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In this proceeding paper, we introduce the recent results of Galactic maser astrometry by mainly focusing on those obtained with Japanese VLBI array VERA. So far we have obtained parallaxes for 86 sources including preliminary results, and combination with the data obtained with VLBA/BeSSeL provides astrometric results for 159 sources. With these most updated results we conduct preliminary determinations of Galactic fundamental parameters, obtaining R0 = 8.16 ± 0.26 kpc and Θ0 = 237 ± 8 km/s. We also derive the rotation curve of the Milky Way Galaxy and confirm the previous results that the rotation curve is fairly flat between 5 kpc and 16 kpc, while a remarkable deviation is seen toward the Galactic center region. In addition to the results on the Galactic structure, we also present brief overviews on other science topics related to masers conducted with VERA, and also discuss the future prospect of the project.
It is now firmly established that a small anisotropy of the galactic cosmic rays exists, observable from Earth as a variation of intensity in sidereal time. The problem now is to determine more clearly the characteristics of the anisotropy and, in particular, its detailed spatial structure and how it depends upon the energy and composition of the cosmic rays. This is a very difficult task and, in the final analysis, may not be fully achievable from Earth-based observations. The purpose of the present paper is to describe briefly an installation now operating in Tasmania to provide further information on the spatial structure of the anisotropy.
The phase equilibrium and oxidation behavior of the disilicides that form in the Nb-Cr-Si ternary system have been investigated. Although NbSi2 and CrSi2 both exhibit a C40 crystal structure, they form separate ranges of compositional homogeneity in the ternary system. Their phase boundaries at 1300 °C have been experimentally determined in this study. The binary NbSi2 exhibited poor oxidation resistance, showing pest-like behavior during oxidation at temperature above 800 °C. In contrast, the alloys containing Cr showed much better oxidation resistance up to 1200 °C.
Evidence suggests that breastfeeding during infancy lowers the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its attendant risk factors in adult life. To investigate the influence of feeding type on the risk factors of MS, we assessed insulin sensitivity and lipid and apolipoprotein metabolism in preterm infants. Blood samples were collected from preterm infants at the time of discharge. Infants were separated into two groups: a breast milk (BM) group receiving ⩾90% of their intake from BM, and a mixed-fed (MF) group receiving ⩾50% of their intake from formula. The following indices were then compared between the two groups. Blood glucose and serum insulin levels were used to calculate the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). We also measured serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), apolipoprotein-A1 (apoA1) and apolipoprotein-B (apoB) levels, and the ratios of TC/HDLc, LDLc/HDLc and apoB/apoA1. The mean gestational age was 32.9 weeks at birth, and blood samples were collected at a mean corrected age of 37.4 weeks. There were 22 infants in the BM group and 19 in the MF group. QUICKI was significantly higher in the BM group. TC, HDLc and apoA1 were not significantly different between the groups, but LDLc and apoB levels were significantly higher in the BM group. The TC/HDLc, LDLc/HDLc and apoB/apoA1 ratios were significantly higher in the BM group. In preterm infants, the type of feeding exposure in the early postnatal period may influence glucose, lipid and apolipoprotein metabolism, and affect markers of MS.
Structure-related ionization energy (IE) of vacuum-deposited titanyl-phthalocyanine (OTiPc) thin films was investigated by using in situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray diffractometry. Distinct molecular orientations (i.e. lying-flat and standing-up orientation) in different polymorphous (i.e. monoclinic β-phase and triclinic α-phase) were observed on a surface of polycrystalline (poly-) Au and octadecyltrichlorosilane-self assembled monolayer (OTS-SAM). For the two structures IE of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of OTiPc thin films altered significantly by 0.55 eV. The different IE was attributed to surface dipole potential and strong intermolecular interaction.
