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Issues in traditional cross-section sampling of paintings and other cultural artifacts with a scalpel, such as crumbling, delamination and paint compression, can deter conservators from sampling fragile paint layers. Often, such sampling carries the risk of causing further damage from a scalpel, which outweighs the benefits of scientific investigation. Here, we show that femtosecond lasers offer a viable alternative to obtaining cross-sections with minimal damage to the surrounding artwork. A Regenerative Ti:Sapphire amplifier system with a pulse duration of 70 femtoseconds, a few milliwatts of average power and a repetition rate of 1 kHz (1000 pulses/sec) was used for the study. Tests were performed on oil paintings ranging in age from the 19th century to late 20th century. Effective settings were determined to be 2 mW of power at a speed of 10mm/sec using an 800nm laser. Preliminary results suggest femtosecond lasers could be a viable alternative for obtaining paint cross-sections when traditional sampling methods cause unnecessary damage to fragile materials.
We used laboratory and field feeding trials to investigate adult carabid
beetle preferences for three brassicaceous weed species (rapeseed, wild
mustard, and field pennycress) that are pests in canola. All carabid species
preferred seeds of rapeseed most and those of field pennycress least and
showed intermediate preference for wild mustard seeds. Beetles highly
preferred imbibed seeds of all three weed species. Activity–density of
carabids and mean weed seed removal were highly correlated in field plots of
canola, with activity–density accounting for 67% of the observed variation
in seed removal. Our study indicates that seed consumption among carabids is
influenced by several factors, including weed species, physiological state
of seeds, and carabid activity–density. Carabid seed predation is
significant in canola agroecosystems; therefore, understanding these
influences has implications for ecological weed management.
The present study aimed to evaluate the precision, ease of use and likelihood of future use of portion size estimation aids (PSEA).
A range of PSEA were used to estimate the serving sizes of a range of commonly eaten foods and rated for ease of use and likelihood of future usage.
For each food, participants selected their preferred PSEA from a range of options including: quantities and measures; reference objects; measuring; and indicators on food packets. These PSEA were used to serve out various foods (e.g. liquid, amorphous, and composite dishes). Ease of use and likelihood of future use were noted. The foods were weighed to determine the precision of each PSEA.
Males and females aged 18–64 years (n 120).
The quantities and measures were the most precise PSEA (lowest range of weights for estimated portion sizes). However, participants preferred household measures (e.g. 200 ml disposable cup) – deemed easy to use (median rating of 5), likely to use again in future (all scored either 4 or 5 on a scale from 1=‘not very likely’ to 5=‘very likely to use again’) and precise (narrow range of weights for estimated portion sizes). The majority indicated they would most likely use the PSEA preparing a meal (94 %), particularly dinner (86 %) in the home (89 %; all P<0·001) for amorphous grain foods.
Household measures may be precise, easy to use and acceptable aids for estimating the appropriate portion size of amorphous grain foods.
Ground beetles are postdispersal weed seed predators, yet their role in
consuming buried seeds is not well studied. We conducted greenhouse
experiments to investigate how seed burial affects consumption of weed seeds
(volunteer canola) by adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Seed
burial depth influenced seed consumption rates as demonstrated by a
significant interaction between seed burial depth, carabid species, and
gender of the carabid tested. We observed higher seed consumption by females
of all species, and greater consumption of seeds scattered on the soil
surface compared with seeds buried at any depth. However, there was evidence
of seed consumption at all depths. Adults of Pterostichus
melanarius (Illiger) and Harpalus affinis
(Schrank) consumed more buried seeds than did those of Amara
littoralis Mannerheim. Agricultural practices, such as tillage,
bury seeds at different depths and based on the results of this study, these
practices may reduce seed consumption by carabids. Soil conservation
practices that reduce tillage (conservation or zero tillage) will favor
greater weed seed predation due, in part, to the high availability of seeds
at the soil surface or at shallow soil depths.
Background: It has been hypothesized that [18F]-sodium fluoride (NaF) uptake imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) binds to hydroxyapatite molecules expressed in regions with active calcification. Therefore, we aimed to validate NaF as a marker of hydroxyapatite expression in high-risk carotid plaque. Methods: Eleven patients (69 ± 5 years, 3 female) scheduled for carotid endarterectomy were prospectively recruited for NaF PET/CT. One patient received a second contralateral endarterectomy; two patients were excluded (intolerance to contrast media and PET/CT misalignment). The bifurcation of the common carotid was used as the reference point; NaF uptake (tissue to blood ratio - TBR) was measured at every PET slice extending 2 cm above and below the bifurcation. Excised plaque was immunostained with Goldner’s Trichrome and whole-slide digitized images were used to quantify hydroxyapatite expression. Pathology was co-registered with PET. Results: NaF uptake was related to the extent of hydroxyapatite expression (r=0.45, p<0.001). Upon classifying bilateral plaque for symptomatology, symptomatic plaque was associated with cerebrovascular events (3.75±1.1 TBR, n=9) and had greater NaF uptake than clinically silent asymptomatic plaque (2.79±0.6 TBR, n=11) (p=0.04). Conclusion: NaF uptake is related to hydroxyapatite expression and is increased in plaque associated with cerebrovascular events. NaF may serve as a novel biomarker of active calcification and plaque vulnerability.
