left hippocampus, left insula in comparison to healthy controls. However, bipolar patients brain activation was significantly increased in the left inferior frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and left secondary somatosensory cortex.
The findings of this neuroimaging study suggest that euthymic bipolar patients are restricted in their ability to mentalize fully. They show less activation in brain regions involved in mental imaginery, emotional processing and self-representation. Therefore, bipolar patients have difficulties in understanding others’ intentions and emotions, which impacts on interpersonal relationships and the functional outcome.
Irony is a form of speech used to convey feelings in an indirect way. Schizophrenic patients usually demonstrate impaired irony processing, associated with poor theory of mind.
We used fMRI to examine neural circuitry underlying deficits in understanding irony in schizophrenia.
21 schizophrenic patients and 24 healthy subjects were studied. Short scenarios and three conditions were used: irony condition (IC), irony with linguistic help condition (IHC), and control condition (CC). We used event-related design. Scenarios started with a contextual part, followed by a 2–4s ISI. The ironic sentence appeared next, and a question followed. Between trials an ITI of 5–7s were used.
Patients performed significantly worse in the conditions (IC:p = 0.0003;IHC:p = 0.0034;CC:p = 0.0036). In the IC: patients activated the left insula, left anterior cingulum, right and left superior frontal gyrus (SFG), right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) during the contextual part, and activated the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and right superior temporal gyrus during the statement. In the IHC: patients activated the left precuneus, left IFG, left SFG, left and right MFG, right cuneus and left MTG during the context, and activated right SFG and left posterior cingulum during the statement.
Patients probably have an abnormal contextual processing and a missing activation of the theory of mind network during the interpretation of ironic statements. The given linguistic help proved to be efficient help for many patients in processing the context correctly, and in understanding ironic situations more successfully.
Déterminer si l’emploi addictif des nouvelles technologies (Internet – Jeux vidéo – Téléphone portable – Télévision) par les adolescents pourrait partager la même cause que celle qu’on observe dans les troubles alimentaires et dans les troubles d’externalisation, avec des altérations dans l’impulsivité, et partager également la même dysfonction neuropsychologique.
Introduction et objet
Les nouvelles technologies fournissent une meilleure qualité de vie, le problème est leur potentiel de dépendance surtout chez les adolescents souffrant de troubles du contrôle des impulsions, en particulier des troubles alimentaires et des troubles d’externalisation.
Il s’agit d’une étude descriptive et comparative. Le diagnostic s’établit selon notre protocole (DSM-IV/CIE-10), et selon l’application de trois instruments différents : BIS.11 (Barratt-échelle-de-l’impulsivité), DENA (questionnaire-de-dépistage-des-nouvelles addictions), IAT (Test-d’Addiction-à-l’Internet). La population a été divisée en deux groupes : les troubles de l’alimentation (n = 10) et les troubles d’externalisation (n = 10), dans la fourchette d’âge 12 à 17 ans, dans nos centres-d’ITA.
Les résultats ont démontré que le modèle de l’impulsivité est plus élevé chez les adolescents atteints de troubles de l’externalisation que chez ceux souffrant de troubles alimentaires. Les deux groupes avaient une tendance similaire dans l’utilisation des nouvelles technologies.
L’usage et l’abus potentiel des nouvelles technologies est similaire chez les adolescents hospitalisés pour troubles de l’alimentation et ceux hospitalisés pour pathologies liées à des troubles d’externalisation, ouvrant une zone problématique : celle de la canalisation de l’impulsivité dans l’emploi des nouvelles technologies. Il est nécessaire de mener à terme des recherches avec plus de population d’appui, ce qui pourrait fournir des lignes directrices en faveur d’une approche clinique.
Eating disorders, represented in the spanish adolescent population a prevalence of 3,5% to 5,5% (Labrador-and-Raich.2007), increasing day by day in our treatment centres. Multiple diseases are based on the pattern of Impulsivity, which must be studied in their overall comorbidity, because the general approach to their differents etiologies, could have a focus on a Unique Therapeutic Plan (UTP).
There is a high comorbidity between the Impulsivity seen in Eating Disorders(ED) such as Bulimia Nervosa, Obesity, Binge(ED), Pica, among others, and externalizing disorders, because of their low tolerance to frustraction and low awareness of delimit, and many times there is also the presence of disorders related to substance use.
