A revision of several specimens of Catillaria mediterranea Hafellner revealed that two species can be recognized: C. mediterranea s. str., which has 8–16 spores per ascus, grows on foliose and fruticose lichens, and has a Mediterranean- Macaronesian, montane distribution, and C. praedicta Tretiach & Hafellner sp. nov., which has (16-) 24–32 (-48) spores per ascus, occurs on shrubs in coastal Mediterranean maquis, and has a Mediterranean, maritime distribution. The systematic affinities of the two species with the 8-spored C. nigrodavata (Nyl.) Schuler are briefly discussed.