Background: Whole-slide scanning of tissue sections spatially informed by imaging studies offers the opportunity to reconstruct specimens for co-registration to 3D imaging data. Digital image analysis algorithms can be designed to analyze and reconstruct such specimens via electronic “pipelines”. Methods: A goal of the Canadian Atherosclerosis Imaging Network (CAIN) is to improve the assessment of carotid atheromatous disease through studies that inform clinical imaging with gold-standard data (plaque pathology). To achieve this, sectioned atheromas are manually annotated and analyzed by electronic algorithm for pathological features of interest. Resulting images are then reassembled in 3D for registration to ultrasound, CT, PET-CT and MRI studies. Results: Carotid endarterectomy specimens were sub-serially sectioned, stained, digitized and annotated manually and by electronic algorithms. Resulting 2D images were successfully rendered, reassembled and analyzed in 3D using ex-vivo micro-CT as a spatial reference. Furthermore, histology quantification using colour deconvolution was found to be preferred over hue-saturation-intensity methods 94.7-100% of the time in a blinded multiple rater study. Conclusion: Automated “pipelines” greatly facilitate 3D reconstruction in comparison to traditional slice-by-slice methods. Transformations spatially guided by pre-existing imaging data is not only faster, but has superior objectivity and fidelity. With embedded annotations, 3D pathology maps become a rich, micron-level, permanent digital pathological database for correlative studies.
The present analysis aimed to investigate the changes in the reported portion sizes (PS) of foods and beverages commonly consumed by Irish adults (18–64 years) from the North South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (NSIFCS) (1997–2001) and the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) (2008–10). Food PS, which are defined as the weight of food (g) consumed per eating occasion, were calculated for comparable foods and beverages in two nationally representative cross-sectional Irish food consumption surveys and were published in NSIFCS and NANS. Repeated measure mixed model analysis compared reported food PS at the total population level as well as subdivided by sex, age, BMI and social class. A total of thirteen commonly consumed foods were examined. The analysis demonstrated that PS significantly increased for five foods (‘white sliced bread’, ‘brown/wholemeal breads’, ‘all meat, cooked’, ‘poultry, roasted’ and ‘milk’), significantly decreased for three (‘potatoes’, ‘chips/wedges’ and ‘ham, sliced’) and did not significantly change for five foods (‘processed potato products’, ‘bacon/ham’, ‘cheese’, ‘yogurt’ and ‘butter/spreads’) between the NSIFCS and the NANS. The present study demonstrates that there was considerable variation in the trends in reported food PS over this period.
1.1. The work for the paper was carried out by the authors as members of the Bonus and Valuation Research Group of the Faculty of Actuaries. The previous paper produced as a result of work done in the Bonus Research Group (Studies of Reversionary Bonus using a Model Office, TFA 37, 91) used a deterministic model office. Future interest rates and returns from equity investment were assumed known and the effects on reversionary bonus of variations in the valuation bases, rates of expansion and inflation of expenses were examined. The assumption of an exact knowledge of future investment returns was a great simplification and begged many of the important questions facing a life office actuary. In this paper the Research Group has paid attention to the change in the value of the assets under variations in financial conditions.
Roffelsen is an early Younge phase mortuary component in southwestern Ontario. The single burial feature is a pit containing the articulated skeletons of seven successively buried individuals, ranging in age from a few months to late middle age. All had been stripped of soft tissues, except for the connecting tissues that maintained their articulation. Most also had a disk cut from the cranium and a hole drilled near bregma. All but the infant display various forms of developmental failure of the outer and middle ear and the petrous portion of the temporal bone. The pit was apparently the burial facility for an extended family with significant hearing impairments. This disability may have limited their interaction with neighboring communities, perhaps even playing a role in their eventual disappearance as a separate community.
Many species respond to risks and benefits of dispersal that vary over the short term through condition-dependent dispersal. We used wind tunnels to investigate how abiotic factors, spiderling age, and indicators of environmental quality affect aerial dispersal behaviour of spiderlings in Dolomedes triton (Walckenaer) (Araneae: Pisauridae), a denizen of temporary habitats. More than half of all spiderlings exhibited preballooning, ballooning, or spanning behaviours. Warm temperatures (>22.5 °C) and low wind speeds (<2.0 m/second) increased aerial dispersal. Aerial dispersal behaviour increased significantly until 5 days after hatch, after which it decreased, coinciding with the onset of active hunting by spiderlings. In contrast, cues about ambient food availability (egg sac number and food limitation of the mother) and potential resource competition or risk of cannibalism (conspecific density) did not affect aerial dispersal propensity. Offspring from different females ballooned in different proportions, except at the peak of dispersal, but a female's reproductive output and propensity of her offspring to balloon were uncorrelated. Thus, it appears that spiderlings of D. triton adopt a fixed strategy of high dispersal rate under optimal abiotic conditions, rather than reducing dispersal in response to cues about local food availability or conspecific density.