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Hurricane evacuation is one of the strategies employed by emergency management and other agencies to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with hurricanes. However, factors associated with residents’ evacuation decision-making have been inconsistent. In this study, we conducted a statistical meta-analysis to identify factors associated with hurricane evacuation as well as moderators of the evacuation decision.
A systematic literature search identified 36 studies published between 1999 and 2018. Pooled estimates were calculated using random-effects models, and heterogeneity across studies was checked using both Q and I2 statistics. Meta-regression methods were used to identify moderators. Publication bias was assessed using both visual (funnel plots) and statistical methods.
Mobile home residence, perception of risk, female sex, and Hispanic ethnicity were statistically associated with hurricane evacuation, while geographic region modified the relationship between Hispanic race and evacuation.
Agencies responsible for preparedness may utilize these findings to identify specific population sub-groups for hurricane evacuation communication and other interventions. Future studies should consider statistical interactions and explore opportunities for research translation to emergency officials.
The extent to which obsessive–compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) are impulsive, compulsive, or both requires further investigation. We investigated the existence of different clusters in an online nonclinical sample and in which groups DSM-5 OCRDs and other related psychopathological symptoms are best placed.
Seven hundred and seventy-four adult participants completed online questionnaires including the Cambridge–Chicago Compulsivity Trait Scale (CHI-T), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15), and a series of DSM-5 OCRDs symptom severity and other psychopathological measures. We used K-means cluster analysis using CHI-T and BIS responses to test three and four factor solutions. Next, we investigated whether different OCRDs symptoms predicted cluster membership using a multinomial regression model.
The best solution identified one “healthy” and three “clinical” clusters (ie, one predominantly “compulsive” group, one predominantly “impulsive” group, and one “mixed”—“compulsive and impulsive group”). A multinomial regression model found obsessive–compulsive, body dysmorphic, and schizotypal symptoms to be associated with the “mixed” and the “compulsive” clusters, and hoarding and emotional symptoms to be related, on a trend level, to the “impulsive” cluster. Additional analysis showed cognitive-perceptual schizotypal symptoms to be associated with the “mixed” but not the “compulsive” group.
Our findings suggest that obsessive–compulsive disorder; body dysmorphic disorder and schizotypal symptoms can be mapped across the “compulsive” and “mixed” clusters of the compulsive–impulsive spectrum. Although there was a trend toward hoarding being associated with the “impulsive” group, trichotillomania, and skin picking disorder symptoms did not clearly fit to the demarcated clusters.
In 2019, California and Wilmington, Delaware‘ implemented policies requiring healthier default beverages with restaurant kids’ meals. The current study assessed restaurant beverage offerings and manager perceptions.
Pre-post menu observations were conducted in California and Wilmington. Observations of cashiers/servers during orders were conducted pre-post implementation in California and post-implementation in Wilmington. Changes in California were compared using multilevel logistic regression and paired t tests. Post-implementation, managers were interviewed.
Inside and drive-through ordering venues in a sample of quick-service restaurants in low-income California communities and all restaurants in Wilmington subject to the policy, the month before and 7–12 months after policy implementation.
Restaurant observations (California n 110; Wilmington n 14); managers (California n 75; Wilmington n 15).
Pre-implementation, the most common kids’ meal beverages on California menus were unflavoured milk and water (78·8 %, 52·0 %); in Wilmington, juice, milk and sugar-sweetened beverages were most common (81·8 %, 66·7 % and 46·2 %). Post-implementation, menus including only policy-consistent beverages significantly increased in California (9·7 % to 66·1 %, P < 0·0001), but remained constant in Wilmington (30·8 %). During orders, cashiers/servers offering only policy-consistent beverages significantly decreased post-implementation in California (5·0 % to 1·0 %, P = 0·002). Few managers (California 29·3 %; Wilmington 0 %) reported policy knowledge, although most expressed support. Most managers wanted additional information for customers and staff.
