To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The burden of common perinatal mental disorders (CPMD) in low-and-middle-income countries is substantially higher than high-income countries, with low levels of detection, service provision and treatment in resource-constrained settings. We describe the development of an ultra-short screening tool to detect antenatal depression, anxiety disorders and maternal suicidal ideation.
A sample of 376 women was recruited at a primary-level obstetric clinic. Five depression and anxiety symptom-screening questionnaires, demographics and psychosocial risk questionnaires were administered. All participants were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a structured, diagnostic interview. Screening tool items were analysed against diagnostic data using multiple logistic regression and receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis.
The prevalence of MINI-defined major depressive episode (MDE) and/or anxiety disorders was 33%. Overall, 18% of participants expressed suicidal ideation and behaviour, 54% of these had no depression or anxiety diagnosis. Multiple logistic regression identified four screening items that were independently predictive of MDE and anxiety disorders, investigating depressed mood, anhedonia, anxiety symptoms and suicidal ideation. ROC analysis of these combined items yielded an area under the curve of 0.83 (95% CI 0.78–0.88). A cut-off score of 2 or more offered a sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 82%.
This novel screening tool is the first measure of CPMD developed in South Africa to include depressed mood, anxiety symptoms and suicidal ideation. While the tool requires further investigation, it may be useful for the early identification of mental health symptoms and morbidity in the perinatal period.
To examine the child outcomes at 18-months post-birth of a population cohort of women with antenatal depressed mood, half of whom were randomly chosen to receive perinatal home visits from community health workers during pregnancy.
Pregnant women in 24 neighbourhoods (98% participation) were randomised by neighbourhood to: (1) standard clinic care (SC; 12 neighbourhoods; n = 594) or (2) the Philani Intervention Program, a home visiting intervention plus standard care (12 neighbourhoods; n = 644). The physical and cognitive outcomes of children of mothers with antenatally depressed mood (Edinburg Perinatal Depression Scale >13) in the intervention condition were compared at 18-months post-birth to children of mothers without depressed mood in pregnancy in both conditions.
More than a third of mothers had heightened levels of antenatal depressed mood (35%), similar across conditions. Antenatal depressed mood was significantly associated with being a mother living with HIV, using alcohol and food insecurity. At 18-months, the overall cognitive and motor scale scores on the Bayley Scales of Development were similar. However, 10.3% fewer children of mothers with antenatal depressed mood in the intervention condition had cognitive scores on the Bayley Scales that were less than 85 (i.e., s.d. = 2 lower than normal) compared with children of mothers with antenatal depressed mood in the SC condition. Intervention children of mothers with antenatal depressed mood were also significantly less likely to be undernourished (Weight-for-Age Z-scores < −2).
Cognitive development and child growth among children born to mothers with antenatal depressed mood can be improved by mentor mother home visitors, probably resulting from better parenting and care received early in life.
Introduction: With ongoing medical advances and an increase in elderly and complex patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED), there is a requirement for nurses to continue to gain new knowledge and skills to provide optimal patient care. Quality initiatives are frequently introduced with the goal of improving patient safety and the effectiveness of care delivery; some being provincial, while others are new requirements from Accreditation Canada. We sought the perspectives of emergency nurses regarding the importance of key ED processes and standards, and their impact on patient care and nurse efficiency. Methods: All Registered Nurses and Licensed Practical Nurses throughout the Edmonton Zone EDs were invited to complete an online survey consisting of 23 statements on nursing attitudes (10 on nursing duties) and beliefs (11 on the importance of Accreditation standards and their impacts; two that involved selecting the 5 most important nursing activities). The survey was constructed through an iterative approach. Response options included a 7-point Likert scale (‘very strongly disagree’ to ‘very strongly agree’). Median scores and interquartile ranges were determined for each survey statement. Results: A total of 433/1241 (34.9%) surveys were submitted. Respondents were predominantly Registered Nurses (91.4%), female (88.9%), and worked 0-5 years overall in the ED (43.7%). Overall, respondents were favourable (‘agree’ or ‘strongly agree’) towards the Accreditation Canada standards and other quality initiatives. They were, however, ‘neutral’ towards universal domestic violence screening, and whether there is a difference between Best Possible Medication History (BPMH) and med reconciliation. The top five nursing activities in terms of perceived importance were: vital sign documentation, recording of allergies, listening to patients’ concerns, hand hygiene, and obtaining a complete nursing history. Best Possible Medication History and the screening risk tools followed these. Conclusion: Despite their heavy workload, nurses strongly agreed on the importance of med reconciliation, falls risk, and skin care, but felt that improved documentation forms could support efficiency. Nursing perspective is valuable in informing future attempts to standardize, streamline, and simplify documentation, including the design and implementation of a provincial clinical information system.
