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Thalénite-(Y), ideally Y3Si3O10F, is a heavy-rare-earth-rich silicate phase occurring in granite pegmatites that may help to illustrate rare-earth element (REE) chemistry and behaviour in natural systems. The crystal structure and mineral chemistry of thalénite-(Y) were analysed by electron microprobe analysis, X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy from a new locality in the peralkaline granite of the Golden Horn batholith, Okanogan County, Washington State, USA, in comparison with new analyses from the White Cloud pegmatite in the Pikes Peak batholith, Colorado, USA. The Golden Horn thalénite-(Y) occurs as late-stage sub-millimetre euhedral bladed transparent crystals in small miarolitic cavities in an arfvedsonite-bearing biotite granite. It exhibits growth zoning with distinct heavy-rare-earth element (HREE) vs. light-rare-earth element (LREE) enriched zones. The White Cloud thalénite-(Y) occurs in two distinct anhedral and botryoidal crystal habits of mostly homogenous composition. In addition, minor secondary thalénite-(Y) is recognized by its distinct Yb-rich composition (up to 0.8 atoms per formula unit (apfu) Yb). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and structure refinement reveals Y-site ordering with preferential HREE occupation of Y2 vs. Y1 and Y3 REE sites. Chondrite normalization shows continuous enrichment of HREE in White Cloud thalénite-(Y), in contrast to Golden Horn thalénite-(Y) with a slight depletion of the heaviest REE (Tm, Yb and Lu). The results suggest a hydrothermal origin of the Golden Horn miarolitic thalénite-(Y), compared to a combination of both primary magmatic followed by hydrothermal processes responsible for the multiple generations over a range of spatial scales in White Cloud thalénite-(Y).
The photometric phase curves of Saturn's A and B rings exhibit a sharp peak in reflectance when the phase angle approaches zero, commonly known as the opposition effect. Recent work has suggested that the width and amplitude of the opposition effect may be consistent with coherent backscattering from wavelength-sized grains which cover the surfaces of macroscopic ring particles.
By-product-based diets generally contain lower levels of energy than cereal-based diets due to higher levels of fibre (Bakker et al., 1995). Supplementation with oil is a common method of improving the digestible energy content of by-product-based diets and it has been reported that this practice may also improve energy digestibility. However, the results of McCann et al., (2004) suggested that the method of oil application to finishing pig diets may affect the digestibility of dietary nutrients. The aim of this experiment was to compare apparent digestibility coefficients determined in finishing pigs offered either by-product based diets or cereal-based diets, with and without vegetable oil blend supplementation applied using two different methods (either directly incorporated into the pellet (IN) or sprayed (SP) on after pelleting).
Cereals have traditionally been used in the pig industry as the main source of energy in pig diets. However, as a result of cereal availability and price, alternative sources of energy have been considered, for example the addition of oil to cereal by-product-based diets. By-product-based diets commonly contain higher levels of fibre than cereal-based diets and several studies (e.g. Bakker et al 1995) have reported them to be less digestible in terms of dry matter (DM), energy, crude protein (CP) and oil. The lower DM digestibility of by-product-based diets may lead to a higher level of slurry output, which is an increasing environmental concern. The aim of this work was to examine the differences in digestibility between by-product-based diets supplemented with oil and cereal-based diets.
Climatic fluctuation is often cited as a major factor in the collapse of Maya civilisation during the Terminal Classic Period (e.g. Luzzadder-Beach et al.2016). Evidence of how people dealt or failed to deal with it has only recently become a more widespread focus for archaeologists. Investigations at Xcoch in the Puuc Hills show the various ways in which resident populations sought to manage water stores when faced with a climate prone to drought and other meteorological extremes. The study also presents results from the analysis of nearby speleothem laminae, which indicate that severe episodes of flooding and droughts may have contributed to a collapse in the population around AD 850.
Background: Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus. Current treatment recommendations are based on short-term trials, generally of ≤3 months’ duration. Limited data are available on the long-term outcomes of this chronic disease. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term clinical effectiveness of the management of chronic PDN at tertiary pain centres. Methods: From a prospective observational cohort study of patients with chronic neuropathic non-cancer pain recruited from seven Canadian tertiary pain centres, 60 patients diagnosed with PDN were identified for analysis. Data were collected according to Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials guidelines including the Brief Pain Inventory. Results: At 12-month follow-up, 37.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.0-53.3) of 43 patients with complete data achieved pain reduction of ≥30%, 51.2% (95% CI, 35.5-66.7) achieved functional improvement with a reduction of ≥1 on the Pain Interference Scale (0-10, Brief Pain Inventory) and 30.2% (95% CI, 17.2-46.1) had achieved both these measures. Symptom management included at least two medication classes in 55.3% and three medication classes in 25.5% (opioids, antidepressants, anticonvulsants). Conclusions: Almost one-third of patients being managed for PDN in a tertiary care setting achieve meaningful improvements in pain and function in the long term. Polypharmacy including analgesic antidepressants and anticonvulsants were the mainstays of effective symptom management.
