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Though theory suggests that individual differences in neuroticism (a tendency to experience negative emotions) would be associated with altered functioning of the amygdala (which has been linked with emotionality and emotion dysregulation in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood), results of functional neuroimaging studies have been contradictory and inconclusive. We aimed to clarify the relationship between neuroticism and three hypothesized neural markers derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging during negative emotion face processing: amygdala activation, amygdala habituation, and amygdala-prefrontal connectivity, each of which plays an important role in the experience and regulation of emotions. We used general linear models to examine the relationship between trait neuroticism and the hypothesized neural markers in a large sample of over 500 young adults. Although neuroticism was not significantly associated with magnitude of amygdala activation or amygdala habituation, it was associated with amygdala–ventromedial prefrontal cortex connectivity, which has been implicated in emotion regulation. Results suggest that trait neuroticism may represent a failure in top-down control and regulation of emotional reactions, rather than overactive emotion generation processes, per se. These findings suggest that neuroticism, which has been associated with increased rates of transdiagnostic psychopathology, may represent a failure in the inhibitory neurocircuitry associated with emotion regulation.
Older adults, especially those above age 80, are the fastest growing segment of the population in the United States and at risk for age-related cognitive decline and dementia. There is growing evidence that cognitive activity and training may allow adults to maintain or improve cognitive functioning, but little is known about the potential benefit in the oldest old. In this randomized trial, the effectiveness of a computerized cognitive training program (CCT program) was compared to an active control games program to improve cognition in cognitively normal individuals aged 80 and older.
Sixty-nine older adults were randomized to a 24-session CCT program (n = 39) or an active control program (n = 30). Participants completed a pre- and post- training neuropsychological assessment. The primary outcome measure was a global cognitive composite, and the secondary outcomes were the scores on specific cognitive domains (of memory, executive function/attention, and language).
Using linear mixed models, there were no significant differences between the CCT and the active control program on the primary (p = 0.662) or any of the secondary outcomes (language functioning, p = .628; attention/executive functioning, p = .428; memory, p = .749).
This study suggests that short-term CCT had no specific benefit for cognitive functioning in non-demented individuals aged 80 and older.
The present study evaluates the use of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), a type of exploratory factor analysis designed to reduce the dimensionality of large categorical data sets, in identifying behaviours associated with measures of overweight/obesity in Vanuatu, a rapidly modernizing Pacific Island country.
Starting with seventy-three true/false questions regarding a variety of behaviours, MCA identified twelve most significantly associated with modernization status and transformed the aggregate binary responses of participants to these twelve questions into a linear scale. Using this scale, individuals were separated into three modernization groups (tertiles) among which measures of body fat were compared and OR for overweight/obesity were computed.
Ni-Vanuatu adults (n 810) aged 20–85 years.
Among individuals in the tertile characterized by positive responses to most of or all the twelve modernization questions, weight and measures of body fat and the likelihood that measures of body fat were above the US 75th percentile were significantly greater compared with individuals in the tertiles characterized by mostly or partly negative responses.
The study indicates that MCA can be used to identify individuals or groups at risk for overweight/obesity, based on answers to simply-put questions. MCA therefore may be useful in areas where obtaining detailed information about modernization status is constrained by time, money or manpower.
Associations between high body mass index (BMI) and subsequent cognitive decline, reported in elderly averaging below age 75, become less consistent at older ages. We compared the associations of BMI with cognition in moderately old (ages 75–84, N = 154) and oldest-old (85+, N = 93) samples. BMI and cognition were assessed cross-sectionally in cognitively intact elderly (mean age = 84.5, SD = 4.4) male veterans. Regression analyses of three cognitive domains — executive functions/language, attention, and memory—compared relationship with BMI between the moderately old and oldest-old. Higher BMI was associated with relatively poorer executive functions/language performance in the moderately old, while the opposite relationship, higher BMI associated with relatively better performance, was found in the oldest-old. Associations for the other two cognitive domains did not differ significantly between age groups. The reversal of association direction for executive functions/language performance with higher BMI is consistent with the protected survivor model. This model posits a minority subpopulation with a protective factor—genetic or otherwise—against both mortality and cognitive decline associated with risk factor status. The very old who remain cognitively intact despite the presence of risk factors are more likely to possess protection.
Depression and cognitive impairment are highly prevalent in type 2 diabetes (T2D), yet little is known about how their relationship varies by sex. We examined this question in a large T2D sample (N = 897) of non-demented elderly (≥ 65) participating in the Israel Diabetes and Cognitive Decline (IDCD) Study. Cognition was evaluated by a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and depressive symptoms were assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The results showed that in all but the executive function domain, the association of depressive symptoms with poorer cognitive function was stronger in women than men, with a significant interaction for language/semantic categorization and missed significance for episodic memory. When defining clinical depression as GDS of ≥6, women with depression had significantly poorer language/semantic categorization, episodic memory, and overall cognitive function. Inclusion of antidepressants in the model did not alter substantively the associations. Our results suggest that depressed T2D women may have poorer cognitive performance, highlighting the significance of sex-specific personalized management of depression in elderly diabetics.
