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Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) display cognitive deficits in acutely depressed and remitted states. Childhood maltreatment is associated with cognitive dysfunction in adults, but its impact on cognition and treatment related cognitive outcomes in adult MDD has received little consideration. We investigate whether, compared to patients without maltreatment and healthy participants, adult MDD patients with childhood maltreatment display greater cognitive deficits in acute depression, lower treatment-associated cognitive improvements, and lower cognitive performance in remission.
Healthy and acutely depressed MDD participants were enrolled in a multi-center MDD predictive marker discovery trial. MDD participants received 16 weeks of standardized antidepressant treatment. Maltreatment and cognition were assessed with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse interview and the CNS Vital Signs battery, respectively. Cognitive scores and change from baseline to week 16 were compared amongst MDD participants with (DM+, n = 93) and without maltreatment (DM−, n = 90), and healthy participants with (HM+, n = 22) and without maltreatment (HM−, n = 80). Separate analyses in MDD participants who remitted were conducted.
DM+ had lower baseline global cognition, processing speed, and memory v. HM−, with no significant baseline differences amongst DM−, HM+, and HM− groups. There were no significant between-group differences in cognitive change over 16 weeks. Post-treatment remitted DM+, but not remitted DM−, scored significantly lower than HM− in working memory and processing speed.
Childhood maltreatment was associated with cognitive deficits in depressed and remitted adults with MDD. Maltreatment may be a risk factor for more severe and persistent cognitive deficits in adult MDD.
X-ray windows are used in sources and detectors to separate the neighborhood of the x-ray generation or detection from the use environment. While each use has its own requirements, there are some principles that should be used in designing an optimal x-ray window. Because x rays are absorbed to some extent by all materials, minimizing absorption is one criterion in preparing windows. Also, for most uses there is a pressure difference across the window so that ensuring pinhole-free structure and sufficient mechanical strength to support the differential is another criterion for window design. Traditionally, absorption, is minimized by fabricating the window with lower atomic number (low Z) elements such as Be, B or C. However, the wavelength (energy) region of interest becomes a very important complicating factor.
Major depressive disorder is associated with significant impairment in occupational functioning and reduced productivity, which represents a large part of the overall burden of depression.
To examine symptom-based and work functioning outcomes with combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy treatment of major depressive disorder.
Employed patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder were treated with escitalopram 10–20mg/day and randomised to: (a) telephone-administered cognitive-behavioural therapy (telephone CBT) (n = 48); or (b) adherence-reminder telephone calls (n = 51). Outcomes included the Montgomery-åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), administered by masked evaluators via telephone, and self-rated work functioning scales completed online. (Registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00702598.)
After 12 weeks, there were no significant between-group differences in change in MADRS score or in response/remission rates. However, participants in the telephone-CBT group had significantly greater improvement on some measures of work functioning than the escitalopram-alone group.
Combined treatment with escitalopram and telephone- administered CBT significantly improved some self-reported work functioning outcomes, but not symptom-based outcomes, compared with escitalopram alone.
To examine the relationship between intake of whole grains and BMI Z-score in rural children.
General linear models and logistic regression were used to examine the cross-sectional associations between whole grain intake and BMI Z-score, prevalence and odds ratios of overweight and obesity. Dietary intake was assessed using the Block Food Screener for ages 2–17 years. Children were classified into three categories according to servings of whole grain intake: <1·0 serving/d, 1·0–1·5 servings/d and >1·5 servings/d.
The CHANGE (Creating Healthy, Active and Nurturing Growing-up Environments) study, an obesity prevention intervention in elementary schools in eight rural US communities in California, Mississippi, Kentucky and South Carolina.
Seven hundred and ninety-two children attending 3rd–6th grade.
After adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, physical activity and state of residence, whole grain intake was inversely associated with BMI Z-score (0·90 v. 0·61 in the lowest v. the highest whole grain intake category; P trend = 0·01). Children who consumed >1·5 servings of whole grains/d had a 40 % lower risk of being obese (OR = 0·60; 95 % CI 0·38, 0·95, P = 0·02) compared with children who consumed <1·0 serving/d. Further adjustment for potential dietary predictors of body weight (fruit, vegetable and dairy intakes) did not change the observed associations.
Increasing the intake of whole grains as part of an overall healthy lifestyle may be beneficial for children to achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
The Dawn spacecraft orbited Asteroid (4) Vesta for a year, and returned disk-resolved images and spectra covering visible and near-infrared wavelengths at scales as high as 20 m/pix. The visible geometric albedo of Vesta is ~ 0.36. The disk-integrated phase function of Vesta in the visible wavelengths derived from Dawn approach data, previous ground-based observations, and Rosetta OSIRIS observations is consistent with an IAU H-G phase law with H=3.2 mag and G=0.28. Hapke's modeling yields a disk-averaged single-scattering albedo of 0.50, an asymmetry factor of -0.25, and a roughness parameter of ~20 deg at 700 nm wavelength. Vesta's surface displays the largest albedo variations observed so far on asteroids, ranging from ~0.10 to ~0.76 in geometric albedo in the visible wavelengths. The phase function of Vesta displays obvious systematic variations with respect to wavelength, with steeper slopes within the 1- and 2-micron pyroxene bands, consistent with previous ground-based observations and laboratory measurement of HED meteorites showing deeper bands at higher phase angles. The relatively high albedo of Vesta suggests significant contribution of multiple scattering. The non-linear effect of multiple scattering and the possible systematic variations of phase function with albedo across the surface of Vesta may invalidate the traditional algorithm of applying photometric correction on airless planetary surfaces.