An algorithm for exponential fitting is presented which exploits the separable regression structure and a reparametrization. The algorithm has proved very satisfactory, and theoretical reasons for this are developed.
The basic facts are well known: half the world’s refugees are in African, trying to eke out an existence in some of the world’s poorest countries. Since the numbers –five million is the usual total given for all Africa–change constantly, one cannot be precise about how many there are. African countries have opened their doors and, inevitably, their economies to the refugees; the international community is giving help, chiefly through the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. There are obvious reasons for countries of asylum to inflate the figures. Moreover, since more homeless people may arrive tomorrow–or may already have come without making their presence known–the’most honest of officials have incentive to err on the generous side.
The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) is currently obtaining spectral maps of Jupiter’s moons to determine the composition and spatial distribution of minerals on the satellite surfaces. Sulfur dioxide, as a frost or ice, covers much of Io’s surface, except in hot volcanic areas. A weak spectral feature at 3.15 μm suggests the presence of an OH containing surface compound (hydroxide, hydrate, or water) and a broad absorption above 1 μm is reasonably attributed to iron-containing minerals, such as feldspars and pyrite. Water is the dominant molecule covering Europa’s surface, occurring as ice but also as a hydrate. The trailing side shows high concentrations of these hydrous minerals, whose identifications are not yet established. Ganymede’s surface exhibits water absorption bands, largely due to ice but hydrates are also present. A dark component is present, but with a smaller proportion compared to Callisto. Some of the non-ice features seen on Ganymede are similar to those found in Callisto’s spectra (see below). Among the icy Galilean satellites, Callisto shows the least amount of water ice, covering about 10% of the surface in patchy concentrations. Most of the surface is covered with unidentified (as yet) dark minerals. The exposed ice is often associated with impact craters, implying that the darker material exists as a blanket over more pure ice. Non-ice spectral features at 3.88, 4.03, 4.25, and 4.57 μm are present in Callisto’s spectra (and some of these appear in Ganymede’s spectra), each with different spatial distributions. Laboratory spectra suggest that the 4.25-μm feature is due to carbon dioxide which is trapped in the surface grains. The band at 4.03 μm may be due to sulfur dioxide, which probably originated from Io. Molecules containing CN, SH, SiH, and perhaps deuterated constituents are candidates for the other features, some of which could be derived from shock-heated and modified material from impacts, perhaps of carbonaceous composition. There is evidence for the presence of hydrated minerals on Callisto, based on water band shifts and shapes.
Background: Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus. Current treatment recommendations are based on short-term trials, generally of duration ≤3 months. Limited data are available on the long-term outcomes of this chronic disease. This study aims to determine the long-term clinical effectiveness of the management of chronic PDN at tertiary pain centres. Methods: From a prospective observational cohort study of patients with chronic neuropathic non-cancer pain recruited from seven Canadian tertiary pain centres, 43 patients diagnosed with PDN were identified for analysis. Data were collected according to Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) guidelines including Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). Results: At 12-month follow-up, 37.2% of 43 patients achieved pain reduction of ≥30%, 51.2% achieved functional improvement with a reduction of ≥1 on the Pain Interference Scale (0-10, BPI), and 30.2% (95% CI: 17.2% to 46.1%) had achieved both these measures. Symptom management included at least 2 medication classes in 55.3%, and 3 medications classes (opioids, antidepressants, anticonvulsants) in 25.5%. Conclusions: A sizable minority of patients being managed for PDN in a tertiary care setting achieve meaningful improvement. Polypharmacy, including analgesic antidepressants, anticonvulsants and opioids, is often necessary to attain symptom management.
“Dance is movement that has been organized so that it is rewarding to behold,” writes Anderson (1974, p. 9), and many of those who talk or write about dance have attempted to explain the way in which dance rewards the beholder by considering the processes by which dance communicates. Anderson goes on to say: “…dance communicates because it prompts responses within us. Dance is not simply a visual art, it is kinesthetic as well; it appeals to our inherent sense of motion” (p. 9). This distinction between visual and kinesthetic communication is one which many dancers find appealing. The kinesthetic communication is not analyzed further, but rather, it becomes an easy way of stating the special status of dance as an art form. That is, there is a special sense for which only dance can provide aesthetic satisfaction.