A considerable body of evidence suggests that early caregiving may affect the short-term functioning and longer term development of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis. Despite this, most research to date has been cross-sectional in nature or restricted to relatively short-term longitudinal follow-ups. More important, there is a paucity of research on the role of caregiving in low- and middle-income countries, where the protective effects of high-quality care in buffering the child's developing stress regulation systems may be crucial. In this paper, we report findings from a longitudinal study (N = 232) conducted in an impoverished periurban settlement in Cape Town, South Africa. We measured caregiving sensitivity and security of attachment in infancy and followed children up at age 13 years, when we conducted assessments of hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenocortical axis reactivity, as indexed by salivary cortisol during the Trier Social Stress Test. The findings indicated that insecure attachment was predictive of reduced cortisol responses to social stress, particularly in boys, and that attachment status moderated the impact of contextual adversity on stress responses: secure children in highly adverse circumstances did not show the blunted cortisol response shown by their insecure counterparts. Some evidence was found that sensitivity of care in infancy was also associated with cortisol reactivity, but in this case, insensitivity was associated with heightened cortisol reactivity, and only for girls. The discussion focuses on the potentially important role of caregiving in the long-term calibration of the stress system and the need to better understand the social and biological mechanisms shaping the stress response across development in low- and middle-income countries.
Introduction: Emergency Department (ED) fall risk screening has been newly implemented in Alberta based on Accreditation Canada requirements. Two existing inpatient tools failed to include certain ED risk conditions. One tool graded unconsciousness as no risk for falling, and neither considered intoxication or sedation. This led to the development of a new fall risk management screening tool, the FRM (Tool1). This study compared Tool1 with inpatient utilized Schmid Fall Risk Assessment Tool (Tool2) and the validated Hendrich II Fall Risk Model (Tool3). Methods: Patients (≥17 years old) in a tertiary care adult ED with any of the following; history of falling in the last 12 months, elderly/frail, incontinence, impaired gait, mobility assist device, confusion/disorientation, procedural sedation, intoxication/sedated, or unconscious were included. Forms were randomized to score patients using different paired screening tools: Tool1 paired with either Tool2 or Tool3. Percent agreement (PA) between the tools based on identification of a patient at either risk/no risk for falling; higher PA indicating more tool homogeneity. Results: A total of 928 screening forms were completed within our 8-week study period; 452 and 443 comparing Tool1 to Tool2 and Tool1 to Tool3, respectively. Thirty-two forms included only Tool1 scores, excluding them from comparative analysis. The average patient age (n=895) was 64.8±21.4 years. Tool1 identified 66.4% of patients at risk, whereas Tool2 and Tool3 identified only 19.2% and 31.4%, respectively. Tool1 and 2 had a PA of 50.2%, whereas Tool1 and Tool3 had a PA of 65.9%. Conclusion: The FRM tool had higher agreement with the validated assessment tool, identifying patients at risk for falling but better identified patients presenting with intoxication, need for procedural sedation and unconsciousness. The other tools generally miss these common ED conditions, putting these patients at risk. Validation and reliability assessments of the FRM tool are warranted.
Introduction / Innovation Concept: With aging, increasing complexity, and prolonged emergency department (ED) stays, patient falls are an increasing problem. Accreditation Canada recently listed falls risk management (FRM) as a required operational practice (ROP). The University of Alberta ED had no screening tool or education program specific to falls. Gaps in identifying patients with altered consciousness, intoxication, or are undergoing procedural sedation were noted in the Alberta Health Services (AHS) recommended tool. This gap led to the development piloting of an ED specific FRM screening tool. Methods: A literature review was completed to assess current fall assessment tools and their applicability to the ED. No ED specific tools were identified leading to the development of the FRM tool. Prior to the FRM tool being piloted, nursing staff were asked to respond to a voluntary survey on their perceived knowledge of falls management followed by a survey testing their actual knowledge. They were then educated on the FRM and protocol through in-services, power point presentations, and fact sheets. A post education knowledge survey was then sent out. Multidisciplinary working groups provided feedback throughout the pilot, resulting in modifications prior to final implementation. Curriculum, Tool, or Material: The FRM tool consists of 10 variables with a maximum score of 20. Variables included are: falls in the last 12 months? Mechanical (1), Physiological (2), Multiple (3); age ≥70 or frail (2); mobility assist device (1) confusion or disorientation (5); impaired gait (1); incontinence (1); intoxicated (3); procedural sedation (3); and unconscious (5). All except for the last 3 variables were adapted from inpatient risk tools. Patients were categorized as low (1-2 points), moderate (3-4 points), or high risk (5+ points) and those scoring ≥3 had a safety protocol implemented. The survey regarding perceived knowledge for management of falls led to an average score of 86.6% (n=46). When tested on their actual knowledge they scored 48.8% (n=29). Following training on the FRM tool and protocol, the actual knowledge of 18 respondents averaged 83%. Conclusion: The FRM screening tool has been implemented and a comparative study looking at ED risk predictability matched to existing falls risk scores. Based on research findings the FRM will be considered for a provincial implementation.