We present an overview of the performance of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II) accelerator at Berkeley Lab, and report on recent target experiments on beam-driven melting and transmission ion energy loss measurements with nanosecond and millimeter-scale ion beam pulses and thin tin foils. Bunches with around 1011 ions, 1 mm radius, and 2–30 ns full width at half maximum duration have been created with corresponding fluences in the range of 0.1–0.7 J/cm2. To achieve these short pulse durations and mm-scale focal spot radii, the 1.1 MeV [megaelectronvolt (106 eV)] He+ ion beam is neutralized in a drift compression section, which removes the space charge defocusing effect during final compression and focusing. The beam space charge and drift compression techniques resemble necessary beam conditions and manipulations in heavy ion inertial fusion accelerators. Quantitative comparison of detailed particle-in-cell simulations with the experiment plays an important role in optimizing accelerator performance.
Anxiety disorders are common, and cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is a first-line treatment. Candidate gene studies have suggested a genetic basis to treatment response, but findings have been inconsistent.
To perform the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of psychological treatment response in children with anxiety disorders (n = 980).
Presence and severity of anxiety was assessed using semi-structured interview at baseline, on completion of treatment (post-treatment), and 3 to 12 months after treatment completion (follow-up). DNA was genotyped using the Illumina Human Core Exome-12v1.0 array. Linear mixed models were used to test associations between genetic variants and response (change in symptom severity) immediately post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up.
No variants passed a genome-wide significance threshold (P=5×10–8) in either analysis. Four variants met criteria for suggestive significance (P<5×10–6) in association with response post-treatment, and three variants in the 6-month follow-up analysis.
This is the first genome-wide therapygenetic study. It suggests no common variants of very high effect underlie response to CBT. Future investigations should maximise power to detect single-variant and polygenic effects by using larger, more homogeneous cohorts.
There are standard modifications of certain compactly supported wavelets that yield orthonormal bases on a bounded interval. We extend one such construction to those wavelets, such as ‘coiflets', that may have fewer vanishing moments than had to be assumed previously. Our motivation lies in function estimation in statistics. We use these boundary-modified coiflets to show that the discrete wavelet transform of finite data from sampled regression models asymptotically provides a close approximation to the wavelet transform of the continuous Gaussian white noise model. In particular, estimation errors in the discrete setting of computational practice need not be essentially larger than those expected in the continuous setting of statistical theory.
Background: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of BRAF inhibitors on survival outcomes in patients receiving stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for melanoma brain metastases. Methods: We prospectively collected treatment outcomes for 80 patients with melanoma brain metastases who underwent SRS. Thirty-five patients harbored the BRAF mutation (BRAF-M) and 45 patients did not (BRAF-WT). Results: The median overall survival from first SRS procedure was 11.2 months if treated with a BRAF inhibitor and 4.5 months for BRAF-WT. Actuarial survival rates for BRAF-M patients on an inhibitor were 54% and 41% at 6 and 12 months after radiosurgery, in contrast to 28% and 19% for BRAF-WT. Overall survival was extended for patients on a BRAF inhibitor if initiated at or after the first SRS. The local control rate did not differ based on BRAF status and was over 90%. Patients with higher KPS, fewer treated metastases, controlled systemic disease, RPA class 1 and BRAF-M patients had extended overall survival. Conclusions: Patients with BRAF-M treated with both SRS and BRAF inhibitors, at or after SRS, have increased overall survival. As patients live longer due to more effective systemic and local therapies, close surveillance and early management of intracranial disease with SRS will become increasingly important.
This study aimed to examine the effect of Hurricane Sandy on Long Island mental health emergency department (ED) visits and to determine whether these visits varied according to patient demographics or geographic area and intensity of the impact.
Individual-level de-identified data were extracted from the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System from New York State ED visits from October 1 to December 2012 for residents of Nassau and Suffolk counties in Long Island. The dates of the ED visits were grouped into 4 periods: (1) pre-Sandy, October 1–28; (2) during Sandy, October 29; (3) post-Sandy I, October 30 to November 1; and (4) post-Sandy II, November 2–30.
A total of 126,337 ED visits were recorded among 23 EDs. A significant drop in volume was observed on October 29; 399 more ED visits for physical health diagnoses were identified in the post-Sandy I period than in the pre-Sandy period. “Diseases of the respiratory system” was the only diagnosis group that showed a positive trend in the post-Sandy I period compared with the pre-Sandy period (increase of 4%). No significant changes in mental health visits were observed after Sandy landfall.
