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IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
A far-infrared observatory such as the SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, with its unprecedented spectroscopic sensitivity, would unveil the role of feedback in galaxy evolution during the last ~10 Gyr of the Universe (z = 1.5–2), through the use of far- and mid-infrared molecular and ionic fine structure lines that trace outflowing and infalling gas. Outflowing gas is identified in the far-infrared through P-Cygni line shapes and absorption blueshifted wings in molecular lines with high dipolar moments, and through emission line wings of fine-structure lines of ionised gas. We quantify the detectability of galaxy-scale massive molecular and ionised outflows as a function of redshift in AGN-dominated, starburst-dominated, and main-sequence galaxies, explore the detectability of metal-rich inflows in the local Universe, and describe the most significant synergies with other current and future observatories that will measure feedback in galaxies via complementary tracers at other wavelengths.
Characteristics of the hydrology and motion of Black Rapids and Fels Glaciers, Alaska, were observed from 1986 to 1989. Hydrological measurements included stage, electrical conductivity and suspended-sediment concentration in the discharge stream of each glacier, and were made at 0.5–1 h intervals continuously through most of the melt seasons. Variations in the glacier speed were monitored through the full year at a number of locations along the length of each glacier using time-lapse photography (1 d time resolution), strain meters (0.5–1 h resolution) and seismometers set up to count acoustic emissions. Both glaciers show similar seasonal, diurnal and short-term event changes in hydrological discharges and ice speed. The hydrological behavior is analyzed in terms of a “fast” sub-system composed of surface streams, moulins and large tunnels with discharge that responds rapidly and a “slow” sub-system composed of heterogeneous small passageways through the ice and distributed over the bed that maintain approximately uniform discharge over a day. The liming and amplitude of water discharge in the diurnal cycle indicate that roughly 10–40% of the water is routed directly into the fast system. The remaining 90–60% of the water enters the slow system. Dilution of the solute discharged from the slow system by the variable discharge in the fast system results in changes in water discharge and solute concentration that are approximately equal in relative amplitude and inversely related. A small time lag from discharge maximum (minimum) to solute minimum (maximum) suggests that the fast system is confined to roughly the lowermost 30–40% of the full glacier length. The residence time of water in the fast system is short compared to 1 d. The slow system contains both short- and long-residence time passages. Characteristics of the diurnal cycles are somewhat variable through the melt season, but no systematic evolutionary patterns were discerned even though large changes in the mean discharges of water and solutes occur, which suggests parallel evolution of the variables that control the response of the fast system. Events were characterized by contemporaneous increases in suspended-sediment concentration in the discharge water and distinct changes in straining on the glaciers. Events caused by-increases in melt or precipitation related to weather and events related to release from reservoirs internal to the glaciers could be distinguished based on the changes in electrical conductivity of the discharge water. The correlated changes in sediment discharge and motion of the glaciers indicate that the events were associated with temporary modifications of the slow passages distributed over the bed that allowed enhanced sliding and access of basal water flow to erosion products. Hydrological differences between Black Rapids and Fels Glaciers can be explained by differences in the size of the glaciers. If there is a difference in bed structure that explains the difference in dynamics (surge — Black Rapids Glacier - versus non-surge - Fels Glacier), it does not affect the hydrological parameters that were observed.
Recent X-ray emission events in the Galactic center would be expected to generate an X-ray reflection response within the surrounding clouds of the central molecular zone, in the Galactic disk and even, if powerful enough, in clouds outside our Galaxy. We review here the current constraints on Sgr A*'s past activity obtained through this method, with particular emphasis on the strong evidence that has been gathered for multiple X-ray flashes during the past few hundred years.
