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We used a web-based mixed methods survey (HowsYourHealth – Frail) to explore the health of frail older (78% age 80 or older) adults enrolled in a home-based primary care program in Vancouver, Canada. Sixty per cent of eligible respondents participated, representing over one quarter (92/350, 26.2%) of all individuals receiving the service. Despite high levels of co-morbidity and functional dependence, 50 per cent rated their health as good, very good, or excellent. Adjusted odds ratios for positive self-rated health were 7.50, 95 per cent CI [1.09, 51.81] and 4.85, 95 per cent CI [1.02, 22.95] for absence of bothersome symptoms and being able to talk to family or friends respectively. Narrative responses to questions about end of life and living with illness are also described. Results suggest that greater focus on symptom management, and supporting social contact, may improve frail seniors’ health.
Psychosis of epilepsy (POE) is a term applied to a group of psychotic disorders with a distinct phenomenology in which potential etiopathogenic mechanisms are believed to be closely related to a seizure disorder. POE can present as interictal psychotic episodes, which may often differ semiologically from primary schizophrenic disorder. They may present as ictal or postictal psychotic episodes and may be the expression of an iatrogenic process to pharmacologic and/or surgical interventions.Epilepsy and POE have a complex and bidirectional relation, as not only are patients with epilepsy at greater risk of developing a psychotic disorder, but patients with a primary psychotic disorder are also at greater risk of developing epilepsy. The prevalence of POE is more than 7 times higher than the frequency of primary schizophreniform disorders in the general population. While POE has been associated with focal epilepsy of temporal and frontal lobe origin, its etiology and pathophysiology of POE have yet to be established.The treatment of all forms of POE, with the exception of ictal psychotic episodes, requires the use of antipsychotic drugs, preferably the atypical antipsychotic agents with a very low or negligible potential to lower the seizure threshold (eg, risperidone, apiprazole), starting at a low dose with stepwise increments.
This report covers the period July 1996 to June 1999. It has been prepared by the President of the Commission with contributions from the members of the Organizing Committee and Dr. E.M. Corsini. As discussed in Kyoto and decided by the Organizing Committee, the report is meant to be in the “short” version.
The preparation of a report dealing with such a large domain is almost an impossible task. Because so many different questions, problems and expertises are assembled under the word “Cosmology”, my approach has been the following: first to divide this field in a somewhat arbitrary fashion into the following sections: very early universe – elementary particle and cosmology – early nucleosynthesiscosmological parameters (Hubble constant, deceleration parameter, cosmological constant) – large scale structures, intergalactic gas, missing mass – clusters of galaxies and intercluster gas – anisotropy of the black body radiation – formation of galaxies – quasars and their evolution – cosmological evolution of radiosources. I have then asked to the most knowledgeable specialists to review briefly each of these most important questions on which many excitinq and very new results have been obtained not only by the astrophysicists themselves but also by particle physicists, nuclear physicists, theoretical physicists, … This is why the reader will read in section 1 the report on primordial nucleosynthesis written by G. Steigman, in section 2 Anisotropy of the black body radiation by D.T. Wilkinson and E. Meichiorri, in section 3 Clusters of galaxies by 3. Einasto, in section 4 Galaxy formation by B.J.T. Jones, in section 5 Quasars and their evolution by M. Schmidt and in section 6 the Cosmological evolution of radio sources by R.A. Windhorst. Let me thank these colleagues for their excellent work in writing these various reviews.
The number of pages allocated to the commission report has been very limited and certainly not sufficient to cover in any exhaustive manner the wide range of topics relevant to cosmology and to provide also extensive bibliographies. Because of the vast amount of material to be covered, the report is based on a number of contributions from different colleagues who have been asked to highlight the main trends in the triennium (mid 1984 - mid 1987), together with a list of references sufficiently comprehensive to serve as a guideline for further reading. Unfortunately, two of the expected contributions did not reach me in time for inclusion in the report, and consequently topics such as the large scale structure and streaming motions, the clusters of galaxies and the counts of extragalactic radio sources are not included. However, it is my understanding that a large portion, if not all, of these topics will be covered in the reports of Commissions 28 and 40, and if true, this will at least avoid unnecessary overlaps. It should also be mentioned here that several proceedings of very recent IAU conferences provide excellent, updated and exhaustive reviews of the research work relevant to cosmology.
This report coveres the period 1 July 1993 to 30 June 1996. In contrast to reports from previous triennia, which were written by commission officers, committee members, and chairs of working groups, all members of the comission were invited, through a newsletter, to volunteer to write sections on topics that interested them. About a dozen people volunteered, not all of whom were able to complete the reports they had suggested.
We have performed computer simulation studies on the 22×√3 surface reconstruction of Au(111). This reconstruction involves a uniaxial contraction of the top monolayer corresponding to a surface strain of about 4.3% and has been observed to be the stable structure for clean surfaces at low temperatures. A continuum model yields a stability criterion that depends on the knowledge of a small number of measurable physical quantities: surface stress f, surface free energy γ, lattice parameter a0 and shear modulus µ. The simulations using EAM potentials accurately reproduce many observed features of the reconstruction and tend to support the continuum model and the resulting stability criterion.