While the proportion of menus offering only policy-consistent kids’ meal default beverages increased in California, offerings did not change in Wilmington. In both jurisdictions, managers lacked policy knowledge, and few cashiers/servers offered only policy-consistent beverages. Additional efforts are needed to strengthen implementation of kids’ meal beverage policies.
Our objective was to compare patterns of dental antibiotic prescribing in Australia, England, and North America (United States and British Columbia, Canada).
Population-level analysis of antibiotic prescription.
Outpatient prescribing by dentists in 2017.
Patients receiving an antibiotic dispensed by an outpatient pharmacy.
Prescription-based rates adjusted by population were compared overall and by antibiotic class. Contingency tables assessed differences in the proportion of antibiotic class by country.
In 2017, dentists in the United States had the highest antibiotic prescribing rate per 1,000 population and Australia had the lowest rate. The penicillin class, particularly amoxicillin, was the most frequently prescribed for all countries. The second most common agents prescribed were clindamycin in the United States and British Columbia (Canada) and metronidazole in Australia and England. Broad-spectrum agents, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and azithromycin were the highest in Australia and the United States, respectively.
Extreme differences exist in antibiotics prescribed by dentists in Australia, England, the United States, and British Columbia. The United States had twice the antibiotic prescription rate of Australia and the most frequently prescribed antibiotic in the US was clindamycin. Significant opportunities exist for the global dental community to update their prescribing behavior relating to second-line agents for penicillin allergic patients and to contribute to international efforts addressing antibiotic resistance. Patient safety improvements will result from optimizing dental antibiotic prescribing, especially for antibiotics associated with resistance (broad-spectrum agents) or C. difficile (clindamycin). Dental antibiotic stewardship programs are urgently needed worldwide.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: MiaA has a human homolog known as TRIT1. Mutations in TRIT1 have been associated with rare diseases such as MELAS and MERRF syndromes. These diseases are associated with mitochondrial disfunction.Understanding the mechanisms of bacterial sRNAs, and the miRNAs associated with these diseases could potentially afford the insight into effective cures. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The aim is to investigate the regulation and function of tRNA isopentyladenine transferase enzyme in Escherichia coli. We aimed to execute screens for the identification of small RNA regulators of MiaA. The study will also investigate if i6A tRNA modification is necessary for the expression of major heat shock and mitochondrial proteins. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We constructed a chromosomal miaA-lacZ translational fusion driven by the arabinose responsive PBAD promoter and used it to screen against an Escherichia coli small RNA library. Using CsrB, one of our candidate sRNA regulators from our genetic screen, we measured the steady state levels of MiaA by Northern Blot in a PBAD-miaA2(P2HS)-lacZ translational fusion strain whereby pBR-pLac-csrB, pBR-pLac-csrA and the pBR-pLac vector are over-expressed, and under the control of an IPTG inducible promoter. Additionally, and in the same PBAD-miaA2(P2HS)-lacZ translational fusion strain background, we measured the steady state levels of MiaA in the wild type, csrA:zeo mutant strain, and csrA:zeo pBR-pLac-csrA complementation strain to determine if a combination of the pair would restore the wild-type genotype. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Upon measuring the effect of small RNAs on miaA expression using quantitative b-galactosidase assays, we saw a 5-fold decrease in the expression of MiaA in the miaA-lacZ translational fusion containing sRNA CsrB, suggesting that this sRNA may play a role in the regulation of post-transcriptional expression of MiaA.From our northern blotting analysis, we observed a 6-fold decrease in MiaA expression in the absence of csrA, suggesting that csrA is essential for MiaA expression. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Identifying, mapping and characterizing how MiaA is regulated post-transcriptionally will give us an increased understanding in the maintenance and regulation of the normal function of E.coli to conserve homeostasis and translation fidelity.