Silicide/SiGe Schottky barriers are of importance for applications in infrared detectors and SiGe contacts, as well as for fundamental studies of metal-semiconductor interfaces. We have fabricated silicide/SiGe Schottky diodes by the reaction of evaporated Pt and Ir films on p-SiGe alloys with a thin Si capping layer. The onset of metal-SiGe reactions was controlled by the deposited metal thickness. The Schottky barrier heights were determined from internal photoemission. Pt-SiGe and Ir-SiGe reacted diodes have barrier heights that are higher than the corresponding silicide/p-Si diodes. PtSi/Si/SiGe diodes, on the other hand, have lower “barrier heights” that decrease with increasing Ge concentration. The smaller barrier heights in such silicide/Si/SiGe diodes are due to tunneling through the unconsumed Si layer. Equations are derived accounting for this tunneling contribution, and lead to an extracted “barrier height” that is the Si barrier height reduced by the Si/SiGe band offset. Highly bias-tunable barrier heights are obtained (e.g. 0.30 eV to 0.12 eV) by allowing the SiGe/Si band offset to extend higher in energy than the Schottky barrier, leading to a cut-off-wavelength-tunable silicide/SiGe/Si Schottky diode infrared detector.
In this work, reactive magnetron-sputtered Pb(Zr,Ti)O3thin films were used to fabricate well-ordered nanodot arrays by means of nanosphere lithography (NSL). NSL is based on a two-step etch process by means of, firstly adjusting the diameter of polystyrene spheres in the self-assembled polymeric nanosphere mask using reactive ion etching, and secondly transferring the mask to the substrate by ion milling with adjusted heights. Hence, structures with different aspect ratios can be fabricated.
Piezoresponse force microscopy was used as the inspection tool on both non-patterned and patterned films. Both the topography and polarization out of plane and in plane was deduced in this mode. Grains of nanodots with low aspect ratio form domain structures comparable to domains in non-patterned films. In contrast to that, nanodots with a higher aspect ratio form particular structures. The in-plane amplitude images show mostly a bisectioned domain assembly, while the out-of-plane amplitude images show in some cases more complex structures like “c”-shaped domains or multi-domains around a center domain.
The patterning of the ferroelectric material was shown to affect the formation of ferroelectric domains. The initial polycrystalline, randomly-ordered films are re-oriented and show domain structures depending on nanodisc diameter and aspect ratio. This may enable tailoring of ferroelectric materials in their piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties by patterning.
The Herschel Key Project SHINING performs a study of the ISM in star forming and active
infrared bright galaxies (starbursts, AGN, (U)LIRGs, interacting and low metallicity
galaxies) at local and intermediate redshifts. Here we present some surprising and
promising first results from parts of this programme, including spatially resolved PDR
diagnostics, line deficit diagnostics, and large scale molecular outflows traced by the OH
The Herschel Dwarf Galaxy Survey investigates the interplay of star formation activity and the the metal-poor gas and dust of local universe dwarf galaxies using FIR and submillimetre imaging spectroscopic and photometric observations in the 50 to 550 μm window of the Herschel Space Observatory. The dust spectral-energy distributions are well constrained with the new Herschel and MIR Spitzer data. A submillimetre excess is often found in low metallicity galaxies, which, if tracing very cold dust, would highlight large dust masses not easily reconciled in some cases, given the low metallicities and expected gas-to-dust mass ratios. The galaxies are also mapped in the FIR fine-structure lines (63 and 145 μm OI, 158 μm CII, 122 and 205 μm NII, 88 μm OIII) probing the low density ionised gas, the HII regions and photodissociation regions. While still early in the mission we can already see, along with earlier studies, that line ratios in the metal-poor ISM differ remarkably from those in the metal-rich starburst environments. In dwarf galaxies, L[CII]/L(CO) (≥104) is at least an order of magnitude greater than in the most metal-rich starburst galaxies. The 88 μm [OIII] line usually dominates the FIR line emission over galaxy-wide scales, not the 158 μm [CII] line which is the dominant FIR cooling line in metal-rich galaxies. All of the FIR lines together can contribute 1% to 2% of the LTIR. The Herschel Dwarf Galaxy survey will provide statistical information on the nature of the dust and gas in low metallicity galaxies and place constraints on chemical evolution models of galaxies.
