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Enhance adherence to treatment is one of the main objectives in psychiatric clinical practice. The aim of this study is to evaluate changes in the use of oral antipsychotic medication, the use of rehabilitation resources and the number and duration of income in Psychiatric Inpatient Unit, comparing one year before and one year after RLAI's introduction, in patients with different psychiatric disorders, followed up by Mental Health Center and have maintained adherence to treatment for a defined period. We performed an observational, retrospective study by reviewing medical records of patients in ambulatory monitoring. The sample consisted of all patients (112) who had maintained RLAI treatment for a year, excluding those who did not fulfill the guideline correctly (14), remaining n = 98. We included patients of various pathologies, establishing groups as qualitative variables (F.20 = 56; F.25 = 12; F.22–28 = 20; F.60 = 10); of both sexes (V = 71; M = 27) and all ages. The preliminary results obtained showed a greater use of rehabilitation resources and decreased use of oral antipsychotics.
By using strontium isotopic ratios of dental enamel from molars, we were able to reconstruct the migration context for three individuals of a Columbian mammoth population (Mammuthus columbi) around Laguna de las Cruces, San Luis Potosí, central México. A three-step leaching procedure was applied to eliminate secondary Sr contributions in the molar enamel. One of the studied individuals showed 87Sr/86Sr ratios similar to those obtained from soils and plants from Laguna de las Cruces and was identified as local, whereas the other two mammoths had different molar 87Sr/86Sr values, indicative of migration and mobility contexts.
The objective of this work was to develop a field method for the determination of labile organic carbon in hyper-arid desert soils. Industry standard methods rely on expensive analytical equipment that are not possible to take into the field, while scientific challenges require fast turn-around of large numbers of samples in order to characterize the soils throughout this region. Here we present a method utilizing acid-hydrolysis extraction of the labile fraction of organic carbon followed by potassium permanganate oxidation, which provides a quick and inexpensive approach to investigate samples in the field. Strict reagent standardization and calibration steps within this method allowed the determination of very low levels of organic carbon in hyper-arid soils, in particular, with results similar to those determined by the alternative methods of Calcination and Pyrolysis–Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry. Field testing of this protocol increased the understanding of the role of organic materials in hyper-arid environments and allowed real-time, strategic decision making for planning for more detailed laboratory-based analysis.
The emergence of human and animal rabies in Bali since November 2008 has attracted local, national and international interest. The potential origin and time of introduction of rabies virus to Bali is described. The nucleoprotein (N) gene of rabies virus from dog brain and human clinical specimens was sequenced using an automated DNA sequencer. Phylogenetic inference with Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis using the Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis by Sampling Trees (BEAST) v. 1.7.5 software confirmed that the outbreak of rabies in Bali was caused by an Indonesian lineage virus following a single introduction. The ancestor of Bali viruses was the descendant of a virus from Kalimantan. Contact tracing showed that the event most likely occurred in early 2008. The introduction of rabies into a large unvaccinated dog population in Bali clearly demonstrates the risk of disease transmission for government agencies and should lead to an increased preparedness and efforts for sustained risk reduction to prevent such events from occurring in future.
In recent years, the interest among the research community in sentiment analysis (SA) has grown exponentially. It is only necessary to see the number of scientific publications and forums or related conferences to understand that this is a field with great prospects for the future. On the other hand, the Twitter boom has boosted investigation in this area due fundamentally to its potential applications in areas such as business or government intelligence, recommender systems, graphical interfaces and virtual assistance. However, to fully understand this issue, a profound revision of the state of the art is first necessary. It is for this reason that this paper aims to represent a starting point for those investigations concerned with the latest references to Twitter in SA.
Values for δ13C and δ18O obtained from molar samples from three individuals pertaining to Glyptotherium sp. from Cedral (San Luis Potosí, México) are provided and are utilized to infer general aspects of glyptodont diet and habitat. On average this animal showed a C3/C4 mixed diet, with a high consumption of C4 plants. Comparisons of the δ13CVPDB and δ18OVPDB values for glyptodonts with horses, mastodons, mammoths and tapirs from the same locality show that glyptodonts from Cedral lived in an open habitat.
