To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In this paper, a colloidal solution of copper nanoparticles was prepared from a Cu ion aqueous solution with the protein casein surfactant by a liquid phase reduction method at low temperature below 373K. For the casein concentration ranging from 6g/L to 75g/L, the formation of copper nanoparticle colloid were observed. As a result, the peak was observed at the ranging of 450 to 650 nm corresponding to the copper nanoparticle colloid plasmon absorption. As the surfactant concentration increases, the absorption spectrum tends to blue-shift and the particle diameter decreases. Thus, it indicated that the optical property and particle diameter of copper nanoparticle colloidal solution will be controlled by the protein casein surfactant concentration.
The large-amplitude δ Scuti star CY Aqr was observed from sites in the U.S.A., South Africa and Australia during August 1988. Coates et al. (1991) published 48 new times of maximum light derived from these observations and assembled, from the literature, previous times of maximum light. It is clear that the period of the star is changing with the balance of evidence favouring discrete changes in 1951 and 1966, rather than a continuous change.
It has been suggested by Fitch (1973) and Else (1972), from an analysis of the observations of Zissell (1968), that there is a secondary frequency present in CY Aqr. Coates et al. (1992) have analysed both the 1988 observations and those of Zissell. After subtracting the primary frequency and its harmonics, they find no stable secondary frequency above the noise level of two millimagnitudes.
We study the performance and limitations of the morphological classification method based on luminosity concentration and mean surface brightness. In particular, the effects of the different colour bands and of a finite seeing are investigated.
We have observed a 0.7×1.2deg2 field in the SGP region with the UT / NAOJ Mosaic CCD Camera attached to the 40-inch Swope Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, and constructed a sample of 1150 galaxies in the region down to R=20.5. Then we applied to the sample a new, objective cluster-finding technique, which is an improved variant of the so-called “matched-filter technique” pioneered by Postman et al. (1996). Using projected positions and apparent magnitudes of galaxies simultaneously, this technique can, not only find cluster candidates, but also estimate their redshifts and richnesses. A number of Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated enough accuracies of the estimations and much lower spurious detection rate than that by conventional cluster-finding methods which use only surface density of galaxies.
At present, the photometric data for clusters at z ≲ 0.2 mainly come from photographic photometry. The lack of CCD data for such clusters is simply due to the fact that no CCD camera had been available until recently that covers the wide extension of clusters within a reasonable amount of observing time. We have developed a large mosaic CCD camera and conducted multicolor imaging observations of z ≲ 0.2 clusters using the 40-inch Swope telescope at Las Campanas Observatory.
We observed three 0.44 square degree fields centered on the Coma cluster center (Coma-1), about 1 degree SW of the Coma center (Coma-3), and on a control field in SA57 with the mosaic CCD camera at the prime focus of the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. We detected 5628, 5020, and 4323 galaxies down to R = 22 mag in Coma-1, Coma-3, and SA57 fields, respectively. We measure the magnitude and color within the variable aperture r90 in which about 90% of the total flux is included. The histograms of (B–R) colors of galaxies are made for four magnitude bins of width ΔR = 2 mag covering 13 < R < 21 mag for each of the three fields. The mean colors and the 1σ scatters of the Coma galaxies are obtained by a histogram subtraction technique (Coma-1/3 minus SA57). We find a very shallow slope of the color-magnitude relation (CMR), Δ(B–R)/ΔR=−0.0037, which indicates nearly a constant (B–R) color over 6 magnitude in 15 < R < 21 mag (−19.5 < MR < −13.5 at Coma cluster). Dwarf galaxies are dominant in this magnitude range, and we conclude that the mean color of dwarf galaxies in the Coma clusters is nearly constant at (B–R) ∼ 1.6–1.7, which is similar to the color of the faint end of giant elliptical galaxies.
We study the total luminosity function (LF) and the type-specific LF of 7 nearby clusters of galaxies (A1060, S805, A2063, A1736, A1644, A1631, and A754) using the R-band image (1.0 × 0.5 deg2) taken with our mosaic CCD camera mounted on 1-m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory.
The work of Commission 25 covers a wide range of topics concerning the measurement of magnitude, colour and polarisation of astronomical objects. As such, the area of interest covers virtually every field of astrophysical research in the visual and infrared spectral domain. Our reports cover some aspects of photometry and polarimetry as a technique rather than being an account of research highlights over the last three years.
We report on the status of the CCD cameras for the Kiso 105-cm Schmidt telescope. We have two types of cameras – single-chip and mosaic. The single-chip camera is available for common use. At present about 90 % of the telescope time is allocated to observations with CCD cameras.
The red variables whose amplitude is larger than 1.3 mag in the MOA database are studied for the LMC. Among 3 196 such stars, 532 stars are likely to be Miras or red semiregular variables. The period–colour relation of these stars is shown.
A high time- and spatial-resolution radio interferometer for solar observations has been constructed at Nobeyama (Figure I.; Nakajima et al. 1994). The Nobeyama Radioheliograph consists of 84 antennas, 0.8m in diameter, arranged on a T-shape lines of 500m in the EW and 220m in the NS directions. The time resolution is 50 ms and the spatial resolution is 10”. The field of view is 40’ at the observing frequency 17GHz, which enables us to watch the whole sun. The radioheliograph has observed hundreds of flares during the few months since the beginning of regular observations in July ‘92, and such powerful performance has never before been demonstrated in the history of solar radio observations.