We synthesize a series of polyvinylcarbazole (PVK) monoliths containing varying loadings of triphenyl bismuth as a high-Z dopant and varying fluors, either organic or organometallic, in order to study their use as scintillators capable of gamma ray spectroscopy. A trend of increasing bismuth loading resulting in a better resolved photopeak is observed. For PVK parts with no fluor or a standard organic fluor, diphenylanthracene (DPA), increasing bismuth loading results in decreasing light yield while with samples 1 or 3 % by weight of the triplet harvesting organometallic fluor bis(4,6-difluoropyridinato-N,C2)picolinatoiridium (FIrpic) show increasing light yield with increasing bismuth loading. Our best performing PVK/ BiPh3/FIrpic scintillator with 40 wt % BiPh3 and 3 wt % FIrpic has an emission maximum of 500 nm, a light yield of ∼30,000 photons/MeV, and energy resolution better than 7% FWHM at 662 keV. Replacing the Ir complex with an equal weight of DPA produces a sample with a light yield of ∼6,000 photons/MeV, with an emission maximum at 420 nm and energy resolution of 9% at 662 keV. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that the BiPh3 forms small clusters of approximately 5 nm diameter.
Low-temperature crystallization of a-Si is important for display and Silicon-On- Insulator (SOT) technologies. We present optical characterization (Raman scattering and photoluminescence) of H2 and O2 plasma enhanced crystallization of a-Si:H films. H2 plasma treatment is shown to be the most efficient, leading to larger grain sizes, and both H2 and O2 plasma lead to visible photoluminescence (PL). Recently, the PL of re-crystallized a-Si films has been explained in terms of quantum confinement . The mean size of the crystallites in our re-crystallized films is determined by Raman scattering for different treatments parameters. No correlation between size and the photon energy of the visible emission is found. However, we can clearly distinguish between the PL from purely amorphous and re-crystallized a-Si:H films: Their PL temperature dependence and spectra are very different. The origin of the visible PL in re-crystallized thin Si films is discussed.
Relaxed, high Ge content SiGe layers have been realized using stress balance on acompliant borophosphorosilicate glass (BPSG). A 30-nm fully-strained Si0.7Ge0.3 layer wastransferred onto a 1 μm BPSG film by wafer-bonding and Smart-cutρ processes, after which thecontinuous Si0.7Ge0.3 film was patterned into small islands to allow for lateral expansion. Afterthe strain in Si0.7Ge0.3 islands was released by the lateral expansion resulting from the flow of theBPSG, a Si0.4Ge0.6 layer was commensurately deposited under compression. Upon equilibriumafter an annealing, stress balance was formed between the SiGe films, resulting in a larger inplanelattice constant than that of relaxed Si0.7Ge0.3. With a thiner (6 nm) Si0.7Ge0.3 starting film,an in-plane lattice constant equivalent to fully-relaxed Si0.45Ge0.55 has been obtained.
The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence density and the occurrence of horizontal spread of highly resistant gram-negative rods (HR-GNRs) in Dutch hospitals. The factors that influence these outcome measures were also investigated.
All patients with HR-GNRs, as determined by sample testing, who were hospitalized in 1 of 18 hospitals during a 6-month period (April through October 2007) were included in this study. For all available isolates, the species was identified, susceptibility was determined (including the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases [ESBLs]), and molecular typing was performed. On the basis of a combination of species identification, molecular typing, and epidemiological data, the occurrence of nosocomial transmission was determined.
The mean incidence density of patients with HR-GNRs was 55 per 100,000 patient-days (cumulative incidence, 39 per 10,000 patients admitted). A facility being a university hospital was a statistically significant (P = .03) independent determinant of a higher incidence of patients with HR-GNRs. The majority of HR-GNR isolates were ESBL producers. The adjusted transmission index—the ratio between secondary and primary cases—in the participating hospitals ranged from 0.0 to 0.2. The overall adjusted transmission index of HR-GNRs was 0.07. No determinants for a higher transmission index were identified.
