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In this chapter, we discuss recent empirical and theoretical advances that demonstrate how, why, and under what conditions interdependent relationships promote self-expansion (i.e., the cognitive reorganization of individuals’ self-concept due to the acquisition or augmentation of traits, perspectives, identities, and capabilities). In particular, we discuss ways in which engaging in self-expansion has the potential to not only enhance individual well-being but to also enhance close relationships. In the first section of the chapter, we review the broadening and deepening of research on the fundamental tenets of the self-expansion model. Specifically, we begin by identifying the defining characteristics of the self-expansion process, such as the underlying features of shared relational activities that foster self-expansion. We then explore cognitive and motivational antecedents of self-expansion seeking, particularly experiences that promote approach motivation and subsequent interdependence. Furthermore, we discuss the relational, behavioral, cognitive, affective, and physiological outcomes of the self-expansion process, and we consider how the outcomes of both relational and individual self-expansion shape expectations for relationships. In the second section of the chapter, we review interdependence-based extensions and applications of the self-expansion model. Specifically, we discuss additional self-concept changes that interdependent relationships can foster, including cognitive reorganizations that have deleterious intra- and interpersonal consequences. Additionally, we examine how self-expansion can occur in myriad contexts (e.g., through individual experiences, romantic relationships, friendships, the workplace, and intergroup interactions), and we explore novel applications and implications of self-expansion, such as reducing relationship conflict and intergroup prejudice. Finally, using the recent research in self-expansion as context, we discuss potential directions for future research.
Observational studies have shown a relationship between maternal mental health (MMH) and child development, but few studies have evaluated whether MMH interventions improve child-related outcomes, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this review is to synthesise findings on the effectiveness of MMH interventions to improve child-related outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
We searched for randomised controlled trials conducted in LMICs evaluating interventions with a MMH component and reporting children's outcomes. Meta-analysis was performed on outcomes included in at least two trials.
We identified 21 trials with 28 284 mother–child dyads. Most trials were conducted in middle-income countries, evaluating home visiting interventions delivered by general health workers, starting in the third trimester of pregnancy. Only ten trials described acceptable methods for blinding outcome assessors. Four trials showed high risk of bias in at least two of the seven domains assessed in this review. Narrative synthesis showed promising but inconclusive findings for child-related outcomes. Meta-analysis identified a sizeable impact of interventions on exclusive breastfeeding (risk ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13–1.71, ten trials, N = 4749 mother–child dyads, I2 = 61%) and a small effect on child height-for-age at 6-months (std. mean difference = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.02–0.24, three trials, N = 1388, I2 = 0%). Meta-analyses did not identify intervention benefits for child cognitive and other growth outcomes; however, few trials measured these outcomes.
These findings support the importance of MMH to improve child-related outcomes in LMICs, particularly exclusive breastfeeding. Given, the small number of trials and methodological limitations, more rigorous trials should be conducted.
The burden of common perinatal mental disorders (CPMD) in low-and-middle-income countries is substantially higher than high-income countries, with low levels of detection, service provision and treatment in resource-constrained settings. We describe the development of an ultra-short screening tool to detect antenatal depression, anxiety disorders and maternal suicidal ideation.
A sample of 376 women was recruited at a primary-level obstetric clinic. Five depression and anxiety symptom-screening questionnaires, demographics and psychosocial risk questionnaires were administered. All participants were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a structured, diagnostic interview. Screening tool items were analysed against diagnostic data using multiple logistic regression and receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis.
The prevalence of MINI-defined major depressive episode (MDE) and/or anxiety disorders was 33%. Overall, 18% of participants expressed suicidal ideation and behaviour, 54% of these had no depression or anxiety diagnosis. Multiple logistic regression identified four screening items that were independently predictive of MDE and anxiety disorders, investigating depressed mood, anhedonia, anxiety symptoms and suicidal ideation. ROC analysis of these combined items yielded an area under the curve of 0.83 (95% CI 0.78–0.88). A cut-off score of 2 or more offered a sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 82%.
This novel screening tool is the first measure of CPMD developed in South Africa to include depressed mood, anxiety symptoms and suicidal ideation. While the tool requires further investigation, it may be useful for the early identification of mental health symptoms and morbidity in the perinatal period.