Data are reported on short-channel MOSFET's fabricated in laser crystallized
silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structures. In this experiment, special effort
was made to minimize enhanced diffusion of dopants from the source and drain
regions along grain boundaries. Instead of the standard anneal used for the
implant activation, rapid thermal annealing and low temperature furnace
annealing were used. These modified processes yielded functional MOSFET's
with channel lengths as short as 1.5 μm, and ring oscillators of 2.0 μm. A
speed of 115 ps per stage was obtained in these ring oscillators which is
not only the fastest ever reported on any SOI structure, but also a factor
of 2 faster than that from the same circuits in bulk Si. The results
demonstrate quantitatively the speed improvement of SOI over bulk material
due to reduced parasitic capacitance.
The Supernova Working Group was re-established at the IAU XXV General Assembly in Sydney, 21 July 2003, sponsored by Commissions 28 (Galaxies) and 47 (Cosmology). Here we report on some of its activities since 2005.
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy is associated with a decrease in seizure frequency in partial-onset seizure patients. Initial trials suggest that it may be an effective treatment, with few side-effects, for intractable depression.
An open, uncontrolled European multi-centre study (D03) of VNS therapy was conducted, in addition to stable pharmacotherapy, in 74 patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Treatment remained unchanged for the first 3 months; in the subsequent 9 months, medications and VNS dosing parameters were altered as indicated clinically.
The baseline 28-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-28) score averaged 34. After 3 months of VNS, response rates (⩾50% reduction in baseline scores) reached 37% and remission rates (HAMD-28 score <10) 17%. Response rates increased to 53% after 1 year of VNS, and remission rates reached 33%. Response was defined as sustained if no relapse occurred during the first year of VNS after response onset; 44% of patients met these criteria. Median time to response was 9 months. Most frequent side-effects were voice alteration (63% at 3 months of stimulation) and coughing (23%).
VNS therapy was effective in reducing severity of depression; efficacy increased over time. Efficacy ratings were in the same range as those previously reported from a USA study using a similar protocol; at 12 months, reduction of symptom severity was significantly higher in the European sample. This might be explained by a small but significant difference in the baseline HAMD-28 score and the lower number of treatments in the current episode in the European study.
Division VIII gathers astronomers engaged in the study of the visible and invisible matter in the Universe at large, from Local Group galaxies via distant galaxies and galaxy clusters to the large-scale structure of the Universe and the cosmic background radiation.
Division XII consists of Commissions that formerly were organized under the Executive Committee, that concern astronomers across a wide range of scientific sub-disciplines and provide interactions with scientists in a wider community, including governmental organizations, outside the IAU.
The effect of certain monounsaturated dodecene and tetradecene acetates and alcohols on electroantennogram (EAG) response and pheromone-mediated trap catch was examined in male obliquebanded leafroller moths, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The stimulation of antennae with 0.1 ng of (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14:Ac), the major pheromone compound of this species, elicited an EAG response. The use of 1 ng of (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac) or (E)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (E9-14:Ac) or 10 ng of (Z)-9-dodecenyl acetate (Z9-12:Ac) or (E)-9-dodecenyl acetate (E9-12:Ac) was required to elicit a response. One hundred nanograms of (E)-9-tetradecenol (E9-14:OH) were required to elicit a response from antennae. The stimulation of antennae with up to 100 ng of (Z)-9-tetradecenol (Z9-14:OH) did not elicit a response. The addition of 0.1 mg of Z9-12:Ac to 1 mg of synthetic C. rosaceana pheromone consisting of a 100:2:1.5:1 blend of Z11-14:Ac, (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate, (Z)-11-tetradecenol, and (Z)-11-tetradecenal reduced the capture of moths in pheromone-baited traps by more than 72%. Trap catch was reduced by more than 90% by the addition of 0.01 mg of Z9-14:Ac or E9-14:Ac to 1 mg of C. rosaceana pheromone. There was no detectable reduction in trap catch when 1 mg of E9-12:Ac, Z9-14:OH, or E9-14:OH was added to 1 mg of C. rosaceana pheromone. There was a greater than 95% reduction in trap catch when sources of Z9- or E9-12:Ac were mounted at the entrances to traps, 10 cm from the pheromone source. Trap catch was not affected by placing sources of Z9- or E9-14:Ac at trap entrances. Four 1 or 10 mg sources of E9-14:Ac placed 1 m from a trap did not affect the number of male C. rosaceana captured. The study demonstrates that although a compound may have profound attraction inhibiting activity when mixed directly with C. rosaceana pheromone, this activity may be lost if the inhibitor is emitted a short distance from the pheromone. The study also demonstrates that a potent attraction inhibitor such as E9-14:Ac does not repel C. rosaceana males and must be present along with pheromone to affect the behavior of this species.