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Parenting behaviors are significantly linked to youths’ behavioral adjustment, an association that is moderated by youths’ and parents’ self-regulation. The biological sensitivity to context theory suggests that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) indexes youths’ varying susceptibility to rearing contexts. However, self-regulation in the family context is increasingly viewed as a process of “coregulation” that is biologically embedded and involves dynamic Parent×Child interactions. No research thus far has examined physiological synchrony as a dyadic biological context that may moderate associations between parenting behaviors and preadolescent adjustment. Using a two-wave sample of 101 low-socioeconomic status (SES) families (children and caretakers; mean age 10.28 years), we employed multilevel modeling to examine dyadic coregulation during a conflict task, indicated by RSA synchrony, as a moderator of the linkages between observed parenting behaviors and preadolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems. Results showed that high dyadic RSA synchrony resulted in a multiplicative association between parenting and youth adjustment. High dyadic synchrony intensified the relations between parenting behaviors and youth behavior problems, such that in the context of high dyadic synchrony, positive and negative parenting behaviors were associated with decreased and increased behavioral problems, respectively. Parent–child dyadic RSA synchrony is discussed as a potential biomarker of biological sensitivity in youth.
The purpose of this paper was to examine national differences in the desire to participate in decision-making of people with severe mental illness in six European countries.
The data was taken from a European longitudinal observational study (CEDAR; ISRCTN75841675). A sample of 514 patients with severe mental illness from the study centers in Ulm, Germany, London, England, Naples, Italy, Debrecen, Hungary, Aalborg, Denmark and Zurich, Switzerland were assessed as to desire to participate in medical decision-making. Associations between desire for participation in decision-making and center location were analyzed with generalized estimating equations.
We found large cross-national differences in patients’ desire to participate in decision-making, with the center explaining 47.2% of total variance in the desire for participation (P < 0.001). Averaged over time and independent of patient characteristics, London (mean = 2.27), Ulm (mean = 2.13) and Zurich (mean = 2.14) showed significantly higher scores in desire for participation, followed by Aalborg (mean = 1.97), where scores were in turn significantly higher than in Debrecen (mean = 1.56). The lowest scores were reported in Naples (mean = 1.14). Over time, the desire for participation in decision-making increased significantly in Zurich (b = 0.23) and decreased in Naples (b = −0.14). In all other centers, values remained stable.
This study demonstrates that patients’ desire for participation in decision-making varies by location. We suggest that more research attention be focused on identifying specific cultural and social factors in each country to further explain observed differences across Europe.
We demonstrate the eclipsing binary detection performance of the Gaia variability analysis and processing pipeline using Hipparcos data. The automated pipeline classifies 1 067 (0.9%) of the 118 204 Hipparcos sources as eclipsing binary candidates. The detection rate amounts to 89% (732 sources) in a subset of 819 visually confirmed eclipsing binaries, with the period correctly identified for 80% of them, and double or half periods obtained in 6% of the cases.
We started a systematic search for periodic variable-star candidates in the EROS-2 database in the context of preparatory work for the Gaia satellite mission. The goal is to evaluate different classification tools and strategies, and to identify a large sample of variable candidates. In this paper we present the results of an assessment study of a three-step identification and classification process. In the study we took a sample of about 80,000 stars from one of the LMC EROS fields.
Two upcoming large scale surveys, the ESA Gaia and LSST projects, will bring a new era in astronomy. The number of binary systems that will be observed and detected by these projects is enormous, estimations range from millions for Gaia to several tens of millions for LSST. We review some tools that should be developed and also what can be gained from these missions on the subject of binaries and exoplanets from the astrometry, photometry, radial velocity and their alert systems.
The ESA Gaia mission will provide a multi-epoch database for a billion of objects,
including variable objects that comprise stars, active galactic nuclei and asteroids. We
highlight a few of Gaia’s properties that will benefit the study of variable objects, and
illustrate with two examples the work being done in the preparation of the data processing
and object characterization. The first example relates to the analysis of the nearly
simultaneous multi-band data of Gaia with the Principal Component Analysis techniques, and
the second example concerns the classification of Gaia time series into variability types.
The results of the ground-based processing of Gaia’s variable objects data will be made
available to the scientific community through the intermediate and final ESA releases
throughout the mission.
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