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Understanding how and why exotic species use their habitats is crucial for defining effective conservation strategies. We aimed to investigate habitat use by an exotic population of squirrel monkeys living in an Atlantic Forest fragment and identify factors associated with their habitat preferences. Over 6 months of scan sampling observations, we collected data on native and exotic plants consumed by the squirrel monkeys, food availability, and interactions between the squirrel monkeys and the native common marmosets. We also georeferenced the estimated centroid point of the study group during each scan. Squirrel monkeys used Secondary Old Forest habitats more often than the other habitats available. The consumption of native and exotic plants and the association with common marmoset appear to have influenced the habitat use of the exotic squirrel monkeys; however, the choice habitat did not demonstrate to be associated with food availability. The exotic squirrel monkeys preferred to use less disturbed habitats to consume a high amount of food (often associated with the common marmoset), potentially optimizing their food intake. Our findings demonstrated the adaptive success of an exotic primate in its non-natural habitat and the key role of the plant community in maintaining this population.
Protected areas have numerous roles (such as biodiversity preservation, the development of scientific research and the sustainable use of natural resources), but they are under threat from political and economic forces. The 837 000-ha Serra do Divisor National Park (SDNP) in the south-western Brazilian Amazon combines the conservation of natural resources and the maintenance of the productive activities of c. 400 resident families. The Brazilian and Peruvian governments have proposed a road linking Acre (Brazil) to Ucayali (Peru) that would bisect the SDNP. Another threat to the SDNP is a bill proposing its downgrading to an ‘environmental protection area’. This study aims to map the land cover of the SDNP and its surroundings from 1988 to 2018 and to analyse the dynamics of land-use change. Analysis of Landsat satellite images with supervised classification using the MaxVer algorithm show that, during the 30-year period, pasture showed the highest absolute land-cover gain, with 1986 ha in the interior and 7661 ha along the periphery of the SDNP. Only 1% of the park’s primary forest was lost by 2018, but the proposed road and potential downgrading may result in accelerated deforestation and forest degradation in the near future.
At times funerary practices do not end with the deposition of the corpses in their final resting place, because occasionally these supposedly definitive burials are disturbed later. When we can confirm that people were mainly responsible for these disturbances, even when other natural taphonomic factors are present, then we have a situation of anthropic postfunerary manipulation of bodies and graves. Some precontact sites in northeastern Brazil have mortuary contexts with “anomalies” in the deposition of bodies into their graves. Applying a taphonomy-based approach, we analyze these cases and compare them to other burials with similar characteristics from central-eastern Brazil in our discussion of the “alternative” phenomenon of postburial manipulation. The evidence suggests that the anthropic disturbance of older burials and corpses should be understood not as a random event, but as an integral and meaningful part of the mortuary practices of ancient inhabitants from across different regions of Brazil throughout the Holocene. With this work we highlight not only unusual mortuary patterns of precontact human groups in Brazil and South America but also the importance of a taphonomic approach to understanding the complexity and variability of funerary and postfunerary actions.
Compromised nutritional status is associated with a poor prognosis in COPD patients. However, the impact of nutritional support in this group of patients is controversial. The present study systematically reviewed the effect of energy and or protein supplements or food fortification on anthropometry and muscle strength of COPD patients. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Scopus for all published randomized clinical trials (RCTs) without language restriction up to May 2021. Three reviewers performed study selection and data extraction independently. We judged the risk of bias by RoB 2 and the certainty of evidence by the GRADE approach. We included thirty-two randomized controlled trials and compiled 31 of them (1,414 participants) in the random-effects model meta-analyses. Interventions were energy and/or protein oral nutritional supplements or food fortification added to the diet for at least one week. Pooled analysis revealed that nutritional interventions increased body weight (MD=1.44 kg, 95%CI 0.81 to 2.08, I2=73%), lean body mass (SMD=0.37; 95%CI 0.15 to 0.59, I2=46%), midarm muscle circumference (MD= 0.29 mm2, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.57, I2=0%), triceps skinfold (MD= 1.09 mm, 95% CI 0.01 to 2.16, I2=0%), and handgrip strength (SMD= 0.39, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.71, I2=62%) compared to control diets. Certainty of evidence ranged from very low to low, and most studies were judged with some concerns or at high risk of bias. This meta-analysis revealed, with limited evidence, that increased protein and/or energy intake positively impacts anthropometric measures and handgrip strength of COPD patients..