The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a significant destructive force in the pine forests of western Canada and has the capacity to spread east into a novel host tree species, jack pine (Pinaceae). New populations have been documented in central Alberta, Canada, but the source populations for these outbreaks have yet to be identified. In this study, we use genetic data to identify parent populations for recent outbreak sites near Slave Lake, Lac La Biche, and Hinton, Alberta. We found the northern population cluster that entered Alberta near Grande Prairie was the source of the most eastern established population near Lac La Biche, and the range expansion to this leading-edge population has been too rapid to establish evidence of population structure. However, some dispersal from a population in the Jasper and Hinton area has been detected as far north and east as Slave Lake, Alberta. We also identified two potential source populations for the current outbreak in Hinton: most beetles appear to be from Jasper National Park, Alberta, but some also originated from the northern population cluster. These findings demonstrate the dynamic dispersal capabilities of mountain pine beetle across the Alberta landscape and the potential hazard of increased dispersal to newly established leading-edge populations.
Limited information exists about the prevalence of psychiatric illness for Indigenous Australians. This study examines the prevalence of diagnosed psychiatric disorders in Indigenous Australians and compares this to non-Indigenous Australians. The aims were to: (1) determine prevalence rates for psychiatric diagnoses for Indigenous Australians admitted to hospital; and (2) examine whether the profile of psychiatric diagnoses for Indigenous Australians was different compared with non-Indigenous Australians.
A birth cohort design was adopted, with the population consisting of 45 141 individuals born in the Australian State of Queensland in 1990 (6.3% Indigenous). Linked administrative data from Queensland Health hospital admissions were used to identify psychiatric diagnoses from age 4/5 to 23/24 years. Crude lifetime prevalence rates of psychiatric diagnoses for Indigenous and non-Indigenous individuals were derived from the hospital admissions data. The cumulative incidence of psychiatric diagnoses was modelled separately for Indigenous and non-Indigenous individuals. Logistic regression was used to model differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous psychiatric presentations while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics.
There were 2783 (6.2%) individuals in the cohort with a diagnosed psychiatric disorder from a hospital admission. The prevalence of any psychiatric diagnosis at age 23/24 years was 17.2% (491) for Indigenous Australians compared with 5.4% (2292) for non-Indigenous Australians. Indigenous individuals were diagnosed earlier, with overrepresentation in psychiatric illness becoming more pronounced with age. Indigenous individuals were overrepresented in almost all categories of psychiatric disorder and this was most pronounced for substance use disorders (SUDs) (12.2 v. 2.6% of Indigenous and non-Indigenous individuals, respectively). Differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in the likelihood of psychiatric disorders were not statistically significant after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, except for SUDs.
There is significant inequality in psychiatric morbidity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians across most forms of psychiatric illness that is evident from an early age and becomes more pronounced with age. SUDs are particularly prevalent, highlighting the importance of appropriate interventions to prevent and address these problems. Inequalities in mental health may be driven by socioeconomic disadvantage experienced by Indigenous individuals.
The peoples of southern Mesoamerica, including the Classic period Maya, are often claimed to exhibit a distinct type of spatial organization relative to contemporary urban systems. Here, we use the settlement scaling framework and properties of settlements recorded in systematic, full-coverage surveys to examine ways in which southern Mesoamerican settlement systems were both similar to and different from contemporary systems. We find that the population-area relationship in these settlements differs greatly from that reported for other agrarian settlement systems, but that more typical patterns emerge when one considers a site epicenter as the relevant social interaction area, and the population administered from a given center as the relevant interacting population. Our results imply that southern Mesoamerican populations mixed socially at a slower temporal rhythm than is typical of contemporary systems. Residential locations reflected the need to balance energetic and transport costs of farming with lower-frequency costs of commuting to central places. Nevertheless, increasing returns in activities such as civic construction were still realized through lower-frequency social mixing. These findings suggest that the primary difference between low-density urbanism and contemporary urban systems lies in the spatial and temporal rhythms of social mixing.
