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Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age.
Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer.
CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions.
Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.
Evaluation of post-operative donor site disability remains unaddressed in radial forearm free flap cases. This study aimed to assess donor site dysfunction following radial forearm free flap harvest using validated general, disease-specific and site-specific disability questionnaires.
In this retrospective case series of 24 patients at a tertiary academic medical centre, patients were assessed using the Short Form 36 Health Survey, Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire, and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire. One-sample z-tests were performed, comparing means of the cohort to controls.
Compared to population controls, the cohort had higher mean scores for the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (18.22 vs 10.1, p < 0.01), and Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire bothersome index (21.44 vs 13.77, p = 0.04), and a lower mean score for the Short Form 36 Health Survey physical component (38.88 vs 50, p < 0.01), indicating a greater disability for the cohort compared to controls.
Radial forearm free flap harvest causes significant long-term donor site disability in head and neck tumour patients. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire is a concise tool for measuring this dysfunction.
Exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous and associated with health abnormalities that persist in subsequent generations. However, transgenerational effects of BPA on metabolic health are not widely studied. In a maternal C57BL/6J mice (F0) exposure model using BPA doses that are relevant to human exposure levels (10 μg/kg/day, LowerB; 10 mg/kg/day, UpperB), we showed male- and dose-specific effects on pancreatic islets of the first (F1) and second generation (F2) offspring relative to controls (7% corn oil diet; control). In this study, we determined the transgenerational effects (F3) of BPA on metabolic health and pancreatic islets in our model. Adult F3 LowerB and UpperB male offspring had increased body weight relative to Controls, however glucose tolerance was similar in the three groups. F3 LowerB, but not UpperB, males had reduced β-cell mass and smaller islets which was associated with increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Similar to F1 and F2 BPA male offspring, staining for markers of T-cells and macrophages (CD3 and F4/80) was increased in pancreas of F3 LowerB and UpperB male offspring, which was associated with changes in cytokine levels. In contrast to F3 BPA males, LowerB and UpperB female offspring had comparable body weight, glucose tolerance and insulin secretion as Controls. Thus, maternal BPA exposure resulted in fewer metabolic defects in F3 than F1 and F2 offspring, and these were sex- and dose-specific.
This study aimed to evaluate the presence of subjective post-operative donor site morbidity after fibula free flap reconstruction in head and neck cancer patients, utilising three validated instruments: the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire and the Lower Limb Core Scale.
In this retrospective study, all head and neck cancer patients who underwent fibula free flap reconstruction between January 2009 and July 2014 were identified. All questionnaires and their respective subcomponents were scored.
Twenty-one cases were included. Patients were found to have a higher Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment bothersome index (22.42 vs 13.77, p = 0.03), a lower Short Form 36 Health Survey Physical Component Summary score (42.44 vs 50, p < 0.01) and a decreased Lower Limb Core Scale score (47.08 vs 90.52, p < 0.01), compared to US population norms. The Short Form 36 Health Survey Mental Component Summary scores and Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment function index failed to demonstrate significant differences. Gender affected overall disability.
In this study, significant long-term disability was demonstrated after fibular flap reconstruction, as measured by the Lower Limb Core Scale.
Slender liquid jets that have a curved trajectory have been examined in a range of papers using a method introduced in Wallwork et al. (Proc. IUTAM Symp. on Free-Surface Flows, 2000, Kluwer; J. Fluid Mech., vol. 459, 2002, pp. 43–65) and Decent et al. (J. Engng Maths, vol. 42, 2002, pp. 265–282), for jets that emerge from an orifice on the surface of a rotating cylindrical container, successfully comparing computational results to measurements arising from laboratory experiments. Wallwork et al. (2000, 2002) and Decent et al. (2002) based their analyses on the slenderness of the jet, and neglected the torsion of the centreline of the jet, which is valid since in most situations examined the torsion is zero or small. Shikhmurzaev & Sisoev (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 819, 2017, pp. 352–400) used differential geometry and incorporated the torsion. This paper shows that these two methods produce identical results at leading order when the torsion is zero or when the torsion is
, in an asymptotic framework based upon the slenderness of the jet, and shows that the method of Wallwork et al. (2000, 2002) and Decent et al. (2002) is accurate for parameters corresponding to scenarios previously examined and also when the torsion is
. It is shown that the method of Shikhmurzaev & Sisoev (2017) should be used when the torsion is asymptotically large or when the jet is not slender.
In the past few decades new laws criminalizing certain transnational activities have proliferated: from money laundering, corruption, and insider trading to trafficking in weapons and drugs. Human trafficking is one example. We argue that criminalization of trafficking in persons has diffused in large part because of the way the issue has been framed: primarily as a problem of organized crime rather than predominantly an egregious human rights abuse. Framing human trafficking as an organized crime practice empowers states to confront cross-border human movements viewed as potentially threatening. We show that the diffusion of criminalization is explained by road networks that reflect potential vulnerabilities to the diversion of transnational crime. We interpret our results as evidence of the importance of context and issue framing, which in turn affects perceptions of vulnerability to neighbors' policy choices. In doing so, we unify diffusion studies of liberalization with the spread of prohibition regimes to explain the globalization of aspects of criminal law.
In nutrition, as in any other branch of quantitative applied science, two essential criteria must be met before research findings can be transferred successfully into practice. (1) The fundamental concepts must be essentially sound and (2) the predictions emerging from that conceptually sound system must, in a practical situation, constitute a useful increase in accuracy. The new method proposed by the Agricultural Research Council (ARC, 1980) for expressing protein requirements and the value of feeds for ruminants is undoubtedly an enormous improvement in a conceptual sense on ARC (1965). Indeed, the division of protein inputs into rumen degradable nitrogen (RDN) and undegradable dietary nitrogen (UDN) cannot be faulted since it is the best possible simple description of what happens. Even the decision to retain the concept of crude protein (N x 6.25) and refer therefore to RDP and UDP is harmless. The new ARC protein system therefore fulfils the first criterion for successful practical application. The second criterion can only be fulfilled if ARC (1980) accurately describes both the requirements of animals and the nutritive value of feeds in terms of RDP and UDP. In the case of dairy cows, this is open to considerable doubt.