The potential effect of forest type on the structuring of animal communities in western Amazonia remains poorly understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that amphibian species richness, composition and abundance differ across forest types in the lowland rain forest of south-eastern Peru. By using 320 individual transects, we compared the amphibian assemblages across four major forest types (floodplain, terra firme, bamboo and palm swamp) at each of four sites separated by 3.5–105 km. We identified 1967 individuals of 65 species in 11 families and found that a large proportion of the amphibian diversity in this region is attributed to habitat-related beta diversity. Overall, we found that forest type is more important than site in predicting both species composition and abundance. We also found that, when analyses are conducted separately for each forest type and include species abundance data, similarity between assemblages decreases with increasing geographic distance. In contrast to studies that considered species presence/absence but ignored species abundances, our results highlight the importance of including abundance data in the assessment of animal diversity patterns in western Amazonia. We conclude that evaluating community structure across forest types can improve our understanding of diversity patterns in this region.
Two species of Proctoeces Odhner, 1911 have been described in marine organisms from Chile: P. humboldti George-Nascimento & Quiroga (1983), parasitizing the gonads of keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.), and P. chilensis Oliva (1984), an intestinal parasite of Sicyases sanguineus (Teleostei); both species were subsequently considered as P. lintoni Siddiqi & Cable (1960). To assist in the resolution of the taxonomic identification of Proctoeces species in marine organisms from Chile, phylogenetic studies using DNA sequences from the V4 region of the SSU rRNA gene were performed. Several specimens of P. lintoni were isolated from keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.) and clingfish (S. sanguineus) from Bahia San Jorge (23°40′S) and Bahia Concepción (36°50′S). Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using three different approaches: a neighbour-joining (NJ), a maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). The phylogenetic analysis confirms that specimens of Proctoeces obtained from keyhole limpets and those specimens from the clingfish are in fact the same species. We prefer to consider our specimens as Proctoeces cf. lintoni, as the morphology of Proctoeces appears to be of doubtful value and genetic information about P. lintoni Siddiqi & Cable (1960) is not available. In addition, our results strongly suggest that there are at least three species in this genus.
Parasites have been used successfully as biological tags in population studies, mainly in marine fishes, but also in marine mammals, crustaceans and molluscs. Almost all published information dealing with parasites as biological tags evaluates differences between localities. However, local variability in the component community has not been assessed. In this work, we examined whether local variation of the metazoan parasite fauna of Engraulis ringens, extracted from five independent samples from two nearby localities in northern Chile, can be a factor causing bias in stock identification. Our results show that local variability, as estimated by a single sample, may suffice to represent component community variability with no need for replicated data.
This paper provides a new explanation for the persistent land degradation in some parts of the world, despite the availability of seemingly effective soil conservation technologies. We demonstrate that soil conservation technologies may induce agricultural systems to exhibit equilibria characterized by both low and high levels of soil degradation. These two equilibria are separated by a threshold level of soil degradation beyond which a conservation investment will not yield a positive return. Once a parcel of land crosses this productivity threshold, soil degradation becomes economically irreversible (it is not profitable to invest in soil conservation) even though the degradation may be technically reversible. A case study of terracing investments in Peru is used to demonstrate the existence of multiple equilibria under conditions typical of many marginal agricultural areas. These findings help explain why attempts to encourage permanent adoption of soil conservation practices often fail, and how more successful policies could be designed.
Acrosin, an acrosomal serine protease, has been associated with binding of spermatozoa and their penetration through the zona pellucida. This study was aimed at determining whether the remaining proacrosin/acrosin system on rabbit perivitelline spermatozoa still has proteolytic activity and whether this activity is involved in further penetration of unfertilised rabbit eggs. Eight hundred and sixty-five rabbit perivitelline spermatozoa were evaluated by the gelatin-substrate film technique for the detection of acrosin on individual spermatozoan. Fifteen per cent of the studied spermatozoa showed small digestion halos on the gelatin film. The proteolytic activity of rabbit perivitelline spermatozoa was inhibited in the presence of 1 mg/ml of soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) or with 20 μg/ml of a mixture of the monoclonal anti-proacrosin/acrosin antibody. In vitro fertilisation occurred in 21.8% of rabbit oocytes co-incubated with perivitelline spermatozoa and was completely inhibited when oocytes were incubated with 600 μg/ml of a mixture of three anti-acrosin monoclonal antibodies (ACRO-A8C10, ACRO-C2B10 and ACRO-C5F10). Inseminations in the presence of anti-cholera monoclonal antibody (irrelevant to spermatozoa) resulted in 17.6% fertilisation. These results support the idea that the residual proacrosin/acrosin system in perivitelline spermatozoa might be involved in spermatozoal binding and/or second penetration through the zona pellucida.
In this paper we prove that if the strong dual of an echelon space fulfils the Mackey convergence condition the echelon space is quasi-normable. Also we give a characterisation of the quasi-normable echelon spaces and we deduce that every non-quasi-normable echelon space is the strong dual of a non-complete (LB)-space.