More than 4000 stars observed in both MOA and DENIS projects showing periodic or quasi-periodic light curves are studied. Almost all Mira stars are located on the classical period-luminosity relation, and the multiplicity of the period-luminosity relation is confirmed for small-amplitude stars. The colour-magnitude diagrams based on the MOA red band, Rm, and Ks constructed for the sequences, form a single strip with small successive shifts.
A large database of CCD photometry for 1.4 million stars towards both the LMC and the SMC, which has been established by the MOA project, is a useful resource to study variable stars. In our preliminary study, variables identified as β Lyrae type stars and Herbig Ae/Be stars have been found amongst blue stars.
A review of the MOA (Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics) project is presented. MOA is a collaboration of approximately 30 astronomers from New Zealand and Japan established with the aim of finding and detecting microlensing events towards the Magellanic Clouds and the Galactic bulge, which may be indicative of either dark matter or of planetary companions. The observing program commenced in 1995, using very wide band blue and red filters and a nine-chip mosaic CCD camera.
As a by-product of these observations a large database of CCD photometry for 1.4 million stars towards both LMC and SMC has been established. In one preliminary analysis 576 bright variable stars were confirmed, nearly half of them being Cepheids. Another analysis has identified large numbers of blue variables, and 205 eclipsing binaries are included in this sample. In addition 351 red variables (AGB stars) have been found. Light curves have been obtained for all these stars. The observations are carried out on a 61-cm f/6.25 telescope at Mt John University Observatory where a new larger CCD camera was installed in 1998 July. From this latitude (44° S) the Magellanic Clouds can be monitored throughout the year.
During June 17-27, 1987 observers in Mexico, Chile, Italy, South Africa, Australia and the United States monitored the light output of the prototype variable star, δ Scuti. The goal of the network was to obtain this star’s frequency spectrum. During the campaign, over 17,000 observations were obtained in the Stromgren b and y filters. A preliminary analysis has been performed and the frequencies listed in Table 1 have been tentatively identified.
Recently there have been a number of reports indicating concern relating to the effect of porosity, pore size distribution, and pore interconnectivity on the integration of highly porous ultra low-k organosilicate glasses (OSGs) as back-end-of-line (BEOL) interconnect dielectrics. In an effort to address these concerns a number of options to control the skeleton and pore structure of OSGs have been proposed, from adding alternative OSG precursors to alternative porogen precursors. In all these options there is a need to balance pore structure modification with critical film properties such as dielectric constant and mechanical strength. In this context, this paper examines porosity and its impact on film properties for highly porous ultra low dielectric constant films. A series of PDEMS® porous OSG films were deposited by plasma enchanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) from DEMS® precursor (diethoxymethylsilane) and porogen ATRP (alpha-terpenine). The percent porosity and pore interconnectivity of these films relative to the dielectric constant were measured by ellipsometric porosimetry (EP) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PALS) respectively. Porosity and pore-size distribution for films deposited using several different species (structure former or porogen precursors) were examined using EP in an effort to understand the impact of the chemical nature of the precursor on pore morphology. Results from these depositions show that it is possible to deposit films with smaller pores using alternative structure formers (ASFs) with bulky organic groups, although there are tradeoffs with respect to other film characteristics. The addition of a separate porogen (ATRP) to the ASF lowered the dielectric constant and the addition of DEMS® precursor to the ASF/ATRP mix gave the films added structural integrity and mechanical strength. Such a fundamental understanding of structure-property relationships will help support successful integration of these porous OSG films.
In this work a new generation of periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) low-k dielectrics with targeted k-values 2.0 and 1.8 is evaluated. In addition, impact of two different curing processes on properties of the mesoporous material is analyzed. It is shown that removal of templating organics with thermal annealing leads to formation of mechanically robust and chemically very stable material, while application of UV-assisted curing with broadband lamp (λ > 200 nm) causes pronounced decrease of film ability to sustain in diluted HF solution. The explanation of that phenomenon is given in terms of silica-ring structures formed within organosilica skeleton.
Continuous decrease of the feature size of transistors in modern integrated circuits (ICs) constrains thickness of auxiliary dielectric layers in interconnects because of their relatively high dielectric constant, which reduces the efficiency of low-k material integration. Dielectric materials used today as barrier or etch-stop layers are usually SiN (k ∼ 7.0) and SiCN (k ∼ 4.8), which k-value significantly exceeds that of recent ultra low-k materials (k < 2.2). In our work we have investigated thin films of rigid-chain polyimide (PI) with a k-value of about 3.2-3.3. This film was deposited using a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique and can be as thin as several monolayers. The intermolecular interaction of densely packed precursor macromolecules within a monolayer formed at the water-air interface makes it possible to avoid penetration of precursor material inside the pores. The latter peculiarity of the deposition process results in a pore sealing effect using a 4 nm PI film.