A nationally generalisable cohort (n 5770) was used to determine the prevalence of non-timely (early/late) introduction of complementary food and core food groups and associations with maternal sociodemographic and health behaviours in New Zealand (NZ). Variables describing maternal characteristics and infant food introduction were sourced, respectively, from interviews completed antenatally and during late infancy. The NZ Infant Feeding Guidelines were used to define early (≤ 4 months) and late (≥ 7 months) introduction. Associations were examined using multivariable multinomial regression, presented as adjusted relative risk ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (RRR; 95% CI). Complementary food introduction was early for 40·2 % and late for 3·2 %. The prevalence of early food group introduction were fruit/vegetables (23·8 %), breads/cereals (36·3 %), iron-rich foods (34·1 %) and of late were meat/meat alternatives (45·9 %), dairy products (46·2 %) and fruits/vegetables (9·9 %). Compared with infants with timely food introduction, risk of early food introduction was increased for infants: breastfed < 6months (2·52; 2·19–2·90), whose mothers were < 30 years old (1·69; 1·46–1·94), had a diploma/trade certificate v. tertiary education (1·39; 1·1–1·70), of Māori v. European ethnicity (1·40; 1·12–1·75) or smoked during pregnancy (1·88; 1·44–2·46). Risk of late food introduction decreased for infants breastfed < 6 months (0·47; 0.27–0·80) and increased for infants whose mothers had secondary v. tertiary education (2·04; 1·16–3·60) were of Asian v. European ethnicity (2·22; 1·35, 3·63) or did not attend childbirth preparation classes (2·23; 1·24–4·01). Non-timely food introduction, specifically early food introduction, is prevalent in NZ. Interventions to improve food introduction timeliness should be ethnic-specific and support longer breast-feeding.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Maternal undernutrition, a form of malnutrition, can alter neonatal leptin signaling and result in metabolic dysfunction in adulthood. We developed a mild undernutrition model to relate more to societys nutritional challenges and to test the hypothesis that a shift in the neonatal leptin surge would result in sex-specific metabolic changes. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We studied pups from undernourished dams which were calorically restricted by 20% (CR20) from embryonic day 15 until postnatal day (PND) 21. We tested 216 offspring from 11 Fed dams and 13 undernourished dams (CR20), detecting a leptin surge in control fed progeny at PND11. At 3 months of age, offspring from 3 dams per maternal nutrient status were either exposed to a 45% high fat diet (HFD) or control diet (10% fat) for 16 weeks. Anterior pituitary hormones were analyzed in the pituitary and serum of neonates and adults. To determine the mechanism of the phenotype observed in male adult offspring on the HFD, single cell RNA sequencing was used to analyze the pituitary, fat and liver. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Offspring of CR20 dams had an early leptin surge peaking at PND8 and GH levels at PND1 were higher in CR20 progeny. Weights of both male and female CR20 offspring were lower and body lengths were shorter than controls. As adults, Fed mice from both sexes had increased weight gain with HFD. However, although CR20 females gained weight on the HFD, male progeny from CR20 dams did not gain weight on the HFD and appeared protected from impact. We found sex-specific changes in pituitary Gh, Ghrhr, and Ghsr mRNA levels. Single cell RNA sequencing of pituitary, fat and liver of male offspring showed significant regulation of transcripts in fat of male offspring from Fed dams that was not found in CR20 males when compared to control fed mice. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Mild undernutrition causes a prematurely high leptin surge and sex-specific growth responses to a HFD, including resistance to a HFD in underfed males. Transcript analysis in fat of males resistant to HFD induced obesity may reveal mechanisms that provide protection against HFD induced weight gain.