Understanding risk factors for death from Covid-19 is key to providing good quality clinical care. We assessed the presenting characteristics of the ‘first wave’ of patients with Covid-19 at Royal Oldham Hospital, UK and undertook logistic regression modelling to investigate factors associated with death. Of 470 patients admitted, 169 (36%) died. The median age was 71 years (interquartile range 57–82), and 255 (54.3%) were men. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (n = 218, 46.4%), diabetes (n = 143, 30.4%) and chronic neurological disease (n = 123, 26.1%). The most frequent complications were acute kidney injury (AKI) (n = 157, 33.4%) and myocardial injury (n = 21, 4.5%). Forty-three (9.1%) patients required intubation and ventilation, and 39 (8.3%) received non-invasive ventilation. Independent risk factors for death were increasing age (odds ratio (OR) per 10 year increase above 40 years 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.57–2.27), hypertension (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.10–2.70), cancer (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.27–3.81), platelets <150 × 103/μl (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.13–3.30), C-reactive protein ≥100 μg/ml (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.05–2.68), >50% chest radiograph infiltrates (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.16–3.77) and AKI (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.64–4.13). There was no independent association between death and gender, ethnicity, deprivation level, fever, SpO2/FiO2, lymphopoenia or other comorbidities. These findings will inform clinical and shared decision making, including use of respiratory support and therapeutic agents.
Immunocompromised patients are at risk for infections due to above-ceiling activities in hospitals. Mobile dust-containment carts are available as environmental controls, but no published data support their efficacy. Using microbial air sampling and particle counts, we provide evidence of reduced risk of fungal exposure during open ceiling activities.
There is a shift in livestock auction sales in consolidation of live markets and movement toward virtual marketplaces. We examine buyer preferences for nonracing stock-type horses sold through virtual auctions to better understand how animals are sold and their valuation. A shift towards online sales of equine has impacted the number of potential buyers through increased exposure to sale horses. Using data collected from online auctions, we estimate factors influencing propensity to sell as well as price determinants in this market platform. We find many factors contribute to the likelihood of a horse selling and to the final sale price.
This article examines numerically the two-dimensional fluid–structure interaction problem of a circular cylinder rolling under gravity along an inclined surface under the assumption of a fixed but small gap. The motion of the cylinder is governed by the ratio of cylinder and fluid densities and the Reynolds number based on a velocity scale derived from the momentum balance in the asymptotic regime. For increasing Reynolds number, the cylinder wake undergoes a transition from steady to periodic flow, causing oscillations of the cylinder motion. The critical Reynolds number increases for light cylinders. Whereas the time-averaged characteristics of the asymptotic rolling states depend only on the Reynolds number, the density ratio has an additional influence on the vibration amplitude and on the cylinder motion during a start-up transient from rest. Light cylinders reach their final state quickly after the initial acceleration; heavier cylinders traverse a series of quasi-steady states, including a temporary velocity overshoot, before settling in the asymptotic regime. The amplitudes of the flow-induced vibrations remain small over the entire parameter range, which can be attributed to the value of the added-mass force associated with a rolling cylinder. Special attention is paid to the influence of the small but finite gap between cylinder and wall, since lubrication theory predicts a diverging pressure drag for a vanishing gap. The variations with gap size of the forces, torque and added mass are explored. The gap also influences the characteristics of the cylinder vibrations in the unsteady wake regime, in particular their amplitude.