General Practitioner consultation rates for influenza-like illness (ILI) are monitored through several geographically distinct schemes in the UK, providing early warning to government and health services of community circulation and intensity of activity each winter. Following on from the 2009 pandemic, there has been a harmonization initiative to allow comparison across the distinct existing surveillance schemes each season. The moving epidemic method (MEM), proposed by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control for standardizing reporting of ILI rates, was piloted in 2011/12 and 2012/13 along with the previously proposed UK method of empirical percentiles. The MEM resulted in thresholds that were lower than traditional thresholds but more appropriate as indicators of the start of influenza virus circulation. The intensity of the influenza season assessed with the MEM was similar to that reported through the percentile approach. The MEM pre-epidemic threshold has now been adopted for reporting by each country of the UK. Further work will continue to assess intensity of activity and apply standardized methods to other influenza-related data sources.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited childhood-onset life-shortening disease. It is characterized by increased respiratory production, leading to airway obstruction, chronic lung infection and inflammatory reactions. The most common bacteria causing persisting infections in people with CF is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) conjugated to the antibiotic (tobramycin), guided by a gradient of the magnetic field or subjected to an oscillating magnetic field, show promise in improving the drug delivery across the mucus and P. aeruginosa biofilm to the bacteria. The question remains whether tobramycin needs to be released from the NPs after the penetration of the mucus barrier in order to act upon the pathogenic bacteria. We used a zero-length 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) crosslinking agent to couple tobramycin, via its amine groups, to the carboxyl groups on Fe3O4 NPs capped with citric acid. The therapeutic efficiency of Fe3O4 NPs attached to the drug versus that of the free drug was investigated in P. aeruginosa culture.
An analysis was undertaken to measure age-specific vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 2010/11 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) and monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine (PIV) administered in 2009/2010. The test-negative case-control study design was employed based on patients consulting primary care. Overall TIV effectiveness, adjusted for age and month, against confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm 2009 infection was 56% (95% CI 42–66); age-specific adjusted VE was 87% (95% CI 45–97) in <5-year-olds and 84% (95% CI 27–97) in 5- to 14-year-olds. Adjusted VE for PIV was only 28% (95% CI −6 to 51) overall and 72% (95% CI 15–91) in <5-year-olds. For confirmed influenza B infection, TIV effectiveness was 57% (95% CI 42–68) and in 5- to 14-year-olds 75% (95% CI 32–91). TIV provided moderate protection against the main circulating strains in 2010/2011, with higher protection in children. PIV administered during the previous season provided residual protection after 1 year, particularly in the <5 years age group.
The ‘coupon collection problem’ refers to a class of occupancy problems in which j identical items are distributed, independently and at random, to n cells, with no restrictions on multiple occupancy. Identifying the cells as coupons, a coupon is ‘collected’ if the cell is occupied by one or more of the distributed items; thus, some coupons may never be collected, whereas others may be collected once or twice or more. We call the number of coupons collected exactly r times coupons of type r. The coupon collection model we consider is general, in that a random number of purchases occurs at each stage of collecting a large number of coupons; the sample sizes at each stage are independent and identically distributed according to a sampling distribution. The joint behavior of the various types is an intricate problem. In fact, there is a variety of joint central limit theorems (and other limit laws) that arise according to the interrelation between the mean, variance, and range of the sampling distribution, and of course the phase (how far we are in the collection processes). According to an appropriate combination of the mean of the sampling distribution and the number of available coupons, the phase is sublinear, linear, or superlinear. In the sublinear phase, the normalization that produces a Gaussian limit law for uncollected coupons can be used to obtain a multivariate central limit law for at most two other types — depending on the rates of growth of the mean and variance of the sampling distribution, we may have a joint central limit theorem between types 0 and 1, or between types 0, 1, and 2. In the linear phase we have a multivariate central limit theorem among the types 0, 1,…, k for any fixed k.
This article examines the changes in herbicide use in relation to canola production in Western Canada, comparing 1995 and 2006. The commercialization and widespread adoption of herbicide-resistant (HR) canola has changed weed management practices in Western Canada. Before the introduction of HR canola, weeds were controlled by herbicides and tillage as the leading herbicides at that time required tillage to allow for soil incorporation of the herbicide. Much of the tillage associated with HR canola production has been eliminated as 64% of producers are now using zero or minimum tillage as their preferred form of crop and soil management. Additionally, there have been significant changes regarding the use and application of herbicides for weed control in canola. This research shows that when comparing canola production in 1995 and 2006, the environmental impact of herbicides applied to canola decreased 53%, producer exposure to chemicals decreased 56%, and quantity of active ingredient applied decreased 1.3 million kg. The cumulative environmental impact was reduced almost 50% with the use of HR herbicides. If HR canola had not been developed and Canadian canola farmers continued to use previous production technologies, the amount of active ingredient applied to control weeds in 2007 would have been 60% above what was actually applied.
A review is given of the controlled use of compositional variation in the sintering of ceramics. The difficulties in determining the mechanisms of operation of sintering additives are outlined and the mechanistic approaches for studying the subject are described. Important remaining issues, new developments and opportunities for developing unique ceramic microstructures through the controlled use of compositional variation are described. Attention is focused on lattice defects and grain growth inhibition, particle pinning, multiple doping, anion effects, anisotropy effects, scavenging, surface diffusion and the formation of wavy grain boundaries.