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The Benedictine priory of St Martin at Dover was a convenient resting place for those just arrived in England. On 6 March 1263 the priory's chronicler noted the arrival from France of three young men of the highest pedigree: John, Earl Warenne, Henry of Almain, son of Richard of Cornwall, and Henry de Montfort. This trio of young nobles heralded the return, seven weeks later, of Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, which, in turn, precipitated a protracted but violent descent into civil war the following year. What is really surprising about this incident, however, is not that Earl Warenne and Henry of Almain ended up fighting against Henry de Montfort and his father in the civil war of 1264-5 but that they were ever minded to go against the king in the first place. The political grouping which Warenne and Henry of Almain headed, that of the former friends of the king's son, Lord Edward, has long been recognised by historians as one of the powerful factions in English politics during the period of Reform and Rebellion, and their role in precipitating Montfort's return has been likewise acknowledged. Their immediate motive for doing so was the political isolation imposed on them in 1261 by the queen and the Savoyard faction at court which she led, a culmination of a tug of war over the affections of Lord Edward which had been waged since the mid 1250s. This grouping of young English lords around Edward has, in turn, been linked to the factional struggles at Henry III's court between the Savoyard relatives of his queen and his own Lusignan halfbrothers from Poitou.
What will be argued in this article is that for Warenne, the wealthiest and most prominent member of this faction, his antagonism towards the Savoyards stretched back much further, to the early 1240s, and that it was caused by the manner of Henry III's settlement of the Savoyards in England. The crisis which overwhelmed Henry's kingship in 1263 had thus been brewing for over twenty years and was the direct result of his own policies. Linked to this, the article will suggest that Henry's very introduction of the Savoyards to England was profoundly damaging to his kingship in both foreign and domestic policy and was symptomatic of the broader failure of his rule.
Systematic, in-depth exploration of news media coverage of aggression and older adults remains sparse, with little attention to how and why particular frames manifest in coverage across differing settings and relationships. Frame analysis was used to analyze 141 English-language Canadian news media articles published between 2008 and 2019. Existing coverage tended towards stigmatizing, fear-inducing, and biomedical framings of aggression, yet also reflected and reinforced ambiguity, most notably around key differences between settings and relations of care. Mainstream news coverage reflects tensions in public understandings of aggression and older adults (e.g., as a medical or criminal issue), reinforced in particular ways because of the nature of news reporting. More nuanced coverage would advance understanding of differences among settings, relationships, and types of actions, and of the need for multifaceted prevention and policy responses based on these differences.
Archaeologists have long subjected Clovis megafauna kill/scavenge sites to the highest level of scrutiny. In 1987, a Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) was found in spatial association with a small artifact assemblage in Converse County, Wyoming. However, due to the small tool assemblage, limited nature of the excavations, and questions about the security of the association between the artifacts and mammoth remains, the site was never included in summaries of human-killed/scavenged megafauna in North America. Here we present the results of four field seasons of new excavations at the La Prele Mammoth site that confirm the presence of an associated cultural occupation based on geologic context, artifact attributes, spatial distributions, protein residue analysis, and lithic microwear analysis. This new work identified a more extensive cultural occupation including the presence of multiple discrete artifact clusters in close proximity to the mammoth bone bed. This study confirms the presence of a second Clovis mammoth kill/scavenge site in Wyoming and shows the value in revisiting proposed terminal Pleistocene kill/scavenge sites.
WHILE Edward's place among the more successful of England's medieval monarchs has remained secure since the above lines were penned in the aftermath of his death in 1307, his reputation among scholars of medieval England has to some extent waxed and waned. Bishop Stubbs, the leading English medieval historian of the late nineteenth century, had no doubt of Edward's greatness; and for the ‘Whig’ school of history, his reign represented the pinnacle of English constitutional achievement in the Middle Ages (a characterisation accurately skewered by Sellar and Yeatman's chapter on Edward, headed ‘A Strong King’). Edward's work, Stubbs argued:
was crowned with the success that patience, wisdom, and faith amply deserve, and his share in the result is that of the direction of national growth and adaptation of the means and design of government to the consolidation and conscious exercise of national strength. He saw what was best for his age and his people; he led the way and kept the faith.