There is limited evidence on the acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of task-sharing interventions to narrow the treatment gap for mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this article is to describe the rationale, aims and methods of the Africa Focus on Intervention Research for Mental health (AFFIRM) collaborative research hub. AFFIRM is investigating strategies for narrowing the treatment gap for mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa in four areas. First, it is assessing the feasibility, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of task-sharing interventions by conducting randomised controlled trials in Ethiopia and South Africa. The AFFIRM Task-sharing for the Care of Severe mental disorders (TaSCS) trial in Ethiopia aims to determine the acceptability, affordability, effectiveness and sustainability of mental health care for people with severe mental disorder delivered by trained and supervised non-specialist, primary health care workers compared with an existing psychiatric nurse-led service. The AFFIRM trial in South Africa aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of a task-sharing counselling intervention for maternal depression, delivered by non-specialist community health workers, and to examine factors influencing the implementation of the intervention and future scale up. Second, AFFIRM is building individual and institutional capacity for intervention research in sub-Saharan Africa by providing fellowship and mentorship programmes for candidates in Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Each year five Fellowships are awarded (one to each country) to attend the MPhil in Public Mental Health, a joint postgraduate programme at the University of Cape Town and Stellenbosch University. AFFIRM also offers short courses in intervention research, and supports PhD students attached to the trials in Ethiopia and South Africa. Third, AFFIRM is collaborating with other regional National Institute of Mental Health funded hubs in Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, by designing and executing shared research projects related to task-sharing and narrowing the treatment gap. Finally, it is establishing a network of collaboration between researchers, non-governmental organisations and government agencies that facilitates the translation of research knowledge into policy and practice. This article describes the developmental process of this multi-site approach, and provides a narrative of challenges and opportunities that have arisen during the early phases. Crucial to the long-term sustainability of this work is the nurturing and sustaining of partnerships between African mental health researchers, policy makers, practitioners and international collaborators.
Sand quarrying in 1989 at Sand Fiold, Sandwick, in Orkney resulted in the accidental discovery of a rock-cut chamber containing a cist. Subsequent excavation revealed that this cist had a number of unusual features. The cist slabs had been fitted together exceptionally well and the completed cist was designed to be re-opened by the removal of a side slab. Within the chamber, access was provided to the opening side of the cist and a relieving structure was built over its capstone.
The cist contained cremation and inhumation burials that had been inserted on more than one occasion; as its builders intended. A collection of poorly preserved unburnt bone was found to comprise the remains of two individuals: a young adult and a foetus. Two collections of cremated bone, each derived from a single adult, were also present; one in a Food Vessel Urn, the second forming a pile on the floor and containing two burnt antler tines and two unburnt human teeth. The un-urned cremation deposit and the unburnt bones had been covered in mats of plant fibres derived from grass and sedge. The urn had been lined with basketry, also made from grass. Outside the cist, an exceptionally large collection of fuel ash slag (FAS), derived from a cremation pyre, had been deposited between the cist and the wall of the rock-cut chamber.
Radiocarbon dates indicate that the site and its contents had a long history. The FAS and the foetus skeleton date to 2900–2500 cal BC. Between 2200 and 1900 cal BC the urned cremation and young adult human bones were inserted and charcoal was deposited in the foundation slots for the back wall of the cist. The deposition of the un-urned cremation was dated to 1000–800 cal BC, some 900 years later, when the urn had already fallen over and broken. At this time, it is assumed that the urn was restored to an upright position and propped with stones, while the stone lid for the urn was reused in the foundation slot of the left-hand side of the cist. Reuse and refurbishment over two millennia seem evidenced in the results from this cist.
Very few theories have generated the kind of interdisciplinary and global engagement that marks the intellectual history of intersectionality. Yet, there has been very little effort to reflect upon precisely how intersectionality has moved across time, disciplines, issues, and geographic and national boundaries. Our failure to attend to intersectionality's movement has limited our ability to see the theory in places in which it is already doing work and to imagine other places to which the theory might be taken. Addressing these questions, this special issue reflects upon the genesis of intersectionality, engages some of the debates about its scope and theoretical capacity, marks some of its disciplinary and global travels, and explores the future trajectory of the theory. To do so, the volume includes academics from across the disciplines and from outside of the United States. Their respective contributions help us to understand how intersectionality has moved and to broaden our sense of where the theory might still go.