Demostrate by reviewing a case, the diagnostic comorbidity between Bulimia Nervosa and one type to Attention Déficit Disorder with Hyperactivity, associated with a pattern of substance abuse, with the same effective psychoterapeutic and psychofarmacological treatment, and demostrading, the posible same Neurobiological root.
Adolescent with 16 years old, with four years ago of hyporexia, vomits and binge, with hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. (BMI=17), in the context of greater family dysfunction and school bullying. There was cannabis abuse. He had received treatment with antipsychotics, antidepressives and mood stabilizers. By age 14, he was diagnosticated of Bulimia Nervosa in comorbidity with Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity in the Eating Disorders Institute(ITA). The new psychopharmacological treatment was with Methylphenidate, but he had tachycardia, also it suspend, and started Atomoxetine, associated with psychotherapeutic management and family therapy. Now the evolution is excellent(CHIP-AE), and there is absence of substance use over 12 months.
The eating disorders, with impulse control deficits, keep high etiopathogenic relationship with externalizing disorders-ADHD-, and could be effective the same psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological treatment.
The endophenotype concept of schizophrenia represents an important approach in the exploration of the neurobiology of the illness. An important characteristic of an endophenotype, that it can be found among the healthy, first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.
We evaluated two systematic reviews of studies on two potential endophenotypes (theory of mind and informative morphogenetic variants) to confirm the possibility of them as biological and cognitive markers of the illness.
We planned to explore data from theory of mind and informative morphogenetic variant studies among the relatives of schizophrenia patients.
We evaluated two researches of studies published in PubMed, Medline,Web of Science and PsycINFO between the period of 1968 and 2014 (informative morphogenetic variants studies) and 1980 and 2014 (theory of mind studies).
11 studies on the appearence of informative morphogenetic variants in the relatives of schizophrenia patients were found with mixed results, while 15 studies and two meta-analyses were analysed on theory of mind studies among the first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia,the exploration of the latter studies showed also diverse findings.
Futher research is needed to clarify theory of mind and informative morphogentic variant alternations as endophenotypic markers of schizophrenia.
Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the National Brain Research Program Grant no. NAP KTIA NAP-A-II/12.
Emotional dysregulation is a characteristic present in many child adolescent mental pathologies. It can be found in Eating disorders(ED), and in the bipolar spectrum too. Highlighting similarities between a softer bipolar spectrum in its sub-threshold forms and eating disorders syndromes and sub-syndromes in adolescents.
Evaluate the emotional dysregulation (measured by the HCL-32),and eating habits (measured through the BEDS),in a population with:ED.
This is a transversal, observational study in a group of 40 patients between 12 and 19 years of age, all of whom were diagnosed with ED before they turned 18 and receive inpatient treatment. The group was divided into two subgroups: Group-I:Anorexia Nervosa-AN (n=17), and Group-II: Bulimia Nervosa-BN (n=23). They were evaluated with two scales: Hypomanic Checklist (HCL-32) and Barcelona-Bipolar-Eating-Disorder-Scale(BEDS); with different clinical and sociodemographic characteristics.
Group I-AN showed higher scores in HCL-32, which was not correlated with the BEDS total score. Group-II presented high scores in HCL-32,showing a positive correlation with the BEDS total score (r=0,518;p=0,011), mainly in the subscale symptoms of hypomania associated with a lack of inhibition, self-control and attentional capacity.(r=0,461;p=0,027).
Emotional dysregulation is a factor to be considered in the diagnosis and clinical management of patients with ED, and may imply other comorbid conditions. Furthermore,Bulimia Nervosa,especially in cases with emotional dysregulation could be related to hypomania or a bipolar spectrum.
BEDS Scale may be related to emotional dysregulation in patients diagnosed with Bulimia Nervosa and high score in the scale of hypomania HCL-32, not so for the Anorexia Nervosa.
Determine if the use of new technology (The Internet-Videogames-Mobile Phones-TV) by adolescents, could share the same pattern, even adiction, as seen in eating disorders-ED, and externalizing disorders.
Introduccion and Purpose
New technology provides a better quality of life. The problem is their addictive potential for adolescents, and about all, in young people with impulse control disorders, such as eating disorders (bulimia Nervosa, obesity, binge disorder, pica, e.g) and externalizing disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, e.g) in the Institute of Trastorns Alimentaris-ITA, and our program ITA-Conduct.