Background: With the emergence of antibiotic resistant threats and the need for appropriate antibiotic use, laboratory microbiology information is important to guide clinical decision making in nursing homes, where access to such data can be limited. Susceptibility data are necessary to inform antibiotic selection and to monitor changes in resistance patterns over time. To contribute to existing data that describe antibiotic resistance among nursing home residents, we summarized antibiotic susceptibility data from organisms commonly isolated from urine cultures collected as part of the CDC multistate, Emerging Infections Program (EIP) nursing home prevalence survey. Methods: In 2017, urine culture and antibiotic susceptibility data for selected organisms were retrospectively collected from nursing home residents’ medical records by trained EIP staff. Urine culture results reported as negative (no growth) or contaminated were excluded. Susceptibility results were recorded as susceptible, non-susceptible (resistant or intermediate), or not tested. The pooled mean percentage tested and percentage non-susceptible were calculated for selected antibiotic agents and classes using available data. Susceptibility data were analyzed for organisms with ≥20 isolates. The definition for multidrug-resistance (MDR) was based on the CDC and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control’s interim standard definitions. Data were analyzed using SAS v 9.4 software. Results: Among 161 participating nursing homes and 15,276 residents, 300 residents (2.0%) had documentation of a urine culture at the time of the survey, and 229 (76.3%) were positive. Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella spp, and Enterococcus spp represented 73.0% of all urine isolates (N = 278). There were 215 (77.3%) isolates with reported susceptibility data (Fig. 1). Of these, data were analyzed for 187 (87.0%) (Fig. 2). All isolates tested for carbapenems were susceptible. Fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility was most prevalent among E. coli (42.9%) and P. mirabilis (55.9%). Among Klebsiella spp, the highest percentages of non-susceptibility were observed for extended-spectrum cephalosporins and folate pathway inhibitors (25.0% each). Glycopeptide non-susceptibility was 10.0% for Enterococcus spp. The percentage of isolates classified as MDR ranged from 10.1% for E. coli to 14.7% for P. mirabilis. Conclusions: Substantial levels of non-susceptibility were observed for nursing home residents’ urine isolates, with 10% to 56% reported as non-susceptible to the antibiotics assessed. Non-susceptibility was highest for fluoroquinolones, an antibiotic class commonly used in nursing homes, and ≥ 10% of selected isolates were MDR. Our findings reinforce the importance of nursing homes using susceptibility data from laboratory service providers to guide antibiotic prescribing and to monitor levels of resistance.
Background: Antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed drugs in nursing homes; urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a frequent indication. Although there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of UTIs, various criteria have been developed to inform and standardize nursing home prescribing decisions, with the goal of reducing unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. Using different published criteria designed to guide decisions on initiating treatment of UTIs (ie, symptomatic, catheter-associated, and uncomplicated cystitis), our objective was to assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing among NH residents. Methods: In 2017, the CDC Emerging Infections Program (EIP) performed a prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections and antibiotic use in 161 nursing homes from 10 states: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. EIP staff reviewed resident medical records to collect demographic and clinical information, infection signs, symptoms, and diagnostic testing documented on the day an antibiotic was initiated and 6 days prior. We applied 4 criteria to determine whether initiation of treatment for UTI was supported: (1) the Loeb minimum clinical criteria (Loeb); (2) the Suspected UTI Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation tool (UTI SBAR tool); (3) adaptation of Infectious Diseases Society of America UTI treatment guidelines for nursing home residents (Crnich & Drinka); and (4) diagnostic criteria for uncomplicated cystitis (cystitis consensus) (Fig. 1). We calculated the percentage of residents for whom initiating UTI treatment was appropriate by these criteria. Results: Of 248 residents for whom UTI treatment was initiated in the nursing home, the median age was 79 years [IQR, 19], 63% were female, and 35% were admitted for postacute care. There was substantial variability in the percentage of residents with antibiotic initiation classified as appropriate by each of the criteria, ranging from 8% for the cystitis consensus, to 27% for Loeb, to 33% for the UTI SBAR tool, to 51% for Crnich and Drinka (Fig. 2). Conclusions: Appropriate initiation of UTI treatment among nursing home residents remained low regardless of criteria used. At best only half of antibiotic treatment met published prescribing criteria. Although insufficient documentation of infection signs, symptoms and testing may have contributed to the low percentages observed, adequate documentation in the medical record to support prescribing should be standard practice, as outlined in the CDC Core Elements of Antibiotic Stewardship for nursing homes. Standardized UTI prescribing criteria should be incorporated into nursing home stewardship activities to improve the assessment and documentation of symptomatic UTI and to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use.
Antibiotic resistance (AR) is a growing and highly prevalent problem in nursing homes. We describe selected AR phenotypes from pathogens causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) reported by nursing homes to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN).
Pathogens and antibiotic susceptibility testing results for UTI events in nursing homes between January 2013 and December 2017 were analyzed. The pathogen distribution and pooled mean proportion of isolates that tested resistant to select antibiotic agents are reported.
Setting and Participants:
US nursing homes voluntarily participating in the Long-Term Care Facility component of the NHSN.