Edward's reputation remained high in the early twentieth century, though Frederick Tout was less forgiving of the king's autocratic tendencies than was Stubbs.5 His standing reached its zenith, however, under the admiring gaze of Maurice Powicke, who had been taught by Tout in Manchester before working alongside him there in the 1920s, though it was during his time in Oxford that he began to write extensively on the thirteenth century. Both Henry III and the Lord Edward (1947) and The Thirteenth Century (1953) saw Powicke describe Edward in glowing terms:
He lived intensely in conformity with the ideas and tendencies of his time, and found independence in applying them with vigour and precision. He was autocratic not in opposition to them but in full accordance with them … considering how busy he was, how incessant were the calls on his judgement, and how much self-seeking and conflicts of interest lay beneath the discipline of daily routine in every form of the life about him, he was a very great king.
Structural brain abnormalities have been described in autism but studies are often small and contradictory. We aimed to identify which brain regions can reliably be regarded as different in autism compared to healthy controls.
A systematic search was conducted for magnetic resonance imaging studies of regional brain size in autism. Data were extracted and combined using random effects meta-analysis. The modifying effects of age and IQ were investigated using meta-regression.
The total brain, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum and caudate nucleus were increased in volume, whereas the corpus callosum area was reduced. There was evidence for a modifying effect of age and IQ on the cerebellar vermal lobules VI–VII and for age on the amygdala.
Autism may result from abnormalities in specific brain regions and a global lack of integration due to brain enlargement. Inconsistencies in the literature partly relate to differences in the age and IQ of study populations. Some regions may show abnormal growth trajectories.
White matter development during adolescents is crucial for a mature integration of neural networks in the brain. Autism spectrum condition (ASC), characterized by social and communication difficulties and rigid behaviour may interact with white matter development observed during adolescence. Changes in white matter development may link autistic symptoms to its genetic underpinnings and explain a 10-fold increase in susceptibility to ASC among siblings of individuals with ASC.
We used diffusion tensor imaging to study an association between age and white matter integrity measures, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), in adolescents with ASC, their siblings and age-matched healthy controls. Diffusion-weighted data were acquired with 64-direction protocol with 3mm slices and TR of 6600ms and tract-based spatial statistics analysis was performed.
The control subjects showed robust signs of increase in white matter integrity correlated with age. In contrast, individuals with ASC showed significantly lower negative correlation between MD and age in a broad area centred in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (rSLF). When the three eigenvalues constituting a tensor ellipsoid were considered separately, siblings of individuals with ASC showed a diminished negative correlation between the second eigenvalue and age also centred in the rSLF.
Adolescents with ASC and their siblings experience alterations in white matter development in comparison to age-matched healthy controls, which are similar in direction yet different in scale for the two affected groups. The alterations are observed in the area associated with flexibility of behaviour and may explain both symptoms of ASC and increased susceptibility to ASC.
Validation of a biomarker-based medical product development tool or clinical test is an evidentiary process that must be tailored to the proposed use. Appropriate data and analyses are needed to demonstrate that the biomarker meets analytical and clinical performance criteria consistent with favorable benefit: risk balance.
Drug Safety Communications (DSCs) are used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to inform health care providers, patients, caregivers, and the general public about safety issues related to FDA-approved drugs. To assess patient knowledge of the messaging contained in DSCs related to the sleep aids zolpidem and eszopiclone, we conducted a large, cross-sectional patient survey of 1,982 commercially insured patients selected by stratified random sampling from the Optum Research Database who had filled at least two prescriptions for either zolpidem or eszopiclone between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013. Among the 594 respondents (32.7% response rate), two-thirds reported hearing generally about drug safety information prior to starting a new drug, with the remaining one-third “rarely” or “never” hearing such information. Providers and pharmacists were primary sources of drug safety information. Two-thirds of zolpidem users and half of eszopiclone users reported having heard about the related DSC messages, ability to accurately identify the major factual messages was limited (overall median 2 correct out of 5, with men and those reporting higher educational level scoring higher [2/5 vs. 1/5, p=0.001]). Respondents reacted to new drug safety information about their sleep aids by reporting that they would want to learn about alternative ways to help them sleep (70%) and seek out more information about the safety of their specific sleeping pill (59-78%). Opportunities may exist for the FDA to work with providers and pharmacies to help ensure the DSC information is more widely received and is more fully understood by those taking the affected medications.
