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The prevalence of malnutrition in patients with cancer is one of the highest of all patient groups. Weight loss (WL) is a frequent manifestation of malnutrition in cancer and several large-scale studies have reported that involuntary WL affects 50–80% of patients with cancer, with the degree of WL dependent on tumour site, type and stage of disease. The study of body composition in oncology using computed tomography has unearthed the importance of both low muscle mass (sarcopenia) and low muscle attenuation as important prognostic indications of unfavourable outcomes including poorer tolerance to chemotherapy; significant deterioration in performance status and quality of life (QoL), poorer post-operative outcomes and shortened survival. While often hidden by excess fat and high BMI, muscle abnormalities are highly prevalent in patients with cancer (ranging from 10 to 90%). Early screening to identify individuals with sarcopenia and decreased muscle quality would allow for earlier multimodal interventions to attenuate adverse body compositional changes. Multimodal therapies (combining nutritional counselling, exercise and anti-inflammatory drugs) are currently the focus of randomised trials to examine if this approach can provide a sufficient stimulus to prevent or slow the cascade of tissue wasting and if this then impacts on outcomes in a positive manner. This review will focus on the aetiology of musculoskeletal degradation in cancer; the impact of sarcopenia on chemotherapy tolerance, post-operative complications, QoL and survival; and outline current strategies for attenuation of muscle loss in clinical practice.
Fruit intake is associated with lower risk of cardiometabolic diseases. However, effects of dried fruits on cardiometabolic health are not well researched. We investigated the effect of daily dried fruit consumption compared with a carbohydrate-rich snack on cardiometabolic disease risk factors in adults with increased cardiometabolic risk. A two-period randomised crossover trial was conducted in adults (n 55) with elevated BMI and at least one additional risk factor for cardiometabolic disease to compare the effects of consuming 3/4 cup/d mixed dried fruits (plums, figs, dates and raisins) or an energy- and carbohydrate-matched control snack for 4 weeks. The primary outcome was LDL-cholesterol; secondary outcomes included other lipids and lipoproteins, glucose and insulin, C-reactive protein, blood pressure and vascular stiffness. Linear mixed models were used for data analysis. Lipid and lipoprotein concentrations did not differ between conditions; however, dried fruit increased LDL-cholesterol (0·10 mmol/l, 95 % CI 0·01, 0·20) compared with baseline. Compared with the control, dried fruit increased mean fasting glucose (0·08 mmol/l, 95 % CI 0·005, 0·16; P = 0·038). Vascular outcomes, fasting insulin and C-reactive protein did not differ between conditions. Mean weight changes did not differ (P = 0·55) but tended to increase after both conditions (dried fruit 0·3 kg, 95 % CI –0·09, 0·65; control 0·4 kg, 95 % CI 0·01, 0·75). Thus, short-term daily consumption of a large portion of mixed dried plums, figs, dates and raisins, without structured dietary guidance, did not improve cardiometabolic risk factors, compared with carbohydrate-rich snacks, in adults with increased baseline cardiometabolic risk.
The primary purpose of this meta-analysis was to explore, clarify and report the strength of the relationship between alexithymia, as measured by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and parenting style as measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI).
Web of Science, PsycInfo, PubMed and ProQuest: Dissertations and Theses searches were undertaken, yielding nine samples with sufficient data to be included in the meta-analysis.
Evidence indicated moderate to strong relationships between maternal care and alexithymia, and between maternal care and two of the three TAS-20 alexithymia facets (Difficulties Describing Feelings and Difficulties Identifying Feelings, but not Externally Oriented Thinking). Moderate relationships were observed for both maternal- and paternal-overprotection and alexithymia respectively, and for overprotection (both maternal and paternal) and Difficulties Describing Feelings.
This study is the first meta-analysis of the relationship between parenting styles and alexithymia, and findings confirm an especially strong association between maternal care and key elements of alexithymia. This review highlights the issues that still remain to be addressed in exploring the link between parenting style and alexithymia.
Controlling norovirus transmission in units with immunocompromised patients is challenging. We present a cluster of norovirus cases that occurred on a stem-cell transplant unit and the prevention efforts that were implemented to limit the outbreak. Protocols developed to control this cluster may provide a model for other facilities.