This is a descriptive-comparative study, with diagnosis, according to our protocol(DSM-IV/CIE-10), and the application of four individual instruments: BIS.11 (Barratt-Impulsiveness-Scale),DENA(Screening Questionnaire of New-Addiction),IAT (Internet-Addiction-Test), and PVP (Problem-Video-Game-Playing). The population was divided into two groups:Eating Disorders(n=12) and Externalizing Disorders(n=14), within the ages of 12 to 17 years old, at our Argentona and Barcelona Centers, in treatment inpatient.
There is not significative differences in the Impulsivity(cognitive, motor and unplanned)among ED and externalizing-disorders. The unplanned impulsivity is associated with higher scoring in trials to Internet Addiction and Video-Game-Play. The mobil-phone use is higher in ED.
The use and potential abuse of new technology is similar in adolescents hospitalized for Eating Disooders and pathologies related to Externalizing Disorders, providing a problematic area: channeling symptoms without a proper approach of its implications.
Pragmatic language skills were examined in schizophrenia patients compared to IQ-matched control subjects measured by the decoding of the flouting of the four Gricean maxims.
19 schizophrenic patients and 19 matched controls were evaluated. Five experimental conditions (all included four stories) were used, such as „quantity maxim” (QNM) condition, „quality maxim” (QLM) condition, „relevance maxim” (RM) condition, „manner maxim” (MM) condition and "control” (C) condition. An investigator presented the stories and asked for the hidden communicative intentions. PANSS scores and general intelligence were also measured.
Patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse than controls in each of the conditions containig the flouting of the Gricean maxims. The response accuracy in the C condition was not differed significantly between the two groups (QNM:p< 0.001; QLM:p< 0.001; RM:p< 0.001; MM:p< 0.001; C:p=0.487). Significant positive correlations were found between QLM and IQ (p< 0.001) and between RM and IQ (p=0.025), and there was no significant correlatios between PANSS scores and response accuracy. Full scale IQ was not differed significantly between the two groups (p=0.095).
We found that a complex pragmatic language deficit exists in schizophrenia. The impairment do not seem to have a relationship with symptom severity. Besides, it seems, that good intellectual function supports pragmatic language skills in schizophrenia.
Pseudocyesis is a rare condition in which a non-pregnant patient believes to bear a child due to psychological or somatic manifestations,or even both.Usually,there is a misinterpretation of body changes associated with emotional aspect of pregnancy or thought disorders(or chronic mental disorders),what makes pseudopregnancy a complex disorder to deal with,starting with its confusing classification in the DSM IV-TR.
To document epidemiologic aspects of false pregnancies in a Brazilian population, reporting the most prevalent psychiatric diagnosis and demographic features associated, and compare it to the literature.
Retrospective study of 20 patients diagnosed with pseudocyesis over a ten-year period in 3 hospitals of a Brazilian central region.Compare data with studies on sociodemographic, clinic, biological and evolutive correlates of pseudocyesis in PubMed.
The mean age was 33, with the majority between 20–44. The symptomology matches the literature.Of the women, 15 (83%) were in the reproductive age, but 8 (44%) of them were infertil. Two male patients with pseudocyesis had a typical psychiatric presentation. The psychiatric diagnosis were: 9(45%) affective disorders, 9(45%) psychotic disorders, 1 (2,5%) Huntington‘s Disease and 1 (2,5%) epilepsy.
In terms of Brazil, this is an unique study of the subject, with the greatest data collected so far. We found many similarities,including age, socioeconomic status, symptoms, underlying disorders and history. And we notted the frequency of psychiatric disorders in those patients (specially Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia)
A growing host is currently evident in young people all about sports culture where interest in body image and a strong cult of the body whose main purpose in many cases prevails is to achieve aesthetic purposes based body models of society, which may be related to an increase in risk eating behaviors and habits of excessive exercise. This research aims to examine the possible presence of three variables: eating behavior, aesthetics models and body image in male college gym users and nonusers. The variables were evaluated by applying Inventory eating disorder EDI 2, which measures the presence of symptoms associated with eating disorders. The Adonis complex Questionnaire which is used to assess the degree of concern about physical appearance and The Questionnaire Body Influences of Aesthetic Model CIMEC-40 which evaluates the internalization of cultural aesthetic ideals. The sample consists of 50 subjects, aged 18 and 24 years, students from the one University of the city of Monteria – Colombia.
The results indicate that the user group show greater trend scales obsession with thinness and social insecurity than non-users, like greater influence of verbal messages regarding the cultural aesthetic models, however none of the groups expresses serious or pathological concern about body image.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.