Based on extensive new material, 2088 valves resulting from search sampling of ~500 kg of sediment, the Pliocene chiton biodiversity of the Mondego Basin (Portugal) is reassessed. Twelve species were identified, assigned to seven genera. Eight species are new for the Pliocene of Portugal, as well as two of the genera: Hanleya, Acanthochitona. Two taxa are described as new: Ischnochiton loureiroi n. sp. and Lepidochitona rochae n. sp. Until now, the polyplacophoran European Neogene record was too poorly known to be of help in generating a clear picture of the Miocene to present-day biogeography of the group. This new wealth of data from western Iberia, in conjunction with recent data from the Loire Basin Upper Miocene assemblages (France), allows clarification the Late Miocene to Recent eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean biogeography of the Polyplacophora. The northern range of warm-water northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Polyplacophora experienced a sharp contraction since, at least, Late Miocene to Early Pliocene times. Warm-water chiton species represented in the Upper Miocene of the Loire Basin of NE France (European-West African Province) and the Pliocene of the Mondego Basin of central-west Portugal (Pliocene French-Iberian Province) are today confined to the southern Mediterranean-Moroccan Molluscan Province.
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a spectrum of clinical manifestations characterized by severe skin ulcerations that leads to social stigma. There are limited treatment options for CL, and the available drugs are becoming less efficacious due to drug resistance. More efficacious and safer antileishmanial drugs are needed. In this study, the biological effect of seven synthetically accessible nitroaromatic compounds was evaluated in vitro against amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, followed by in vivo evaluation using mouse models of CL. Two compounds (6 and 7) were active against amastigotes in vitro [half-maximal effective concentration (EC50): 4.57 ± 0.08 and 9.19 ± 0.68 μm, respectively], with selectivity indexes >50, and the other compounds were not selective. In vivo, compounds 6 and 7 (10 mg kg−1, twice a day for 14 days) failed to reduce skin lesion sizes and parasite loads determined by light microscopy of lesion imprints and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Nevertheless, the in vitro leishmanicidal efficacy sustained their use as templates for nitroimidazole-based antileishmanial drug discovery programmes focusing on analogues with more suitable properties.
This study aims to determine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) content of early-weaned calves; and the influence of flint maize processing methods on intake, total tract nutrient digestibilities and performance of Nellore heifer calves. Fifteen early-weaned Nellore female calves (4 ± 0.5 months; 108 ± 13.1 kg) were used. In phase 1, animals were fed one of the following diets for 112 days: 130, 145 or 160 g CP/kg dry matter (DM). In phase 2, animals received one of the two diets for 84 days: 0.60 dry ground maize grain, 0.30 whole-plant maize silage plus 0.10 mineral-protein supplement or 0.90 snaplage plus 0.10 mineral-protein supplement. In phase 1, intake and digestibility of dietary components were not affected (P > 0.05) by increasing dietary CP content. Daily total urinary nitrogen (N) and urinary urea N increased (P < 0.05) in response to increasing dietary CP content. Animal performance was not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary CP content. In phase 2, maize processing methods did not affect (P > 0.05) intake and digestibility of dietary components as well as animal performance, carcase characteristics and carcase composition. Therefore, based on the current experimental condition, we conclude that dietary CP concentrations of 130 g/kg DM can be indicated for early-weaned Nellore calves. However, more studies are recommended to validate this result and to evaluate concentrations below 130 g CP/kg DM for early-weaned Nellore calves. Moreover, snaplage could be used as an exclusive fibre and energy source for finishing cattle in feedlot.
Riverine cetaceans are threatened globally by increasing anthropogenic impacts, and the Yangtze river dolphin Lipotes vexillifer is already extinct. The Amazon river dolphin Inia geoffrensis is widely distributed, but is categorized as Endangered on the IUCN Red List. Drowning in gillnets and being hunted for fish bait are probably the main causes of its decline. A long-term (25-year) study of the biology and ecology of I. geoffrensis in and near the Mamirauá Reserve in Amazonas state, Brazil, has produced estimates of survival and reproductive rates based on the individual recognition of > 650 animals. Concurrently, monthly standardized counts of dolphins along a fixed transect in the Reserve over 22 years demonstrated a sustained, profound decline. In this study we tested whether the measured rate of population decline is consistent with population parameters estimated from independent data, using population viability analysis. With the known parameters as input, programme Vortex predicted population extinction in all scenarios and a 95% loss of dolphins within 50 years. With default parameters, the model predicted a 5.5% annual decline, which is consistent with that observed. We conclude that the Amazon river dolphin population is in severe decline because of human pressures, even in one of the better protected parts of its range. Unless the accidental and deliberate killing of this species is rapidly reduced, it is highly likely that the Amazon river dolphin will follow its Yangtze counterpart to extinction.
