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Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical compound that has adverse health outcomes in adults when exposed during the perinatal period. However, its effect on cardiovascular function remains to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of daily administration of BPA to pregnant mice from gestational days 11 to 19 on cardiometabolic outcomes in the adult offspring. Prenatal BPA exposure resulted in altered growth trajectory and organ size, increase adiposity and impaired glucose homeostasis in male and female offspring. In addition, these BPA offspring exhibited raised systolic blood pressure, and in the males this was accompanied by impaired vascular tone. The aortas in females, but not in males, from the BPA group also showed reduced estrogen receptor gene expression. These results indicate that prenatal exposure to BPA increased susceptibility of the offspring to developing cardiovascular and metabolic dysfunction later in life.
Impaired flexibility in the use of substrates for energy production in the heart is implicated in cardiomyopathy. We investigated the effect of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy in rats on the transcription of key genes in cardiac lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in the offspring. Rats were fed protein-sufficient or protein-restricted (PR) diets during pregnancy. Triacylglycerol concentration in adult (day 105) heart was altered by maternal protein intake contingent on post-weaning fat intake and sex. mRNA expression of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 was increased by the maternal PR diet in adult, but not neonatal, offspring. PPARα promoter methylation was lower in adult and neonatal heart from PR offspring. These findings suggest that prenatal nutrition alters the future transcriptional regulation of cardiac energy metabolism in the offspring through changes in epigenetic regulation of specific genes. However, changes in gene functional changes may not be apparent in early life.
The scope of this reflection paper was to review the latest research on the risk of MRSA infection and colonization in animals. Attention focused on occurrence, risk factors for colonization and infection, and human contact hazard for livestock, horses, and companion animals. Whereas the clonal relationship between MRSA strains of CC398 is straightforward in livestock this is less obvious in horses. Small companion animals typically share MRSA strains that seem to exchange with a human reservoir. Management and therapeutic options have been suggested for livestock, horses, companion animals, as well as instructions on safety measures for persons in contact with animals. Conclusions were drawn with emphasis on future research activities, especially to confirm the apparent evolution of the organism and to demonstrate efficiency of control strategies.
The title “Operational Flying” gives considerable latitude, although a title such as “Naval Air Operations” would be more descriptive. I propose to spend rather less than half my time talking about operations with which I was personally connected. One reason for this is that my experience of firstline flying did not extend beyond the end of 1941 and therefore can hardly be considered to be of topical interest.
After that I will say something on the subject of Naval air operations as a whole. I will also touch on such points as ship-based flying from the pilot's point of view; the way in which the carrier is fitted in as part of the fleet; the relative merits of ship– and shore-based aircraft in different circumstances; the so–called vulnerability of the carrier; and finally, a brief outline of the current types of aircraft in service and. of the capacity of a typical carrier from which they would operate.
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