The self-expansion model of love was developed in the 1980s (Aron & Aron, 1986; for a recent review, see Aron, Lewandowski, Mashek, & Aron, 2013). It emerged from an integration of two diverse worlds of knowledge. The first world of knowledge was relevant social-psychological theories of basic human motivation, and the little research that existed at the time on attraction and relationships. The second world of knowledge was from classical concepts of love.
To examine the child outcomes at 18-months post-birth of a population cohort of women with antenatal depressed mood, half of whom were randomly chosen to receive perinatal home visits from community health workers during pregnancy.
Pregnant women in 24 neighbourhoods (98% participation) were randomised by neighbourhood to: (1) standard clinic care (SC; 12 neighbourhoods; n = 594) or (2) the Philani Intervention Program, a home visiting intervention plus standard care (12 neighbourhoods; n = 644). The physical and cognitive outcomes of children of mothers with antenatally depressed mood (Edinburg Perinatal Depression Scale >13) in the intervention condition were compared at 18-months post-birth to children of mothers without depressed mood in pregnancy in both conditions.
More than a third of mothers had heightened levels of antenatal depressed mood (35%), similar across conditions. Antenatal depressed mood was significantly associated with being a mother living with HIV, using alcohol and food insecurity. At 18-months, the overall cognitive and motor scale scores on the Bayley Scales of Development were similar. However, 10.3% fewer children of mothers with antenatal depressed mood in the intervention condition had cognitive scores on the Bayley Scales that were less than 85 (i.e., s.d. = 2 lower than normal) compared with children of mothers with antenatal depressed mood in the SC condition. Intervention children of mothers with antenatal depressed mood were also significantly less likely to be undernourished (Weight-for-Age Z-scores < −2).
Cognitive development and child growth among children born to mothers with antenatal depressed mood can be improved by mentor mother home visitors, probably resulting from better parenting and care received early in life.
Introduction: With ongoing medical advances and an increase in elderly and complex patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED), there is a requirement for nurses to continue to gain new knowledge and skills to provide optimal patient care. Quality initiatives are frequently introduced with the goal of improving patient safety and the effectiveness of care delivery; some being provincial, while others are new requirements from Accreditation Canada. We sought the perspectives of emergency nurses regarding the importance of key ED processes and standards, and their impact on patient care and nurse efficiency. Methods: All Registered Nurses and Licensed Practical Nurses throughout the Edmonton Zone EDs were invited to complete an online survey consisting of 23 statements on nursing attitudes (10 on nursing duties) and beliefs (11 on the importance of Accreditation standards and their impacts; two that involved selecting the 5 most important nursing activities). The survey was constructed through an iterative approach. Response options included a 7-point Likert scale (‘very strongly disagree’ to ‘very strongly agree’). Median scores and interquartile ranges were determined for each survey statement. Results: A total of 433/1241 (34.9%) surveys were submitted. Respondents were predominantly Registered Nurses (91.4%), female (88.9%), and worked 0-5 years overall in the ED (43.7%). Overall, respondents were favourable (‘agree’ or ‘strongly agree’) towards the Accreditation Canada standards and other quality initiatives. They were, however, ‘neutral’ towards universal domestic violence screening, and whether there is a difference between Best Possible Medication History (BPMH) and med reconciliation. The top five nursing activities in terms of perceived importance were: vital sign documentation, recording of allergies, listening to patients’ concerns, hand hygiene, and obtaining a complete nursing history. Best Possible Medication History and the screening risk tools followed these. Conclusion: Despite their heavy workload, nurses strongly agreed on the importance of med reconciliation, falls risk, and skin care, but felt that improved documentation forms could support efficiency. Nursing perspective is valuable in informing future attempts to standardize, streamline, and simplify documentation, including the design and implementation of a provincial clinical information system.