In a Nicaraguan population-based cohort, SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence reached 28% in the first 6 months of the country's epidemic and reached 35% 6 months later. Immune waning was uncommon. Individuals with a seropositive household member were over three times as likely to be seropositive themselves, suggesting the importance of household transmission.
To assess the influence of presbylarynx and presbycusis on Voice Handicap Index and emotional status.
A case–control, prospective, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted of patients aged 65 years or older referred to an otorhinolaryngology department from January to September 2020. Presbycusis was assessed by pure tone and vocal audiometry. Each subject underwent fibre-optic videolaryngoscopy with stroboscopy, and presbylarynx was considered when two or more of the following endoscopic findings were identified: vocal fold bowing, prominence of vocal processes in abduction, and a spindle-shaped glottal gap. Each subject completed two questionnaires: Voice Handicap Index and Geriatric Depression Scale (short-form).
The studied population included 174 White European subjects, with a mean age of 73.99 years, of whom 22.8 per cent presented both presbylarynx and presbycusis. Multivariate linear regression revealed that only presence and severity of presbylarynx had an influence on Voice Handicap Index-30 scores. However, both spindle-shaped glottal gap and presbycusis influenced Geriatric Depression Scale scores.
Presbylarynx has a strong association with the impact of voice on quality of life. Presbylarynx and presbycusis seem to have a cumulative effect on emotional status.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different intercropping and spacing arrangements of corn (Zea mays L) and crotalaria (Crotalaria spp) on the agronomic characteristics, chemical composition and forage digestibility. The experiment was distributed in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial scheme. The treatments were two cultivation systems (corn + Crotalaria juncea (CCJ) intercropping, and corn + Crotalaria ochroleuca (CCO) intercropping), in two spacing arrangements (A1 (corn and crotalaria sown in the same row) and A2 (corn and crotalaria sown in alternate rows)) plus control (single corn monocropping (CSC)), with six replicates per treatment, for 2 years. Forage plants were harvested when the corn grain reached the doughy-farinaceous phenological stage. Forage mass (total and of each species), morphological composition, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility were evaluated. The forage accumulation was higher for the A1 spatial arrangement. In the second year, the highest total forage mass was verified in the CCO intercropping (11 140 kg/ha). The highest corn mass (9402 kg/ha) was observed for CSC. The highest crotalaria mass was observed in the CCJ intercropping in both years. Regarding the chemical composition, CCJ and CCO intercropping had the highest crude protein concentration. The lowest acid detergent fibre concentration was observed in CSC and CCO intercropping, directly reflecting the in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients. It is concluded that C. ochroleuca, sown between corn rows, had higher forage accumulation and nutritive value among the treatments tested in this experiment.
The cancellarid genus Sveltia Jousseaume, 1887, is widespread in western European and North African Neogene marine fossil assemblages. In Pliocene deposits it is commonly represented by Sveltia varicosa (Brocchi, 1814), which until recently was considered a widely distributed taxon in the Mediterranean Sea and adjacent Atlantic faunas. A recent review of the species from the Pliocene of Italy and Spain (Guadalquivir Basin), leading to the erection of S. confusa, prompted the reassessment of the Sveltia material from the Atlantic Pliocene of the Portuguese Mondego Basin and the subsequent description of Sveltia sofiae n. sp. Consequently, a mosaic of species has emerged from what was previously viewed as the broad Atlanto-Mediterranean range of the widespread and quite variable S. varicosa. From a biogeographic standpoint, it is now clear that S. varicosa was a Mediterranean species, occurring east of the Alboran Sea. Sveltia confusa had a mainly Atlantic distribution, from the French Pliocene Ligerian Gulf to the Gulf of Cadiz, at least, and straddling the Strait of Gibraltar into the Alboran Sea. Sveltia sofiae n. sp. was endemic to western Iberia, represented today only in the western Portuguese Mondego Basin. Sveltia is a thermophilic genus. Since early Pliocene times, because of northeastern Atlantic sea surface temperature decline, it underwent a southward range contraction, occurring today—in the eastern Atlantic—from Cape Blanc, Mauritania, south. This range reduction was coupled with the post mid-Piacenzian southward contraction of the Pliocene Mediterranean-West African tropical molluscan province and the consequent rise of the present-day Mediterranean-Moroccan subtropical province.