Ionic liquids (ILs) are receiving a great deal of attention as synthetic and dispersion media for colloidal systems, as well as alternatives to organic solvents and electrolyte solutions. Colloidal stability is an essential factor for determining the properties and performance of colloidal systems combined with ILs. The remarkable properties of ILs primarily originate from their highly ionic nature. While such high ionic strength often causes colloidal aggregation in aqueous and organic dispersions, certain colloidal particles can be well dispersed in ILs without any stabilizers. First, we will discuss the colloidal stability of bare and polymer-grafted silica nanoparticles and the surface force between silica substrates in ILs. Three different repulsions between colloidal particles—electrostatic, steric, and solvation forces—will be highlighted. A possible interpretation of the stabilization mechanism in ILs, both in the presence and in the absence of stabilizers, will be proposed. Next, we will provide an overview of our recent studies on colloidal soft materials with ILs. On the basis of dispersed states of the silica colloids, two different soft materials, colloidal gel and colloidal glass in ILs, were fabricated. Their functional properties (such as ionic transport, rheological properties, and optical properties) and the microstructure of the colloidal materials will also be presented.
Nanoindentation test is known as instrumented indentation test (IIT) in the nano range for hardness and material parameters (ISO14577). It is a simple and effective method for evaluating the mechanical properties such as elasticity/stiffness, hardness and adhesion. Generally IIT is the method that doesn’t have to observe the residual impression. However, it is necessary to observe the residual impression and surface of test piece to obtain the material behavior such as pile-up/sink-in, crack. In past work, the phase shifting interferometric scanning confocal microscope (PSISCM)-nanoindenataion combined system was developed to obtain the tilt of surface and the geometrical shape of residual impression that are deeper than one micron. This system is useful to obtain the geometrical shape of the surface of test piece in macro and micro range. However, it is well known that the results of nanoindentation test become unstable in the nano range.
In this work, authors focused the geometry observation system for nanoindentation system. Confirmation the capability of PSISCM system and development of objective type atomic force microscopy to obtain the geometrical shape in nano range are examined. The AFM that has an excellent performance is developed by SII nanotechnology Inc. Japan, and it built into system. In many cases, it performs enough to observe the residual impression and the surface of the test piece. This system uses three methods to obtain the geometrical shape of surface in each range. Generally, AFM has the observation range at about several microns. It is difficult to search the small residual impression by only AFM. Before the observation of AFM, the observation area should be selected by using PSISCM. New measurement tool using PSISCM and AFM to obtain the surface geometry from macro range to nano range is proposed. This tool is very simple, quick and useful tool.
Japanese weather data for areas that produced Campylobacter spp.-positive chicken products were compared with those for areas producing negative samples. Regarding samples produced during the period of rising temperature (spring and summer), the mean weekly air temperatures for Campylobacter-positive samples were higher than those for negative samples for the period of the week in which the samples were purchased (18·7°C vs. 13·1°C, P=0·006) to a 12-week lag (12 weeks before purchasing samples; 7·9°C vs. 3·4°C, P=0·009). Significant differences in weekly mean minimum humidity and sunshine duration per day were also observed for 1- and 2-week lag periods. We postulated that the high air temperature, high humidity and short duration of sunshine for the chicken-rearing period increased Campylobacter colonization in chickens during the period of rising temperature. Consequently, the number of Campylobacter-contaminated chicken products on the market in Japan may fluctuate because of the climatic conditions to which reared chickens are exposed.
In December 2006, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred involving 372 guests and 72 employees at a hotel after a guest vomited in corridors on the third (F3) and 25th (F25) floors. Norovirus with identical genotype was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction in faecal samples from guest cases and employees. Spread of the outbreak on F25 was compared with that on F3. The attack rate in the guests who visited F25 alone (15·0%, 106/708 guests) was significantly higher than in those who visited F3 alone (3·5%, 163/4710 guests) (relative risk 4·3, 95% confidence interval 3·4–5·5, P<0·001). The outbreak on F3 ended within 2 days, while that on F25 extended over 7 days. The environmental ratios of F3 to F25 were 7·4 for volume, 6·9 for floor area and 7·6 for ventilation rate. This outbreak suggests that environmental differences can affect the propagation and persistence of a norovirus outbreak following environmental contamination.