This analysis suggests that the critical temporal window during which ED resources should be increased is in the immediate aftermath of a hurricane. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:344–350)
We previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and
outcome following cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety
(Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele
showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed
results, with most reporting no association between genotype and CBT
To replicate the association between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcome in child
anxiety from the Genes for Treatment study (GxT Cohort 2,
n = 829).
Logistic and linear mixed effects models were used to examine the
relationship between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcomes. Mega-analyses using both
cohorts were performed.
There was no significant effect of 5HTTLPR on CBT outcomes in Cohort 2.
Mega-analyses identified a significant association between 5HTTLPR and
remission from all anxiety disorders at follow-up (odds ratio 0.45,
P = 0.014), but not primary anxiety disorder
The association between 5HTTLPR genotype and CBT outcome did not
replicate. Short-allele homozygotes showed more positive treatment
outcomes, but with small, non-significant effects. Future studies would
benefit from utilising whole genome approaches and large, homogenous
An infant presented with features suggestive of an anomalous left coronary artery was found to have normal origins of both coronary arteries. Echocardiography during episodes of ischaemia showed marked aortic regurgitation with retrograde coronary flow. The left coronary leaflet was mildly hypoplastic. Surgical re-suspension of this leaflet prevented aortic regurgitation and the patient had no further symptoms and recovered cardiac function.
Our understanding of the cosmic evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) has been revolutionized by the advent of large multiwavelength extragalactic surveys, which have enabled detailed statistical studies of the host galaxies and large-scale structures of active galactic nuclei (AGN). We give an overview of some recent results on SMBH evolution, including the connection between AGN activity and star formation in galaxies, the role of galaxy mergers in fueling AGN activity, the nature of luminous obscured AGN, and the connection between AGN and their host dark matter halos. We conclude by looking to the future of large-scale extragalactic X-ray and spectroscopic surveys.
We are analysing late-time (older than about 150 d past explosion) optical spectra of Type II-Plateau (IIP) supernovae (SNe), which are H-rich SNe that come from red supergiant (RSG) progenitors. The dataset includes nearly 100 spectra of about 40 objects, making this the largest sample of SN IIP nebular spectra ever investigated. Quantitative criteria from within the spectra themselves are employed to determine if an observation is truly nebular, and thus should be included in the study. We present the temporal evolution of the fluxes, shapes, and velocities of various emission lines (see, for example, Fig. 1). These measured values are also compared to photometric data in order to search for correlations that can allow us to gain insight into the diversity of RSG progenitors and learn more about the details of the explosion itself.
A rare subclass of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) shows evidence of strong interaction with a hydrogen-rich circumstellar medium (CSM); these objects are referred to as SNe Ia-CSM. PTF11kx began life as a SN Ia, but after a month it began to show indications of significant interaction with its CSM. This well-studied object solidified the connection between SNe Ia-CSM and more typical SNe Ia, despite their spectral similarity to Type IIn SNe (which likely come from massive star progenitors, as opposed to the white dwarf progenitors for the SNe Ia-CSM). The spectra of all ~20 known SNe Ia-CSM are dominated by Hα emission (with widths of ~2000 km s−1) and exhibit large Hα/Hβ intensity ratios; moreover, they have an almost complete lack of He I emission (see left panel of Figure 1). They also show possible evidence of dust formation through a decrease in the red wing of Hα 75–100 days past maximum brightness. The absolute magnitudes of SNe Ia-CSM are found to be -21.3 mag ≤ MR ≤ −19 mag (see right panel of Figure 1), and they also show ultraviolet emission at early times and strong infrared emission at late times (but no detected radio or X-ray emission). Finally, the host galaxies of SNe Ia-CSM imply that these objects come from a relatively young stellar population.
The scientist–practitioner model of training in industrial and organizational psychology provides the foundation for the education of industrial and organizational psychologists across the world. This approach is important because, as industrial and organizational psychologists, we are responsible for both the creation and discovery of knowledge and the use or application of that knowledge. In multiple articles recently published in this journal, Pulakos and her colleagues (Pulakos, Mueller Hanson, Arad, & Moye, 2015; Pulakos & O’Leary, 2011) have argued that performance management (PM), as applied and implemented in organizations, is broken. This is not a unique take on the state of PM in organizations, as others have been arguing for many years that PM is no longer working in organizations the way that we would like it to work (Banks & Murphy, 1985; Bretz, Milkovich, & Read, 1992). Further, for many years and in many Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology conference panels and debates in the literature, we have been inundated with discussions and conversations around the science–practice gap and around the gap being especially evident in PM.