Community advisory boards (CABs) are a valuable strategy for engaging and partnering with communities in research. Eighty-nine percent of Clinical and Translational Science Awardees (CTSA) responding to a 2011 survey reported having a CAB. CTSAs’ experiences with CABs are valuable for informing future practice. This study was conducted to describe common CAB implementation practices among CTSAs; document perceived benefits, challenges, and contributions; and examine their progress toward desirable outcomes. A cross-CTSA collaborative team collected survey data from respondents representing academic and/or community members affiliated with CTSAs with CABs. Data representing 44 CTSAs with CABs were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A majority of respondents reported practices reflecting respect for CAB members’ expertise and input such as compensation (75%), advisory purview beyond their CTSA’s Community Engagement program (88%), and influence over CAB operations. Three-quarters provide members with orientation and training on roles and responsibilities and 89% reported evaluating their CAB. Almost all respondents indicated their CTSA incorporates the feedback of their CABs to some degree; over half do so a lot or completely. This study profiles practices that inform CTSAs implementing a CAB and provide an evaluative benchmark for those with existing CABs.
The Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies, developed in 2017 (CFDET 2017), aims to unify and facilitate agreement regarding the identification, structure, and relationships between various evaluation typologies found in the disaster setting. A peer-reviewed validation process sought input from international experts in the fields of disaster medicine, disaster/emergency management, humanitarian/development, and evaluation. This paper discusses the validation process, its results, and outcomes.
Previous frameworks, identified in the literature, lack validation and consistent terminology. To gain credibility and utility, this unique framework needed to be validated by international experts in the disaster setting.
A mixed methods approach was designed to validate the framework. An initial iterative process informed an online survey which used a combination of a five-point Likert scale and open-ended questions. Pre-determined consensus thresholds, informed by a targeted literature review, provided the validation criteria.
A sample of 33 experts from 11 countries responded to the validation process. Quantitative measures largely supported the elements and relationships of the framework, and strongly supported its value and usefulness for supporting, promoting, and undertaking evaluations, as well as its usefulness for teaching evaluation in the disaster setting. Qualitative input suggested opportunities to strengthen and enhance the framework. There were limited responses to better understand the barriers and enablers of undertaking disaster evaluations. A potential for self-selection bias of respondents may be a limitation of this study. The attainment of high consensus thresholds, however, provides confidence in the validity of the results.
For the first time, a framework of this nature has undergone a rigorous validation process by experts in three related disciplines at an international level. The modified framework, CFDET 2018, provides a unifying framework within which existing evaluation typologies can be structured. It gives evaluators confidence to choose an appropriate strategy for their particular evaluation in the disaster setting and facilitates consistency in reporting across the different phases of a disaster to better understand the process, outcomes, and impacts of the efficacy and efficiency of interventions. Future research could create a series of toolkits to support improved disaster evaluation processes and to evaluate the utility of the framework in the real-world setting.
Most of the existing literature on inclusion and exclusion among older adults focuses on community-dwelling individuals. In this article, we draw on the results of a comparative case study to explore how older adults in two assisted living settings experience inclusion and exclusion. One site was a low-income facility and the other a higher-end facility in a mid-sized Canadian city. Bridging together geographies of encounter and gerontological approaches on social inclusion, we analyse interviews with tenants and key informants to explore when, where and in what ways these groups experience inclusion and exclusion in these particular settings. Tenants’ narratives reveal how their encounters, and in turn their experiences of exclusion and inclusion are shaped by experiences throughout their lifecourse, the organisation of assisted living spaces, communities beyond the facility, and pervasive discourses of ageism and ‘dementiaism’. We argue that addressing experiences of exclusion for older adults within these settings involves making more time and space for positive encounters and addressing pervasive discourses around ageism and ‘dementiaism’ among tenants and staff.