Flaxseed lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) has been reported to prevent and alleviate lifestyle-related diseases including diabetes and hypercholesterolaemic atherosclerosis. This study assesses the effect of SDG on the development of diet-induced obesity in mice and the effect of the SDG metabolite enterodiol (END) on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We compared body weight, visceral fat weight, liver fat content, serum parameters, mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related enzymes and adiponectin in mice fed either a low-fat diet (5 % TAG), high-fat diet (30 % TAG) or high-fat diet containing 0·5 and 1·0 % (w/w) SDG for 4 weeks. Administration of SDG to mice significantly reduced high-fat diet-induced visceral and liver fat accumulation, hyperlipaemia, hypercholesterolaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperleptinaemia. SDG also suppressed sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c mRNA level in the liver and induced increases in the adiponectin mRNA level in the white adipose tissue and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I mRNA level in the skeletal muscle. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with 0, 5, 10 and 20 μmol/l END and then assayed for mRNA expression of adipogenesis-related genes and DNA binding activity of PPARγ to the PPAR response element consensus sequence. END induced adipogenesis-related gene mRNA expression including adiponectin, leptin, glucose transporter 4 and PPARγ, and induced PPARγ DNA binding activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, SDG induced adiponectin mRNA expression and showed beneficial effects on lipid metabolism in diet-induced obesity in mice. Flaxseed lignans are suggested to regulate adipogenesis-related gene expressions through an increase in PPARγ DNA binding activity.
In this paper we describe a new attempt of high-throughput screening of thermoelectric materials by combining the use of the “bulk composition-spread (CS)” or “bulk diffusion multiples (DM)” and the “scanning thermal probe microanalyzer (STPM).” The (Bi2Te3)1-x(Sb2Te3)x (0<x<1) and Ni1-xCux (0<x<1) bulk CS samples were prepared by conventional powder metallurgy method by using mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering process. The Ni-Cu-X (X=Sn, In, Bi.) DM sample was prepared by post-heating of the CS samples in a molten metal. The two dimensional distributions of Seebeck coefficient and the thermal conductivity of the cross section of the CS and DM samples which composed of graded composition were visualized by using STPM at room temperature. The composition variation was checked by EDX. The relationship between composition and the thermoelectric properties was successfully determined by using the mapping results. The time required for mapping out the 100x100 pixel image was 8 to 11 hours. The total time required for this set of the screening experiment, from sample preparation to the final conclusion, was within 24 hours. For samples Ni-Cu-X DM the diffusion length of the elements at the interface can be large as 1mm and it was found that STPM is applicable to visualize the thermoelectric properties at the region of interest.
A three-dimensional finite element method is applied to
model a magnetic force control device. This device is based on the use of a
magnetostrictive rod in order to control the magnetic force applied to a
movable yoke. The paper introduces an original approach to model
magnetostrictive phenomena and presents comparisons between numerical and
Shell-like supernova remnants (SNRs) are primary candidates for the origin of Galactic cosmic rays. However, among the known SNRs (about 220), only a small fraction has been known to exhibit the synchrotron X-ray spectrum, that is considered to be a piece of evidence for high energy particle acceleration. Synchrotron X-ray emitting SNRs are known to be systematically radio-quiet compared to the SNRs that do not emit synchrotron X-rays. Therefore, most synchrotron X-ray emitting SNR candidates may have escaped detection in the previous systematic radio surveys. On the other hand, hard X-ray surveys are effective to search for synchrotron X-ray emitting SNRs, because of its penetration power. Thus we have searched for SNRs in the ASCA Galactic Plane Survey data, the first Galactic imaging survey in $>$2 keV, and discovered 14 candidates. Deep follow-up observations with ASCA, XMM, or Chandra on 5 of them revealed 2 sources to be synchrotron X-ray emitting SNRs. Furthermore we confirmed non-thermal X-ray spectra from the other 3 sources, though the origin is yet unknown. We report the observational results and discuss the X-ray origin.
Auger electron spectra (AES) and Auger electron photo-ion coincidence (AEPICO) spectra of poly(vinlylidene fluoride) (PVDF) were observed to study the mechanism of effective fluorine ion (F+) desorption by irradiation of photons corresponding to the transition from F 1s to s(C-F). In the AES at photon energy (hυ) = 690.3 eV (from F1s to |σ|(C-F)), the spectator-Auger shift is about 3 eV. At hn = 690.3 eV the contribution of spectator Auger electron to the observed Auger spectrum is large. In the F+ AEPICO spectra at hυ = 690.3 eV an intense peak appears. The peak positions of the F+ AEPICO spectra are in agreement with those of the Auger spectra. These results indicate that the mechanism for effective F+ ion desorption induced by the transition from F1s to σ(C-F) occurs through the spectator-Auger processes. The efficiency of ion desorption depends on the electronic structure of the spectator-Auger final state.