This paper explores dependencies between operational risks and between operational risks and other risks such as market, credit and insurance risk. The paper starts by setting the regulatory context and then goes into practical aspects of operational risk dependencies. Next, methods of modelling operational risk dependencies are considered with a simulation study exploring the sensitivity of diversification benefits arising from dependency models. The following two sections consider how correlation assumptions may be set, highlighting some generic dependencies between operational risks and with non-operational risks to assist in the assessment of dependencies and correlation assumptions. Supplementary appendices provide further detail on generic dependencies as well as a case study of how business models can lead to operational risks interacting with other risks. Finally, the paper finishes with a literature review of operational risk dependency papers including correlation studies and benchmark reports.
Obesity is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), however little is known about changes in body composition during chemotherapy and its impact on survival. The aim of this study was to examine in patients with CRC: (1) The prevalence of abnormal body composition phenotypes, (2) The impact of baseline body composition on overall survival, (3) Changes in body composition throughout treatment and its impact on overall survival.
A prospective study of adult CRC patients undergoing chemotherapy between 2012–2016 was conducted. Longitudinal changes in body composition were examined using computed tomography (CT) images at two timepoints (interval 7 months, IQR: 5–9 months) using paired t-tests. Sarcopenia and low muscle attenuation (MA) were defined using published cut-offs. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate mortality hazard ratios, adjusted for known prognostic covariates – stage, age, sex, performance status & systemic inflammation.
In total, 268 patients were recruited (66% male, mean age 63 years) and 51% were undergoing chemotherapy with a palliative intent. At baseline, 4% were underweight (BMI < 20 kg/m2), 38% had a normal BMI, and 58% were overweight/obese. Despite this, 38% had cancer cachexia, 34% were sarcopenic and 43% had low MA. Neither sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity nor cachexia at baseline predicted survival. Over 100 days, 68% were muscle stable (± 1 kg), while 25% lost > 1 kg and 7% gained > 1 kg. Fat mass remained stable ± 1 kg in 49%, while 28% lost > 1 kg and 23% gained > 1 kg. When adjusted for known prognostic covariates, baseline BMI (20–25 kg/m2) in those having palliative chemotherapy was independently associated with reduced survival compared to those with BMI indicating overweight (BMI 25–30 kg/m2) [HR: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.04–3.14), p = 0.037]. In those undergoing chemotherapy with palliative intent, a loss of > 6.4% subcutaneous fat (Q1 SAT) over 100 days was predictive of poor survival versus those with small losses, remaining stable or gaining SAT (Q2-4), independent of changes in muscle mass [HR: 2.22 (95% CI: 1.07–4.62), p = 0.033].
Patients with CRC, particularly those treated with a palliative intent, experience significant losses in muscle and fat mass during chemotherapy. Loss of SAT mass during palliative chemotherapy is prognostic of poor survival, independent of changes in muscle mass. Baseline BMI in the overweight range confers a survival advantage. Nutritional strategies to prevent or attenuate weight loss during chemotherapy are advisable especially in the context of advanced CRC.
Methods to stimulate appetite in the sick or elderly remains a challenge with few safe therapeutic options. Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone, increasing appetite and subsequent food intake. It has received considerable attention as a therapeutic target to stimulate food intake in patients with anorexia. The identification of food-grade bioactives with proven orexigenic effects would mark significant progress in the treatment of disease-related malnutrition. This study therefore investigated the effects of two milk-derived ghrelinergic peptides on appetite and energy intake in healthy humans.
A single-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-arm (placebo, casein bioactive MF1145 and whey bioactive UL-2-141) cross-over trial was conducted in healthy male volunteers. Participants received 26 mg/kg of both the bioactives and placebo. The main outcome measures were energy & protein intake from a set breakfast and ad libitum lunch and subjective appetite sensations as assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS). Basal and postprandial levels of active ghrelin (AG) were measured. Dietary intakes were analysed using Nutritics software. Statistical analyses were performed in R.
