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The search for life in the Universe is a fundamental problem of astrobiology and modern science. The current progress in the detection of terrestrial-type exoplanets has opened a new avenue in the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and in the search for biosignatures of life with the upcoming ground-based and space missions. To specify the conditions favourable for the origin, development and sustainment of life as we know it in other worlds, we need to understand the nature of global (astrospheric), and local (atmospheric and surface) environments of exoplanets in the habitable zones (HZs) around G-K-M dwarf stars including our young Sun. Global environment is formed by propagated disturbances from the planet-hosting stars in the form of stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, energetic particles and winds collectively known as astrospheric space weather. Its characterization will help in understanding how an exoplanetary ecosystem interacts with its host star, as well as in the specification of the physical, chemical and biochemical conditions that can create favourable and/or detrimental conditions for planetary climate and habitability along with evolution of planetary internal dynamics over geological timescales. A key linkage of (astro)physical, chemical and geological processes can only be understood in the framework of interdisciplinary studies with the incorporation of progress in heliophysics, astrophysics, planetary and Earth sciences. The assessment of the impacts of host stars on the climate and habitability of terrestrial (exo)planets will significantly expand the current definition of the HZ to the biogenic zone and provide new observational strategies for searching for signatures of life. The major goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the current status and recent progress in this interdisciplinary field in light of presentations and discussions during the NASA Nexus for Exoplanetary System Science funded workshop ‘Exoplanetary Space Weather, Climate and Habitability’ and to provide a new roadmap for the future development of the emerging field of exoplanetary science and astrobiology.
We will report the activities of the VERA single-dish observations. We are carrying out single-dish observations with two purposes. The first purpose is the monitoring of known H2O maser sources. At present, we are carrying out monitoring observations for 312 H2O maser sources at intervals of two months. The second purpose is the search for new water maser sources. We selected 901 target sources from the AKARI FIS Bright Source Catalogue. We found 61 new H2O maser sources.
In this proceeding paper, we introduce the recent results of Galactic maser astrometry by mainly focusing on those obtained with Japanese VLBI array VERA. So far we have obtained parallaxes for 86 sources including preliminary results, and combination with the data obtained with VLBA/BeSSeL provides astrometric results for 159 sources. With these most updated results we conduct preliminary determinations of Galactic fundamental parameters, obtaining R0 = 8.16 ± 0.26 kpc and Θ0 = 237 ± 8 km/s. We also derive the rotation curve of the Milky Way Galaxy and confirm the previous results that the rotation curve is fairly flat between 5 kpc and 16 kpc, while a remarkable deviation is seen toward the Galactic center region. In addition to the results on the Galactic structure, we also present brief overviews on other science topics related to masers conducted with VERA, and also discuss the future prospect of the project.
We present high resolution studies of the nuclear region in NGC 3079 with phase-referenced VLBI monitoring between its water maser and continuum emission. From results of the observations, NGC 3079 showed relative motion between core-jet-like continuum components. One of the components (A) relative to the reference maser feature moved with an apparent subluminal velocity along the SE-NW direction, almost parallel to alignment of the components. On the other hand, the position of the other component (B) did not show such a significant change. If the maser gas is associated with a rotating disk, the maser gas should be gravitationally bound to the central mass. This suggests that B and A are the nucleus and jet, respectively.
NUMO and JAEA have been conducting a joint research since FY2011, which is aimed
to enhance the methodology of repository design and performance assessment in
preliminary investigation stage for the deep geological disposal of high-level
radioactive waste. As a part of this joint research, we have been developing
glass dissolution models which include various processes derived from
glass-overpack-bentonite buffer interaction, considering the precipitation of
Fe-silicates associated with steel overpack corrosion, and Si transport through
altered layer of glass. The objective of this modeling work is to show
comprehensively the lifetime of the vitrified waste due to glass matrix
dissolution timescales through sensitivity analysis, and to identify the
feature/process that most strongly influences the lifetime, and to identify
future R&D issues that would help to improve the nuclide transport
analysis with confidential value and the safety case in future. The sensitivity
analysis suggested that the duration of the glass dissolution might be predicted
in the ranges from 3.8×103 to 1.9×105
years. Also, the results indicated that the precipitation of
Fe–silicate has the strongest influence on the long-team behavior of
Several weeks after the explosion of supernova (SN) SN1987A, the UV flash of the SN illuminated a ring-like structure in the circumstellar material at about 0.65 ly from the SN. The interaction between the stellar winds from the SN progenitor is considered to be the candidate for the formation of the circumstellar structure. In the case that the stellar winds are spherically symmetric, the interaction should result in a shell-like structure. However, Washimi, Shibata & Mori (1996) show that the magnetic field in the winds causes an anisotropy which leads to the formation of a ring-like structure. When the fast wind of the blue supergiant phase of the progenitor sweeps up the surrounding slow wind of the red-supergiant phase, the magnetic field as well as the wind material are piled up in the interaction region. Since the magnetic energy increases in proportion to the square of the amplitude, the magnetic field exhibits its effect prominently at the interaction region; due to the magnetic pressure force the material at lower latitudes is compressed into a ring-like structure. It is suggested that this magnetic process can also explain the newly observed pair of rings of the SN1987A nebula. We note that the idea of a magnetic field effect is consistent with the radio observation of a supernova remnant, detected by Staveley-Smith et al. (1992) at about 1200 days after the explosion. This radio emission is explained by the collision of the supernova blast wave with the shocked blue wind. This position corresponds to the averaged expansion speed of the supernova ejecta ∼ 0.08 ly which is consistent with the estimation by Shigeyama and Nomoto (1990). The estimated magnetic-energy density by the minimum-energy argument is ∼ 4 × 10–8f–4/7N m–2, where f is the fractional volume of the radiating acceleration region, suggesting a magnetic field of a few milli-Gauss or more (Chevalier 1992). This field intensity is consistent with an intensity of ≈ 2 · 10–4 Gauss obtained between the reverse shock and the contact surface shown, if one takes into account a further enhancement of the field due to the sweeping-up process by the supernova blast wave. When the SN ejector collides with the ring at the end of this century or at the beginning of the next one, we can also expect more intense radio emission at rather middle and high latitudes where the magnetic intensity is greater, rather than at the equator where the ring-like structure is located.