Overall, 243 nursing homes reported 1 or more UTIs: 121 (50%) were nonprofit facilities, median bed size was 91 (range: 9–801), and average occupancy was 87%. In total, 6,157 pathogens were reported for 5,485 UTI events. Moreover, 9 pathogens accounted for 90% of all reported UTIs; the 3 most frequently identified were Escherichia coli (41%), Proteus species (14%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae/oxytoca (13%). Among E. coli, fluoroquinolone, and extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance were most prevalent (50% and 20%, respectively). Although Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium represented <5% of pathogens reported, they had the highest rates of resistance (67% methicillin resistant and 60% vancomycin resistant, respectively). Multidrug resistance was most common in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11%). For the resistant phenotypes we assessed, 36% of all UTIs reported were associated with a resistant pathogen.
This is the first summary of AR among common pathogens causing UTIs reported to NHSN by nursing homes. Improved understanding of the resistance burden among common infections helps inform facility infection prevention and antibiotic stewardship efforts.
Patent ductus arteriosus closure is traditionally performed by thoracotomy approach. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is a less frequently utilised alternative. We sought to compare elective surgical outcomes between the two methods via a single-centre retrospective cohort analysis.
All patients >3.2 kg undergoing surgical patent ductus arteriosus ligation at a single institution from 2000 to 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Propensity matching for age, weight, diuretic usage, and preterm status was conducted to adjust for differences in baseline patient characteristics. Outcome measures included operative time, hospitalisation duration, post-operative complications, and re-operation.
A total of 173 patients were included, 127 thoracoscopy and 46 thoracotomy. In the unmatched cohorts, no significant difference in closure success was found (94% thoracoscopy versus 100% thoracotomy, p = 0.192). Although median operative time was longer for thoracoscopy (87 versus 56 minutes, p < 0.001), hospitalisation duration was shorter (1.05 versus 2.41 days, p < 0.001), as was ICU stay (0.00 versus 0.75 days, p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in re-operation or complication rates, except chest tube placement (11% thoracoscopy versus 50% thoracotomy, p < 0.001). After matching (69 thoracoscopy versus 20 thoracotomy), these differences persisted, including median operative time (81 versus 56 minutes, p = 0.007; thoracoscopy versus thoracotomy), hospitalisation duration (1.25 versus 2.27 days, p < 0.001), and chest tube placement (17% versus 60%, p < 0.001). There remained no significant difference in complications or re-operations.
Thoracoscopic ligation was associated with shorter ICU and hospital stays and less frequent chest tube placement, but longer operative times. Other risks, including bleeding, chylothorax, and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, were similar.
Design & Manufacture Knowledge Mapping is a critical activity in medium-to-large organisations supporting many organisational activities. However, techniques for effective mapping of knowledge often employ interviews, consultations and appraisals. Although invaluable in providing expert insight, the application of such methods is inherently intrusive and resource intensive. This paper presents word co-occurrence graphs as a means to automatically generate knowledge maps from technical documents and validates against expert generated knowledge maps.
This article examines provincial policy influence on long-term care (LTC) professionals’ advice-seeking networks in Canada’s Maritime provinces. The effects of facility ownership, geography, and region-specific political landscapes on LTC best-practice dissemination are examined. We used sociometric statistics and network sociograms, calculated from surveys with 169 senior leaders in LTC facilities, to identify advice-seeking network structures and to select 11 follow-up interview participants. Network structures were distinguished by density, sub-group number, opinion leader, and boundary spanner distribution. Network structure was affected by ownership model in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, and by regional geography in New Brunswick. Political instability within each province’s LTC system negatively affected network actors’ capabilities to enact innovation. Moreover, provincial policy variations influence advice-seeking network structures, facilitating and constraining relationship development and networking. Consequently, local policy context is essential to informing dissemination strategy design or implementation.
We identify an incorrect term in the expression for the rate of change of circulation of a material volume including an interface between two fluids which appears in Brøns et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 758, 2014, pp. 63–93).