A considerable body of evidence suggests that early caregiving may affect the short-term functioning and longer term development of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis. Despite this, most research to date has been cross-sectional in nature or restricted to relatively short-term longitudinal follow-ups. More important, there is a paucity of research on the role of caregiving in low- and middle-income countries, where the protective effects of high-quality care in buffering the child's developing stress regulation systems may be crucial. In this paper, we report findings from a longitudinal study (N = 232) conducted in an impoverished periurban settlement in Cape Town, South Africa. We measured caregiving sensitivity and security of attachment in infancy and followed children up at age 13 years, when we conducted assessments of hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenocortical axis reactivity, as indexed by salivary cortisol during the Trier Social Stress Test. The findings indicated that insecure attachment was predictive of reduced cortisol responses to social stress, particularly in boys, and that attachment status moderated the impact of contextual adversity on stress responses: secure children in highly adverse circumstances did not show the blunted cortisol response shown by their insecure counterparts. Some evidence was found that sensitivity of care in infancy was also associated with cortisol reactivity, but in this case, insensitivity was associated with heightened cortisol reactivity, and only for girls. The discussion focuses on the potentially important role of caregiving in the long-term calibration of the stress system and the need to better understand the social and biological mechanisms shaping the stress response across development in low- and middle-income countries.
Introduction / Innovation Concept: With aging, increasing complexity, and prolonged emergency department (ED) stays, patient falls are an increasing problem. Accreditation Canada recently listed falls risk management (FRM) as a required operational practice (ROP). The University of Alberta ED had no screening tool or education program specific to falls. Gaps in identifying patients with altered consciousness, intoxication, or are undergoing procedural sedation were noted in the Alberta Health Services (AHS) recommended tool. This gap led to the development piloting of an ED specific FRM screening tool. Methods: A literature review was completed to assess current fall assessment tools and their applicability to the ED. No ED specific tools were identified leading to the development of the FRM tool. Prior to the FRM tool being piloted, nursing staff were asked to respond to a voluntary survey on their perceived knowledge of falls management followed by a survey testing their actual knowledge. They were then educated on the FRM and protocol through in-services, power point presentations, and fact sheets. A post education knowledge survey was then sent out. Multidisciplinary working groups provided feedback throughout the pilot, resulting in modifications prior to final implementation. Curriculum, Tool, or Material: The FRM tool consists of 10 variables with a maximum score of 20. Variables included are: falls in the last 12 months? Mechanical (1), Physiological (2), Multiple (3); age ≥70 or frail (2); mobility assist device (1) confusion or disorientation (5); impaired gait (1); incontinence (1); intoxicated (3); procedural sedation (3); and unconscious (5). All except for the last 3 variables were adapted from inpatient risk tools. Patients were categorized as low (1-2 points), moderate (3-4 points), or high risk (5+ points) and those scoring ≥3 had a safety protocol implemented. The survey regarding perceived knowledge for management of falls led to an average score of 86.6% (n=46). When tested on their actual knowledge they scored 48.8% (n=29). Following training on the FRM tool and protocol, the actual knowledge of 18 respondents averaged 83%. Conclusion: The FRM screening tool has been implemented and a comparative study looking at ED risk predictability matched to existing falls risk scores. Based on research findings the FRM will be considered for a provincial implementation.
Introduction: Emergency Department (ED) fall risk screening has been newly implemented in Alberta based on Accreditation Canada requirements. Two existing inpatient tools failed to include certain ED risk conditions. One tool graded unconsciousness as no risk for falling, and neither considered intoxication or sedation. This led to the development of a new fall risk management screening tool, the FRM (Tool1). This study compared Tool1 with inpatient utilized Schmid Fall Risk Assessment Tool (Tool2) and the validated Hendrich II Fall Risk Model (Tool3). Methods: Patients (≥17 years old) in a tertiary care adult ED with any of the following; history of falling in the last 12 months, elderly/frail, incontinence, impaired gait, mobility assist device, confusion/disorientation, procedural sedation, intoxication/sedated, or unconscious were included. Forms were randomized to score patients using different paired screening tools: Tool1 paired with either Tool2 or Tool3. Percent agreement (PA) between the tools based on identification of a patient at either risk/no risk for falling; higher PA indicating more tool homogeneity. Results: A total of 928 screening forms were completed within our 8-week study period; 452 and 443 comparing Tool1 to Tool2 and Tool1 to Tool3, respectively. Thirty-two forms included only Tool1 scores, excluding them from comparative analysis. The average patient age (n=895) was 64.8±21.4 years. Tool1 identified 66.4% of patients at risk, whereas Tool2 and Tool3 identified only 19.2% and 31.4%, respectively. Tool1 and 2 had a PA of 50.2%, whereas Tool1 and Tool3 had a PA of 65.9%. Conclusion: The FRM tool had higher agreement with the validated assessment tool, identifying patients at risk for falling but better identified patients presenting with intoxication, need for procedural sedation and unconsciousness. The other tools generally miss these common ED conditions, putting these patients at risk. Validation and reliability assessments of the FRM tool are warranted.
