To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A study was conducted to evaluate the response of glyphosate- and dicamba-tolerant (GDT) soybean and weed control from cover crop different termination intervals before and after soybean planting. Cover crop biomass was highest when terminated at planting, decreased with the 7- and 14-d preplant (DPP) and day-after-planting (DAP) timings, and again at the 14 DPP and DAP timings. Glyphosate+dicamba provided total control of cover crops by 21 DAP. Cover crop termination timing did not influence soybean population or yield. Palmer amaranth control at the 21 and 28 d after termination (DAT) was 97% to 99%. Differences in Palmer amaranth control were not detected among herbicide programs or termination intervals at the end of season rating, and all treatments provided ≥97% control. Although differences in Palmer amaranth control were not apparent at the end of the season, the delay in cover crop affected the number of days until 10-cm Palmer amaranth was present. When utilizing a wheat+hairy vetch cover crop in DGT soybeans, producers should delay cover crop termination until 11 to 14 DPP and make at least one POST application of glyphosate+dicamba+an additional herbicide mode of action (MOA) to maximize Palmer amaranth control and soybean yields.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
The eastern Adriatic is a key area for understanding the mechanisms and effects of the spread of agriculture. This article presents an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon chronology for the introduction and subsequent development of farming villages on the eastern shore of the Adriatic (∼6000–1700 cal BC) and evaluates this in comparison with the established pottery chronology based on stylistic data from Pokrovnik (Drniš) on the Dalmatian coast of Croatia. Models for the spread of agriculture rely heavily on changing pottery styles to define cultural groups and trace geographic relationships. Based on AMS 14C dates presented here, Impressed Wares first appear in central Dalmatia by 6000 cal BC and persist until 5300 cal BC, well into what is generally termed the Middle Neolithic. Similarly, a typical Middle Neolithic ware, figulina, appeared earlier than anticipated. These findings stand in contrast to cave and rockshelter assemblages in the eastern Adriatic, but mirror assemblages from farming villages on the Italian Adriatic coast. This study argues that the similarities in ceramic assemblage composition and change through time may have less to do with direct contacts between areas, but more with the nature of ceramic production and consumption at village sites in general. These data shed light on the limitations of regional ceramic chronologies in the eastern Adriatic and highlight the necessity for systematic expansion of 14C chronologies to address the social, economic, and ecological relevance of early farming in the Adriatic for the spread of agriculture in Europe and the Mediterranean.
Light curve analysis by MDW of the photometry and RV data accumulated to date on HD 209458 has made use of a simulations database created for an 8-day HST observing project led by RLG to look for transits in 47 Tuc. We report progress in developing a consistent set of parameters obtained with our versions of the Wilson-Devinney program, WD98 and wd98k93, specially modified to treat large grid sizes, corresponding to objects with radii exceeding 0.7RJ and masses greater than 0.1 MJ.
This work is supported in part by grants to EFM by Canadian NSERC and by the Univ. of Calgary Research Grants Committee.
The movements of fluid–fluid interfaces and the common curve are an important aspect of two-fluid-phase flow through porous media. The focus of this work is to develop, apply and evaluate methods to simulate two-fluid-phase flow in porous medium systems at the microscale and to demonstrate how these results can be used to support evolving macroscale models. Of particular concern is the problem of spurious velocities that confound the accurate representation of interfacial dynamics in such systems. To circumvent this problem, a combined level-set and lattice-Boltzmann method is advanced to simulate and track the dynamics of the fluid–fluid interface and of the common curve during simulations of two-fluid-phase flow in porous media. We demonstrate that the interface and common curve velocities can be determined accurately, even when spurious currents are generated in the vicinity of interfaces. Static and dynamic contact angles are computed and shown to agree with existing slip models. A resolution study is presented for dynamic drainage and imbibition in a sphere pack, demonstrating the sensitivity of averaged quantities to resolution.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
The future of centimetre and metre-wave astronomy lies with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), a telescope under development by a consortium of 17 countries that will be 50 times more sensitive than any existing radio facility. Most of the key science for the SKA will be addressed through large-area imaging of the Universe at frequencies from a few hundred MHz to a few GHz. The Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) is a technology demonstrator aimed in the mid-frequency range, and achieves instantaneous wide-area imaging through the development and deployment of phased-array feed systems on parabolic reflectors. The large field-of-view makes ASKAP an unprecedented synoptic telescope that will make substantial advances in SKA key science. ASKAP will be located at the Murchison Radio Observatory in inland Western Australia, one of the most radio-quiet locations on the Earth and one of two sites selected by the international community as a potential location for the SKA. In this paper, we outline an ambitious science program for ASKAP, examining key science such as understanding the evolution, formation and population of galaxies including our own, understanding the magnetic Universe, revealing the transient radio sky and searching for gravitational waves.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
The role of large-scale stellar feedback in the formation of molecular clouds has been investigated observationally by examining the relationship between Hi and 12CO(J = 1−0) in supershells. Detailed parsec-resolution case studies of two Milky Way supershells demonstrate an enhanced level of molecularisation over both objects, and hence provide the first quantitative observational evidence of increased molecular cloud production in volumes of space affected by supershell activity. Recent results on supergiant shells in the LMC suggest that while they do indeed help to organise the ISM into over-dense structures, their global contribution to molecular cloud formation is of the order of only ∼ 10%.