Ion modification for various perovskite-based ferroelectric thin films using rare-earth cations was attempted for improving the electrical properties. Strategy for controlling the electrical properties is mainly based on two concepts, that is, (i) substituting the volatile cations such as Pb2+ and Bi3+, and (ii) controlling the crystal anisotropy of perovskite unit cell. In this study, the influences of ion-modification conditions (i.e., amount, species and occupying site of substituent cations) on the electrical properties of perovskite-based ferroelectric films fabricated by a chemical solution deposition were investigated. Substituting volatile cations in simple-perovskite oxides, such Pb2+ in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and Bi3+ in BiFeO3, for the rare-earth cations like La3+ and Nd3+ reduced the leakage current density of these films due to suppressing the metal and / or oxygen vacancies, as well as in layered-perovskite oxides, such as Bi4Ti3O12 films [i.e., strategy (i)]. Also, crystal anisotropy of perovskite-based oxides could controlled by varying the species and the occupying site of substituent cations [i.e., strategy (ii)]; for example, the crystal anisotropy of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 lattice was elongated by Ti- and Zr-site (B-site) substitution using rare-earth cations whose ionic radii locate on the smaller part of rare-earth series (such as Y3+, Dy3+), that resulted in enhancing the spontaneous polarization. We concluded that the strategy for controlling the electrical property mentioned in this study would be applicable for a various kind of perovskite-based ferroelectric films.
We performed x-ray diffraction measurements by using highly brilliant synchrotron radiation on epitaxial Pb(Zr0.35Ti0.65)O3 film capacitor structures. Small regions of 300-nm-thick epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films with Pt and SrRuO3 top electrodes were measured after applying various numbers of switching cycles of the electric field. Epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films were prepared on epitaxial (100)cSrRuO3/(100)SrTiO3 substrates by pulsed-metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The volume faction of c-domain and remanent polarization was plotted against the number of switching cycles. In the both capacitors, the Vc increased as the switching cycle increased independent of fatigue behavior.
A new family of materials that synergistically combine the attributes of both organic and inorganic properties for use in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is presented. The hybrid materials are based on 3-D inorganic cores of octavinylsilsesquioxanes (OVS). The resultant materials have high Tg's (120–210°C), are formed from minimal step/high yield reactions and readily available starting reagents, are monodisperse (PDI<1.1), can be highly purified via common chroma-tographic techniques, and form defect-free amorphous films via spin-dip coating. For example TPD is known for its good hole injection/transport properties in OLED applications but suffers from a low Tg (65°C). TPD-OVS hybrid material has a Tg of 142°C while maintaining similar injection/transport properties to TPD. Photoluminescence analysis of the hybrid thin film reveals: 1) a 30 nm blue shift versus their dilute solution counterparts; and 2) 5 hour annealing cycles to within 10°C of their Tg show no indication of eximer formation (no red shift) that often causes reduced efficiencies in polymer LEDs.
Active feedback control was applied to suppress oscillations in thermocapillary convection in a half-zone liquid bridge. The experiment is on a unit-aspect-ratio liquid bridge where the most unstable azimuthal mode has wavenumber 2 when control is absent. Active control was realized by locally modifying the surface temperature using the local temperature measured at different locations fed back through a simple control law. The performance of the control process was quantified by analysing local temperature signals, and the flow structure was simultaneously identified by flow visualization. With optimal placement of sensors and heaters, proportional control can raise the critical Marangoni number by more than 40%. The amplitude of the oscillation can be suppressed to less than 30% of the initial value for a wide range of Marangoni number, up to 90% of the critical value. The proportional control was tested for a period-doubling state and it stabilized the oscillation to a periodic state. Weakly nonlinear control was applied by adding a cubic term to the control law to improve the performance of the control and alter the bifurcation characteristics.
Shredder residue is an unavoidable by-product of the treatment of end of life vehicles
and household appliances. NKK has developed a new post-treatment process in which the
residue is introduced in a bath of solvent made of hot tar and gives an overflow of plastics
and metallic sediments. The recovered plastics can be injected into the blast furnace and
the metallic parts recycled in the steel shop. This new process allows a high recycling
rate of treated materials.