There is limited evidence on the acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of task-sharing interventions to narrow the treatment gap for mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this article is to describe the rationale, aims and methods of the Africa Focus on Intervention Research for Mental health (AFFIRM) collaborative research hub. AFFIRM is investigating strategies for narrowing the treatment gap for mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa in four areas. First, it is assessing the feasibility, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of task-sharing interventions by conducting randomised controlled trials in Ethiopia and South Africa. The AFFIRM Task-sharing for the Care of Severe mental disorders (TaSCS) trial in Ethiopia aims to determine the acceptability, affordability, effectiveness and sustainability of mental health care for people with severe mental disorder delivered by trained and supervised non-specialist, primary health care workers compared with an existing psychiatric nurse-led service. The AFFIRM trial in South Africa aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of a task-sharing counselling intervention for maternal depression, delivered by non-specialist community health workers, and to examine factors influencing the implementation of the intervention and future scale up. Second, AFFIRM is building individual and institutional capacity for intervention research in sub-Saharan Africa by providing fellowship and mentorship programmes for candidates in Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Each year five Fellowships are awarded (one to each country) to attend the MPhil in Public Mental Health, a joint postgraduate programme at the University of Cape Town and Stellenbosch University. AFFIRM also offers short courses in intervention research, and supports PhD students attached to the trials in Ethiopia and South Africa. Third, AFFIRM is collaborating with other regional National Institute of Mental Health funded hubs in Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, by designing and executing shared research projects related to task-sharing and narrowing the treatment gap. Finally, it is establishing a network of collaboration between researchers, non-governmental organisations and government agencies that facilitates the translation of research knowledge into policy and practice. This article describes the developmental process of this multi-site approach, and provides a narrative of challenges and opportunities that have arisen during the early phases. Crucial to the long-term sustainability of this work is the nurturing and sustaining of partnerships between African mental health researchers, policy makers, practitioners and international collaborators.
Very few theories have generated the kind of interdisciplinary and global engagement that marks the intellectual history of intersectionality. Yet, there has been very little effort to reflect upon precisely how intersectionality has moved across time, disciplines, issues, and geographic and national boundaries. Our failure to attend to intersectionality's movement has limited our ability to see the theory in places in which it is already doing work and to imagine other places to which the theory might be taken. Addressing these questions, this special issue reflects upon the genesis of intersectionality, engages some of the debates about its scope and theoretical capacity, marks some of its disciplinary and global travels, and explores the future trajectory of the theory. To do so, the volume includes academics from across the disciplines and from outside of the United States. Their respective contributions help us to understand how intersectionality has moved and to broaden our sense of where the theory might still go.
We describe epidemiological trends in Mycobacterium bovis infection in an undisturbed wild badger (Meles meles) population. Data were derived from the capture, clinical sampling and serological testing of 1803 badgers over 9945 capture events spanning 24 years. Incidence and prevalence increased over time, exhibiting no simple relationship with host density. Potential explanations are presented for a marked increase in the frequency of positive serological test results. Transmission rates (R0) estimated from empirical data were consistent with modelled estimates and robust to changes in test sensitivity and the spatial extent of the population at risk. The risk of a positive culture or serological test result increased with badger age, and varied seasonally. Evidence consistent with progressive disease was found in cubs. This study demonstrates the value of long-term data and the repeated application of imperfect diagnostic tests as indices of infection to reveal epidemiological trends in M. bovis infection in badgers.