Birthweight has been consistently related to risk of cardiometabolic disorders in later life. Twins are at higher risk of low birthweight than singletons, so understanding the links between birthweight and cardiometabolic health may be particularly important for twins. However, evidence for the association of birthweight with childhood markers of cardiometabolic health in twins is currently lacking. Previous studies have often failed to appropriately adjust for gestational age or fully implement twin regression models. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association of birthweight-for-gestational-age z-scores with childhood cardiometabolic health in twins, using within-between regression models. The Peri/Postnatal Epigenetic Twins Study is a Melbourne-based prospective cohort study of 250 twin pairs. Birthweight was recorded at delivery, and childhood anthropometric measures were taken at 18-month and 6-year follow-up visits. Associations of birthweight with markers of cardiometabolic health were assessed at the individual, between- and within-pair level using linear regression with generalised estimating equations. Birthweight-for-gestational-age z-scores were associated with height, weight and BMI at 18 months and 6 years, but not with blood pressure (twins-as-individual SBP: β = 0.15, 95% CI: −0.81, 1.11; twins-as-individual DBP: β = 0.22, 95% CI: −0.34, 0.77). We found little evidence to indicate that the within-between models improved on the twins-as-individuals models. Birthweight was associated with childhood anthropometric measures, but not blood pressure, after appropriately adjusting for gestational age. These associations were consistent across the within-between and twins-as-individuals models. After adjusting for gestational age, results from the twins-as-individuals models are consistent with singleton studies, so these results can be applied to the general population.
Delusional parasitosis/infestation or Ekbom syndrome is an uncommon psychotic disorder characterized by a false belief that there is a parasitic infestation of the skin - the delusion that insects are crawling underneath the skin.
This work aims to summarize and evaluate the currently available evidence regarding Delusional parasitosis, and for this purpose, we will illustrate a case report of a patient admitted in the emergency room.
The authors have conducted online research in PubMed with the words “Delusional parasitosis” “delusional infestation”, “Ekbom syndrome”, from the outcome, the articles considered to be relevant were collected and analyzed.
Delusional parasitosis can be classified into primary delusional parasitosis without other psychiatric or organic disorders present, secondary – functional (secondary to several mental disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, dementia, anxiety, and phobia), and organic forms (associated with hypothyroidism, anaemia, vitamin B12 deficiency, hepatitis, diabetes, infections (e.g., HIV, syphilis), and cocaine abuse. It is most commonly seen in middle-aged women. The patients became frequently socially isolated, prone to the development of depression symptoms.
This syndrome often presents a high level of psychosocial morbidity. Patients often seek dermatologists help in the first place, although there is no medical evidence. Psychiatrists play a major role in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. Psychopharmacological therapy is quite challenging because of the patient’s belief that they have a parasitic infestation and not a psychiatric condition.
Individual abilities to perceive internal and external sensations are defined respectively as interoception and exteroception: the dysregulation of these functions can explain many psychotic symptoms. (Ardizzi et al. 2016)
We evaluated the differences in the interoceptive and exteroceptive perception between 39 patients with psychosis and 250 healthy controls using self-administered questionnaires. The association between interoception and exteroception in the two groups was also tested.
The tests we used are AASP (Adolescent / Adult Sensory Profile) and MAIA (Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness). Differences were measured with t-tests, associations with spearman’s correlation.
Significant differences emerged between the two samples in the AASP total score and in its Low registration (LR) and Sensory Avoiding (SA) sub-scales and in the MAIA total score and in all its sub-scales except “Not Worrying” (Fig.1). Different patterns of associations between AASP and MAIA were observed: psychotic patients showed negative correlations between MAIA and AASP in the LR and Sensation Seeking (SS) sub-scales and in the auditory (AU) and tactile (TO) sensory channels. Healthy controls, positive correlations emerged between MAIA and AASP in the Sensation Seeking (SK) sub-scale and in the “perception of movement” (MO) sub-score (Fig.2)(Fig.3).
Higher scores of psychotic patients in AASP and MAIA reveal both a disregulated sensory related behavior and a hightened awareness towards internal stimuli. The negative correlation between the two scales in psychotic subjects highlights the importance of the interaction between internal and external perception in determining the global subjective experience.