Overall, 22 male participants (mean age 27 years) were included, average BMI was 24.6 kg/m2, (19.8 to 30.2 kg/m2). Mean energy and protein intakes at lunch when treated with placebo were 1343 kcal (95% CI: 1215–1471 kcal) and 74 g (95% CI: 66–81 g), respectively. Energy and protein intakes were not significantly different from placebo for either treatment (p = 0.918, p = 0.319 for UL-2-141 and p = 0.889, p = 0.959 for MF1145, respectively). Similarly, appetite, hunger and satiety responses on VAS were not significantly different from placebo for either treatment. AG peak post-lunch on placebo was 653 pg/ml (95% CI: 511–794 pg/ml). Treatment with UL-2-141 resulted in 139 pg/ml reduction in post-prandial AG compared to placebo and treatment with MF1145 resulted in 114 pg/ml reduction compared to placebo. This pattern was significant for both treatments (p = 0.021 and p = 0.045, respectively) however when controlling for fasting-AG, the pattern was no longer significant (p = 0.590 and p = 0.877 respectively). Pre-prandial AG peaks were not significantly different across treatments.
While these peptides have previously demonstrated ghrelinergic effects in rats, no effect on appetite or food intake in humans was identified by this study. This may be attributable to the small sample size or low dose. However, since healthy adults are often not in tune with their own physiological hunger, they may not respond strongly to simple physiological modulators and repeating the study in subjects with established anorexia may be prudent.
Whose everyday? Whose place? This chapter examines the moral assumptions that anchor the different senses of justice concerning Drakes Estero, located in largely rural and agricultural Marin County, California, Point Reyes National Seashore. Vociferous opposition riddled local communities and spread throughout the region over whether a locally popular, family owner–operated oyster company should be allowed to stay once its federal permits for its terrestrial operations expired, and over whether Drakes Estero, legally designated as potential wilderness, should be allowed to become actual wilderness. This chapter investigates the wide array of notions about just and unjust uses of Drakes Estero manifested in the public sphere and the courtrooms, paying particular attention to the moralities that shaped the conflicts over jobs, ways of life, wilderness, environment, and justice. This conflict illuminates the ways in which contentious notions about uses of US public lands are, for all of their differences, premised on a shared perpetuating of the foundational social relations of what Durkheim calls non-integrative social solidarity. Taken in the larger context of contemporary conflicts over US public lands, this particular conflict leads us to query the forms of civics that arise from the social and legal processes of justice already in place.
LIKE THE OTHER Middle High German thirteenth-century Arthurian romances that followed the hugely influential Erec and Iwein by Hartmann von Aue and Parzival by Wolfram von Eschenbach, the anonymously authored Wigamur long remained an object of little scholarly interest. In Wigamur's case, such inattention certainly owed much to the rather convoluted way the text comes down to us. The only complete, and very late, manuscript—MS W (Cod. Guelf. 51.2. Aug. 4°) from the last three decades of the fifteenth century, maintained by the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wolfenbüttel—is characterized by language that is far removed from the norms of classical Middle High German, that is laden with errors, and that often resists easy understanding. Additionally, there exist in the main manuscript a large number of inconsistencies in the storyline as well missing pages, gaps that the two fragments, MS S and MS M, only partially fill in and that might date from the earliest periods of the text's transmission. When we consider also that for Wigamur, whose main manuscript was first edited as early as 1808 by Johann Gustav Büsching, neither a truly user-friendly edition nor a translation into a modern language existed until the last decade, then it is not difficult to understand why the romance has remained underappreciated.
As with so many other so-called postclassical works that earlier scholars derided as unimaginatively derivative of first-generation Arthurian romances, there is, however, much that is innovative in the way that Wigamur is constructed. Among several rather original traits, for instance, and one that has not received sufficient attention from scholars, is the distinctive, rich complexity of the romance's characters.4 Unlike typical characters from across the genre, who conventionally are almost entirely good or entirely bad, positive characters in Wigamur often display bad qualities and do bad things, and, conversely, negative characters frequently possess positive qualities, do worthy deeds, and emerge as sympathetic.5 It is the purpose of this essay to look at three characters from that latter category of negative figures in Wigamur— namely, the wild woman Lespia, the robber-knight Lord of Pontrafort, and King Lipondrigun of Gurgalet—and to show how the actions of these multisided, complex figures contribute to a unique message on the nature of evil: that evil, too, is complex, that it exists in gradations, and that those who perpetrate evil often have multiple motives for doing so.