The behaviour of certain infected individuals within socially structured populations can have a disproportionately large effect on the spatio-temporal distribution of infection. Endemic infection with Mycobacterium bovis in European badgers (Meles meles) in Great Britain and Ireland is an important source of bovine tuberculosis in cattle. Here we quantify the risk of infection in badger cubs in a high-density wild badger population, in relation to the infection status of resident adults. Over a 24-year period, we observed variation in the risk of cub infection, with those born into groups with resident infectious breeding females being over four times as likely to be detected excreting M. bovis than cubs from groups where there was no evidence of infection in adults. We discuss how our findings relate to the persistence of infection at both social group and population level, and the potential implications for disease control strategies.
Transmission X-ray diffraction is demonstrated as a new tool for examining daughter minerals within sub-micrometre-size fluid inclusions in fibrous diamond. In transmission geometry, the X-ray beam passes through the sample, interacting with a volume of material. Fibrous diamonds from Mbuji-Mayi. Democratic Republic of Congo; the Wawa area, Ontario, Canada; and the Panda kimberlite, Ekati Mine, Northwest Territories and the Jericho kimberlite, Nunavut, Canada were analysed using X-rays from a high-brilliance lab source and a synchrotron source. Daughter minerals present include the mica-group mineral celadonite, sylvite, halite, dolomite and other carbonates. This represents the first positive identification of halide minerals in fibrous diamond. Mineral inclusions such as forsteritic olivine and pyrope garnet were also found. Unexpectedly, daughter minerals were identified in only ten of the 38 diamonds analysed, despite their concentrations being greater than experimentally proven detection limits. The presence of significant amounts of amorphous or dissolved material appears unlikely, but cannot be ruled out. Alternatively, the results may indicate a wide variety of related daughter minerals, such that most phases fall below the detection limits. Transmission X-ray diffraction should be applied cautiously to the study of fibrous diamond, as it provides an incomplete account of the fluid-inclusion mineralogy.
To describe the cardiac lesions seen in children with trisomy 21, the outcome of these children and rates of access to corrective surgery at the Bustamante Hospital for Children.
A 10-year retrospective review of the records of trisomy 21 patients with cardiac lesions referred to the Bustamante Hospital for Children was conducted.
A total of 76 patients were enrolled in the study, 30 (40%) males and 46 (60%) females; among these 110 cardiac lesions were detected. A total of 20 (26%) patients died, 48 (63%) survived, and for 8 (11%) the status was unknown. The most common lesion was the atrioventricular septal defect, which accounted for 41 (37%) of all the lesions and occurred as a single defect in 24 (53%) patients. At presentation, 33 (46%) patients had one or more medical complication; 30 (91%) had cardiac failure, 10 (30%) had pneumonia and 5 (15%) had evidence of systemic pulmonary arterial pressures. Cardiac catheterisation was recommended for 43 (56%) patients but only 10 (23%) had the procedure done. Surgery was recommended for 60 (79%) patients; of these 6 (10%) patients had the procedure done. The median time of survival was 88 months (7.3 years). The age of presentation was not found to significantly affect outcome.
Trisomy 21 patients with cardiac lesions have high morbidity and mortality. This morbidity and mortality could be reduced if surgical intervention was offered routinely.
In an investigation of impetigo among troops, carried out in 1941, nearly half of the strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the lesions had the ability to inhibit the growth of corynebacteria on solid media. A much smaller proportion of strains from other superficial lesions and from nose and throat swabs had this ability, and strains from deep suppurative lesions were uniformly negative.
Three-quarters of Staph. aureus strains isolated from schoolchildren with impetigo in Lancashire in 1953 and early 1954 were of one variety, which could be denned by its susceptibility to typing phages (‘type 71’).
Nearly 90 % of ‘type 71’ staphylococci, and very few others, produced a narrow, sharp zone of inhibition of Corynebacterium diphtheriae mitis on solid media.
A small number of other staphylococci, mainly non-typable or unclassifiable strains, produced a wider, hazy zone of inhibition.
The majority of the impetigo staphylococci were penicillin-resistant, and most of the resistant strains were members of ‘type 71’. However, ‘type 71’ gave rise to only a small proportion of the penicillin-resistant hospital infections occurring in the same district at the same time.
Three-quarters of the Str. pyogenes strains from impetigo lesions belonged to one of two groups of closely related serological types, one of which was rarely encountered in other situations.