Mapping observations of nearby large-extended clusters of galaxies (Coma, Perseus, Virgo, etc.) are being performed with ASCA. Such clusters allow us to map physical parameters of hot gas in the clusters, such as temperature, metal abundance, and X-ray surface brightness. To determine such parameters at each part of a cluster, one should take careful care of X-ray contamination from outside of a pointed field, which is mainly due to “stray-light” X-rays (Honda et al. 1997). For this reason, the only way to obtain the distribution of hot gas parameter is to process the whole cluster data in a self-consistent way. For this purpose, we are developing the new analysis system called TERRA.
Since the discovery of fading X-rays from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) with BeppoSAX (Piro et al. 1997, Costa et al. 1997), world-wide follow-up observations in optical band have achieved the fruitful results. The case of GRB 970228, there was an optical transient, coincides with the BeppoSAX position and faded (Paradijs et al. 1997, Sahu et al. 1997). These optical observations also confirmed the extended component, which was associated with the optical transient. The new transient are fading with a power-law function in time and the later observation of HST confirmed the extended emission is stable (Fruchter et al. 1997). This extended object seems to be a distant galaxy and strongly suggests to be the host.
NGC 3079 has very luminous water megamaser from the nucleus, the peak of the spectrum being blueshifted by 180 km s−1 from the systemic velocity of the galaxy (Vsys = 1131 km s−1) (Henkel et al. 1984, Haschick & Baan 1985). Core-jet like continuum structure is also found in the nuclear region (Irwin & Seaquist 1988). No velocity drift for main features of water maser (VLSR = 941–975 km s−1) has been shown (Nakai et al. 1995). However, the drift was recently detected for the maser of 1190 km s−1 (Nakai 1997). HI and OH absorptions are detected in the nucleus (Haschick & Baan 1985, Irwin & Seaquist 1991). Thus this galaxy is very unique object to investigate water masers, continuum structure and absorption features all together with VLBI.
Since planetary nebulae(PNe) are defined as the expanding ionized gas surrounding hot central stars, the most important and fundamental subject is to study expansion characteristics. What and how can we determine a typical expansion velocity of individual nebula? In spite of great success of Perek and Kohoutek Catalog(1967) and a recent Strasbourg-ESO Catalogued 992), PNe researchers have suffered from the lack of sufficiently large samples of expansion measurements on various type of PNe.
We conducted an observation of weak HI and OH absorption features in the parsec-scale nuclear region of NGC 3079 using a global VLBI network; the VLBA, the VLA and the Green Bank 43-m telescope of NRAO. One mas corresponds to 0.076 pc in NGC 3079.
The Mitaka correlator is an FX-type correlator with 10-station inputs, which is designed for space VLBI and will be used for VSOP mainly. We report here the capabilities of the correlator, the results of model comparisons and the preliminary results of fringe test between the satellite HALCA and Japanese ground telescopes.
We present multi-frequency observations towards the nucleus of NGC 3079 using both Japan VLBI Network (J-Net) and the VLBA including phased VLA and Effelsberg. We detected two continuum components at 1.4 and 8.4 GHz, and determined the spectral indices for each component. Further, we found several H ɪ absorption features towards the continuum components whose velocity gradient is opposite to the galaxy rotation. Assuming rotation, the central mass is estimated to be 3 × 106M⊙. The water maser distribution extends in North-South direction along the galactic disk, while no clear indication of a Keplerian rotating disk was found.
NGC 3079 has very luminous water megamaser from the nucleus, the peak of the spectrum being blueshifted by 180 km s-1 from the systemic velocity of the galaxy (Vsys = 1131 km s-1) (Henkel et al. 1984, Haschick & Baan 1985). Core-jet like continuum structure is also found in the nuclear region (Irwin & Seaquist 1988). No velocity drift for main features of water maser (VLSR — 941-975 km s1) has been shown (Nakai et al. 1995). However, the drift was recently detected for the maser of 1190 km s-1 (Nakai 1997). HI and OH absorptions were detected in the nucleus (Haschick & Baan 1985, Irwin & Seaquist 1991). Thus this galaxy is very unique object to investigate water masers, continuum structure and absorption features all together with VLBI.
CIGS thin films were irradiated with 100 or 250 keV electrons to reveal the radiation defect by analyzing PL measurement. The PL intensity decreased due to non-radiative recombination defects induced by electron irradiation. Furthermore, the intensity 0.8 eV peak of the PL spectrum was observed from CIGS films irradiated with 250 eV electrons and is said to correspond to In-antisite defects in CIGS materials. The defects can usually change into InCu-VCu complex defects combined with VCu, since the formation energy of the complex defect is lower than that of each defect. Cu interstitial defects induced by 250 keV electron irradiation would diffuse to VCu of the complex defect, whereupon the complex defect might become an In-antisite defect due to 250 keV electron irradiation.