The nosocomial transmission rate of HR-GNRs was relatively low in all hospitals where well-established transmission-based precautions were used. The incidence density of patients with HR-GNRs was higher in university hospitals, probably due to the patient population and the complexity of the care provided.
Previously, it has been reported that PMOS capacitors with heavily boron-doped polycrystalline SiGeC gates are less susceptible to boron penetration than those with poly Si gates . Boron appears to accumulate in the poly SiGeC layers during anneals, reducing boron outdiffusion from the gate despite high boron levels in the poly SiGeC at the gate/oxide interface. In this abstract, we report clear evidence of strong boron segregation to polycrystalline SiGeC layers from poly Si, with boron concentration in poly SiGeC (Ge=25%, C=1.5%) increasing to four times that of adjacent poly Si layers. A separate experiment confirms that this result is not due to any SIMS artifacts. Electrical measurements of heavily in-situ doped single layer samples show that the conductivity of poly SiGeC is similar to poly Si and remains roughly constant with annealing at 800°C. However, in a two-layer sample where the poly SiGeC is initially lightly doped and subsequently heavily doped by diffusion by from an adjacent poly Si layer, conductivity appears lower than in poly Si.
In this work we investigated the diffusion and clustering of supersaturated substitutional carbon 200nm thick SiGeC layers buried under a silicon cap layer of 40nm. The samples were annealed in inert (N2) or oxidizing (O2) ambient at 850°C for times ranging from 2 to 10 hours. The silicon self-interstitial (I) flux coming from the surface under oxidation enhances the C diffusion with respect to the N2 annealed samples. In the early stages of the oxidation process, carbon escape by diffusion across the layer/cap interface dominates. This phenomenon saturates after an initial period (2-4h) which depends on the C concentration. This saturation is due to the formation and growth of C containing precipitates which are promoted by the I injection and act as a sink for mobile C atoms. The competition between clustering and diffusion is discussed for two different C concentrations.
The effect of annealing silicon capped pseudomorphic Si0.7865Ge0.21C0.0035 or Si0.998C0.002 layers on silicon substrates in nitrogen or oxygen at 850°C was examined using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Most substitutional carbon is lost from the alloy layers due to carbon out-diffusion rather than from precipitation. The carbon is found to diffuse more rapidly out of the SiGeC layer than the SiC layer after nitrogen and the carbon is found to leave the sample entirely, an effect that is enhanced by oxidation and thin cap layers. All substitutional carbon can be removed from the sample in some cases implying negligible formation of silicon-carbon complexes. Furthermore, it is found that each injected silicon interstitial atom due to oxidation causes the removal of one additional carbon atom for the SiGeC layer.
There is an increasing interest in electronics functionality on surfaces which are not planar. This paper examines the critical technologies for fabricating electronic surfaces which have a three-dimensional shape. Two different approaches for achieving such a goal are examined. One can fabricate electronics using conventional technologies on a flat surface, and then after fabrication deform that surface into the desired shape (e.g. a spherical cap). In an alternative approach, one can directly fabricate onto substrates with an arbitrary shape. In this case one must address the issue of pattern formation and transfer on the curved surfaces. The scaling of letterpress printing to micron-scale features on flat and spherically curved surfaces is demonstrated.
Substitutional carbon is known to locally reduce silicon self-interstitial concentrations and act as a barrier to self-interstitial migration through the carbon rich regions. A silicon spacer between two carbon rich SiGe layers is fabricated in this work to examine self-interstitial generation in a region that is isolated from self-interstitial formation at the surface or in the silicon bulk. Boron marker layers above, below and in between two SiGeC layers are used to monitor the self-interstitial concentration between the substitutional carbon. No evidence of self- interstitial depletion in the silicon spacer is observed, despite annealing in conditions believed sufficient to allow the self-interstitials to reach and react with surrounding substitutional carbon. Simulations of the self-interstitial and carbon indicate that the silicon self interstitial concentration in the spacer layer can be sustained in part due to a silicon self-interstitial recycling process through a reverse “kick-out” reaction.