Single phase multifunctional materials such as Pb(Fe0.5 Nb0.5)O3 (PFN), where ferroelectric and magnetic order coexist, are very promising and have great interest from the academic and technological points of view. PFN ceramics have been prepared from different kinds of FeNbO4 precursors with either monoclinic or orthorhombic structures. Crystallographic, compositional and surface morphological studies and the temperature-frequency response carried out and reported in previous works are summarized. Ferroelectric hysteretic, magnetic and magnetoelectric behaviors were measured. The remanent polarization (Pr) and coercive field (EC) as functions of temperature and external electric fields (Eext) were determined. Measurements of magnetic susceptibility (χm) exhibited antiferromagnetic order and, above the Núel point near 122 °K, Curie–Weis behavior; whereas a weak ferromagnetic observed from electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is discussed. However, magnetoelectric effects were not observed. Ferroelectric and magnetic behaviors, as functions of the kind of precursor used in the preparation, are discussed and correlated with the previous dielectric characterization where microstructural and equivalent circuit models were established using the impedance spectroscopy technique.
PbZr0.53Ti0.4703 doped with 0.6% at. of Gd2O3 has been produced following the traditional solid state reaction technique. The ferro-paraelectric transition temperature is reduced from 386 °C to 352 °C. Remnant polarization and coercive field measurements were made from the hysteresis loops obtained at 23 °C and at different applied electric fields up to a maximum of 17 kV/cm. Piezoelectric performance was studied in the 4 Hz to 4 MHz frequency range at 25 °C and the radial electromechanical coupling factor was determined. A detailed electrical conductivity study in the 30-450 °C temperature range is performed in a wide frequency interval. The different participating transport mechanisms are elucidated and the corresponding activation energies were determined by fitting the experimental data. In particular, in the 30 to 300 °C temperature interval, the ac conductivity follows Jonscher universal relaxation law.
Porous silica glasses have been prepared using an HF-catalyzed tetraethoxysilane(TEOS)-ethanol-water formulation. The optical and physical properties of these glasses, which find use as host matrices for optical organic dyes, can be further improved with the addition of 1,3,5-trioxane to the sol-gel chemical system. In order to understand the effect of trioxane, the time-dependent concentrations of the species involved in TEOS hydrolysis and condensation have been followed by Raman, FT-IR, and NMR spectroscopie methods in both HF-catalyzed TEOS-ethanol-water systems with and without trioxane.
We report on the low temperature growth of heteropolytype junctions of 3C-SiC on 6H-SiC by low pressure chemical vapor deposition. In this work we have observed the epitaxial layers to be single crystal below a critical thickness limit which depends on growth temperature. Films thicker than this limit are polycrystalline. At 1150 C we have found the critical thickness to be approximately 2500 angstroms.
We report the first growth of InSb and GaAs epilayers upon a garnet (YIG = Y3Fe5O12) epilayer. The YIG was deposited using liquid phase epitaxy on a garnet (GGG = Gd3Ga5O12) substrate oriented in the  direction. The growth of the GaAs was carried out using laser ablation and no superlattice was used to buffer the lattice mismatch between YIG and GaAs. The growth of InSb was done by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. From x-ray diffraction analysis it was found that the GaAs and InSb were both (110) monocrystalline epitaxial layers.
The variation of luminescence parameters with the tin dopant concentration is considered in GaAs epitaxial layers. It is shown that at typical growth conditions and absence of contamination the deep accepters are generated by self material so that the compensation coefficient (K=Na/Nd) of 0.25 is constant up to critical electron concentration of 2.1018cm−3. The self-compensation is realized by native point defect ofattice which is gallium vacancy. The gallium vacancy is arranged next to the every fourth donor at the distance of 7 A.
In this study, photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy and x-ray rocking curves measurements were used to study the variation in strain configuration, defect propagation, structural properties and direct electronic transition energies in Sim Gen superlattices (SL) and nearly relaxed Si1−x Gex buffer layers grown on < 100 > Si as a function of annealing temperature. The in-plane (a│) and perpendicular (a┴) lattice constants of the alloy buffer layers are found to vary only slightly with anneal temperature, TA, up to a temperature To. For TA To, the in-plane strain changed from roughly zero a│ ≈ a┴ (relaxed) or a┴ > a│ (compressive) to a┴ > a│ (tensile). This change in strain configuration is believed to be caused by the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the epilayer and the Si substrate. The anneal temperature T0 is also correlated with the disappearance of higher order x-ray harmonics from the SL. This point was also correlated with a large energy shift and broadening of the PR spectra from the SL. The shift in energy of the PR spectra is explained in terms of the interdiffusion of Si and Ge at SL heterointerfaces, and to a lesser degree, the strain induced by the above mentioned difference in thermal expansion coefficients. The PR spectra of the alloy E0 transitions are also observed to shift to higher energy with increasing TA.