We describe epidemiological trends in Mycobacterium bovis infection in an undisturbed wild badger (Meles meles) population. Data were derived from the capture, clinical sampling and serological testing of 1803 badgers over 9945 capture events spanning 24 years. Incidence and prevalence increased over time, exhibiting no simple relationship with host density. Potential explanations are presented for a marked increase in the frequency of positive serological test results. Transmission rates (R0) estimated from empirical data were consistent with modelled estimates and robust to changes in test sensitivity and the spatial extent of the population at risk. The risk of a positive culture or serological test result increased with badger age, and varied seasonally. Evidence consistent with progressive disease was found in cubs. This study demonstrates the value of long-term data and the repeated application of imperfect diagnostic tests as indices of infection to reveal epidemiological trends in M. bovis infection in badgers.
The behaviour of certain infected individuals within socially structured populations can have a disproportionately large effect on the spatio-temporal distribution of infection. Endemic infection with Mycobacterium bovis in European badgers (Meles meles) in Great Britain and Ireland is an important source of bovine tuberculosis in cattle. Here we quantify the risk of infection in badger cubs in a high-density wild badger population, in relation to the infection status of resident adults. Over a 24-year period, we observed variation in the risk of cub infection, with those born into groups with resident infectious breeding females being over four times as likely to be detected excreting M. bovis than cubs from groups where there was no evidence of infection in adults. We discuss how our findings relate to the persistence of infection at both social group and population level, and the potential implications for disease control strategies.
The microstructure and microchemistry of a number of melt textured CuInSe2 ingots prepared from a variety of starting charge compositions have been investigated using a combination of TEM, EPMA and Auger spectroscopy. If a stoichiometric starting mixture is used, In-rich and Cu-rich precipitates are found at the first and last to freeze zones of the ingot respectively, accompanied by an intervening mid-portion of inclusion free (although slightly off-stoichiometry) CuInSe2 We have found that in order to achieve an optimum matrix composition, a Cu-rich charge is required; however, this leads to a fine distribution of copper selenide particles throughout the ingot. If the starting charge is In-rich, then the boule contains In-rich precipitates and the matrix composition is In-rich and Cu-deficient. These observations are correlated with the observed electrical characteristics of the boules.
Transmission X-ray diffraction is demonstrated as a new tool for examining daughter minerals within sub-micrometre-size fluid inclusions in fibrous diamond. In transmission geometry, the X-ray beam passes through the sample, interacting with a volume of material. Fibrous diamonds from Mbuji-Mayi. Democratic Republic of Congo; the Wawa area, Ontario, Canada; and the Panda kimberlite, Ekati Mine, Northwest Territories and the Jericho kimberlite, Nunavut, Canada were analysed using X-rays from a high-brilliance lab source and a synchrotron source. Daughter minerals present include the mica-group mineral celadonite, sylvite, halite, dolomite and other carbonates. This represents the first positive identification of halide minerals in fibrous diamond. Mineral inclusions such as forsteritic olivine and pyrope garnet were also found. Unexpectedly, daughter minerals were identified in only ten of the 38 diamonds analysed, despite their concentrations being greater than experimentally proven detection limits. The presence of significant amounts of amorphous or dissolved material appears unlikely, but cannot be ruled out. Alternatively, the results may indicate a wide variety of related daughter minerals, such that most phases fall below the detection limits. Transmission X-ray diffraction should be applied cautiously to the study of fibrous diamond, as it provides an incomplete account of the fluid-inclusion mineralogy.
In the first section of this paper the sputter deposition of thin films of YBa2Cu3O7−x is considered. In the second section low and high temperature heat treatments are discussed in the light of the thermodynamics of the material and in the third the development, fabrication and current-voltage (IV) characteristics of a variety of device structures are described, including the hysterctic characteristics of certain YBa2Cu3O7−x / YBa2Cu3O7−x devices that reveal Josephson supcrcurrcnt tunnelling.
A series of CuInSe2 single crystals which were grown by the vertical Bridgman technique have been implanted with oxygen and xenon ions. These implants tend to cause a change from n to p-type conductivity and an enhancement of the photoconductivity. We present HREM and SIMS characterisation of the microstructural effects caused by high dose ion implants on CuInSe2. We also correlate our data with calculated ion implant profiles. In addition, we show that CuInSe2 thin foils can undergo significant degradation under the electron beam irradiation conditions which are commonly encountered in electron microscopes.