We present a detailed analysis of inter- and intraband transitions in GaN/AlN self-organized quantum dots grown on sapphire, silicon (111) and 6H-SiC substrates. Quantum dot samples have been characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence and photo-induced absorption spectroscopy. Interlevel transitions in the conduction band are observed in the 0.52–0.98 eV energy range, thus covering the telecommunication band. The s-pz absorption is peaked at 0.8 eV (0.52 eV) for samples with dot height of 1.5 nm (6 nm). Calculations show that in bigger dots the transition energy is governed by the value of the internal field.