The early stages of a gas phase pretreatment for diamond nucleation in an oxy-acetylene flame were investigated. The pretreatment involved a low oxygen-to-acetylene ratio (Rf = 0.93) performed at 15 mm from the torch on a scratched Si substrate. The nature of the carbon species deposited was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The pretreatment process produced diamond crystals after 30 seconds and a complete film in the center of the deposition area after 180 seconds. Furthermore, the pretreatment process kept the initial Siob2 layer less than the thickness generated by the control conditions, (Rf = 0.97, d = 10mm). The success of the pretreatment was attributed to changes in the flame structure and chemistry from the control conditions.
Micro- and Macro-photoluminescence techniques were employed in this research to investigate the role of nitrogen-doping on the optical spectra of chemical vapor deposited diamond films and to determine whether the origin of the broadband luminescence is due to vibronic interaction of the nitrogen centers. The temperature behavior of the broadband PL and of the 1.681 eV silicon related optical center were analyzed. The intensity of the broadband was found to exhibit a temperature dependence characteristic of optical emission from a continuous distribution of gap states while the temperature dependence of the 1.681 eV band followed the Boltzmann quenching process.
The ultimate goal of this research was to demonstrate a Microwave Plasma assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPCVD) process to coat a Ti-6A1-4V bearing shaft. Preliminary experiments were performed in an ASTeX™ system on flat chemically pure titanium and Ti-6AI-4V coupons. Diamond deposition was also attempted on a Ti-6AI-4V wedge sample which contained a curved surface that simulated the bearing. Although uniform diamond deposition was attained on the flat samples, very poor uniformity was observed on the curved sample. This lack of uniformity was attributed to the difficulty in controlling the plasma-to-substrate distance in a single mode, single frequency reactor and it was believed that by varying the frequency and using a multimode cavity one could solve this problem. Thus, depositions on a titanium rod were performed in a variable frequency MPCVD reactor. It was determined visually that the variable frequency operation provided uniform plasma distribution along the length and circumference of the rod and resulted in a fairly uniform coating. However, scanning electron microscopy revealed that the morphology of the particles was poor and micro-Raman spectroscopy showed weak, broad peaks that were attributable to amorphous carbon. It is believed that by fine-tuning parameters, a uniform diamond film of good quality can be achieved along the entire rod.
The heteroepitaxial nucleation and eventual growth of large area single crystal diamond films has long eluded researchers interested in tapping it's many enabling properties, specifically in the field of active electronics. The uncertainty surrounding the diamond nucleation mechanism(s) and corresponding inability to carefully control this process are often blamed for the difficulty in achieving true heteroepitaxial growth. Biasenhanced nucleation (BEN) has been shown to provide in-situ control of the nucleation process. Subsequent advancements in both nucleation and deposition stages has resulted in highly oriented diamond films, approaching single crystal quality yet still plagued by arrays of medium to low angle grain boundaries that can degrade the electronic transport properties. To further improve upon these results and achieve large area, single crystal films it is believed that development must focus on the more fundamental problems of diamond nucleation. This paper presents a review of recent progress pertaining to the bias-enhanced process and focuses on data specific to the epitaxial nucleation dilemma.
Electrically induced quasi-permanent changes in low-field conductivity have been observed in single crystals of LaGa1-xMnxO3 in the broad range of Mn ion concentrations. The memory effects can last for a long time at room temperature and can be easily erased by heating up to Tc ∼300 C. The temperature dependence of the resistivity has a sharp drop around the phase transformation temperature, pointing to the role of phase transformation processes. The switching between high resistance and low resistance states is demonstrated. We explain our experimental data in terms of thermo induced local phase transition with the oxidation of Mn ions. The results of the ab initio calculations of the electron energy structure in Jahn-Teller-distorted and non-distorted cells confirm the mechanism suggested.