Stenting of ostial pulmonary artery stenosis presents several unique challenges. These include difficulty in defining anatomy and need for precise stent placement in order to avoid missing the ostial stenosis or jailing either the contralateral branch pulmonary artery or the ipsilateral upper lobe branch.
A retrospective review of outcomes was conducted in 1.5 or 2-ventricle patients who underwent stent placement for ostial branch pulmonary artery stenosis. Specific catheterisation lab techniques were reviewed.
Forty-seven branch pulmonary arteries underwent stent placement for ostial stenosis in 43 patients. The median age and weight were 3.7 (0.3–18.1) years and 14.2 (5.6–70.0) kg, respectively. Three (2–8) angiographic projections were needed to profile the ostial stenosis. Open-cell stents were used in 23 and stents were modified in 5 cases. Following stent implantation, the minimum diameter improved from 3.6 (0.8–10.5) to 8.1 (4.2–16.5) mm (p < 0.001). The gradient improved from 21 (0–66) to 4 (0–27) mmHg (p < 0.001). Stent malposition occurred in eight (17%) of the stents placed. Five migrated distally causing suboptimal ostial coverage necessitating placement of a second stent in four. Three migrated proximally and partially jailed the contralateral pulmonary artery. Intentional jailing of the upper lobe branch occurred in four additional cases. At a follow-up of 2.4 (0.3–4.9) years, 15 stents underwent further dilation and 1 had a second stent placed within the exiting stent.
Ostial branch pulmonary artery stenosis may require additional angiography to accurately define the ostial stenosis. Treatment with stents is effective but carries high rates of stent malposition.
Over the past decade, the World Health Summit (WHS) has provided a global platform for policy-makers and decision-makers to interact with academics and practitioners on global health. Recently the WHS adopted health security into their agenda for transnational disease risks (eg, Ebola and antimicrobial resistance) that increasingly threaten multiple sectors. Global health engagement (GHE) focuses efforts across interdisciplinary and interorganizational lines to identify critical threats and provide rapid deployment of key resources at the right time for addressing health security risks. As a product of subject matter experts convening at the WHS, a special side-group has organically risen with leadership and coordination from the German Institute for Defense and Strategic Studies in support of GHE activities across governmental, academic, and industry partners. Through novel approaches and targeted methodology that maximize outcomes and streamline global health operational process, the Global Health Security Alliance (GloHSA) was born. This short conference report describes in more detail the GloHSA.
To identify genetic risk loci for major depressive disorder (MDD), two broad study design approaches have been applied: (1) to maximize sample size by combining data from different phenotype assessment modalities (e.g. clinical interview, self-report questionnaires) and (2) to reduce phenotypic heterogeneity through selecting more homogenous MDD subtypes. The value of these strategies has been debated. In this review, we summarize the most recent findings of large genomic studies that applied these approaches, and we highlight the merits and pitfalls of both approaches with particular attention to methodological and psychometric issues. We also discuss the results of analyses that investigated the heterogeneity of MDD. We conclude that both study designs are essential for further research. So far, increasing sample size has led to the identification of a relatively high number of genomic loci linked to depression. However, part of the identified variants may be related to a phenotype common to internalizing disorders and related traits. As such, samples containing detailed clinical information are needed to dissect depression heterogeneity and enable the potential identification of variants specific to a more restricted MDD phenotype. A balanced portfolio reconciling both study design approaches is the optimal approach to progress further in unraveling the genetic architecture of depression.
‘The oceans not only contain most of the planet, but also most of the wide variety of living things’ (Pope Francis, 2015). With this statement, Pope Francis summarised a central point about life on Earth: we cannot understand and protect Earth’s biodiversity without considering the ocean. Covering over 70 per cent of the Earth’s surface, the ocean represents an estimated 99 per cent of its habitable living space (Costanza, 1999). The ocean harbours a remarkably rich diversity of species, with almost twice as many major groups, or phyla, of animals living in the ocean as on land. (Of the 34 known phyla of animals, 33 are found in the ocean and only 12 are found on land.) A single type of marine habitat, the coral reef, holds over 50 per cent more phyla than all terrestrial and freshwater habitats combined, despite having a surface area more than 460 times smaller (Birkeland, 2015).
Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) data analysis requires unprecedented levels of accuracy in radio interferometer pipelines. We have developed an imaging power spectrum analysis to meet these requirements and generate robust 21 cm EoR measurements. In this work, we build a signal path framework to mathematically describe each step in the analysis, from data reduction in the Fast Holographic Deconvolution (FHD) package to power spectrum generation in the εppsilon package. In particular, we focus on the distinguishing characteristics of FHD/εppsilon: highly accurate spectral calibration, extensive data verification products, and end-to-end error propagation. We present our key data analysis products in detail to facilitate understanding of the prominent systematics in image-based power spectrum analyses. As a verification to our analysis, we also highlight a full-pipeline analysis simulation to demonstrate signal preservation and lack of signal loss. This careful treatment ensures that the FHD/εppsilon power spectrum pipeline can reduce radio interferometric data to produce credible 21 cm EoR measurements.
The epidemiology of H5N1 and H7N9 avian viruses of humans infected in China differs despite both viruses being avian reassortants that have inherited six internal genes from a common ancestor, H9N2. The median age of infected populations is substantially younger for H5N1 virus (26 years) compared with H7N9 virus (63 years). Population susceptibility to infection with seasonal influenza is understood to be influenced by cross-reactive CD8+ T cells directed towards immunogenic peptides derived from internal viral proteins which may provide some level of protection against further influenza infection. Prior exposure to seasonal influenza peptides may influence the age-related infection patterns observed for H5N1 and H7N9 viruses. A comparison of relatedness of immunogenic peptides between historical human strains and the two avian emerged viruses was undertaken for a possible explanation in the differences in age incidence observed. There appeared to be some relationship between past exposure to related peptides and the lower number of H5N1 virus cases in older populations, however the relationship between prior exposure and older populations among H7N9 virus patients was less clear.
Despite established clinical associations among major depression (MD), alcohol dependence (AD), and alcohol consumption (AC), the nature of the causal relationship between them is not completely understood. We leveraged genome-wide data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) and UK Biobank to test for the presence of shared genetic mechanisms and causal relationships among MD, AD, and AC.
Linkage disequilibrium score regression and Mendelian randomization (MR) were performed using genome-wide data from the PGC (MD: 135 458 cases and 344 901 controls; AD: 10 206 cases and 28 480 controls) and UK Biobank (AC-frequency: 438 308 individuals; AC-quantity: 307 098 individuals).
Positive genetic correlation was observed between MD and AD (rgMD−AD = + 0.47, P = 6.6 × 10−10). AC-quantity showed positive genetic correlation with both AD (rgAD−AC quantity = + 0.75, P = 1.8 × 10−14) and MD (rgMD−AC quantity = + 0.14, P = 2.9 × 10−7), while there was negative correlation of AC-frequency with MD (rgMD−AC frequency = −0.17, P = 1.5 × 10−10) and a non-significant result with AD. MR analyses confirmed the presence of pleiotropy among these four traits. However, the MD-AD results reflect a mediated-pleiotropy mechanism (i.e. causal relationship) with an effect of MD on AD (beta = 0.28, P = 1.29 × 10−6). There was no evidence for reverse causation.
This study supports a causal role for genetic liability of MD on AD based on genetic datasets including thousands of individuals. Understanding mechanisms underlying MD-AD comorbidity addresses important public health concerns and has the potential to facilitate prevention and intervention efforts.
A 15-month-old child underwent percutaneous expansion of a Melody transcatheter pulmonary valve in the mitral position to accommodate growth after initial surgical implantation during infancy, but transiently decompensated after valvuloplasty owing to stent malformation. The Melody valve in the mitral position of small patients can be further expanded by percutaneous dilation, but there are a number of potential complications and technical improvements to consider.
Examination gloves have been previously noted as a possible barrier to hand hygiene. We performed a prospective quantitative and qualitative study to investigate. Glove usage was found to be a potential barrier to hand hygiene; this was driven by desire for personal safety and potentially learned during professional training.