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The history of congenital interventional cardiology has seen numerous groundbreaking innovations typically related to the introduction of a new device or a novel treatment technique. Similarly, imaging of cardiac defects has changed dramatically over the past decades, although some of the advancements have seemed to omit the catheterisation laboratories. Rotational angiography, one of the imaging techniques for guidance of cardiac catheterisation currently referred to as “advanced”, in fact was described already in 1960s.1 More recently its improved version, including three-dimensional reconstruction (3DRA), became a valuable intra-procedural imaging tool in interventional cardiology and neuroradiology.2 Dr Evan Zahn was one of the pioneers of 3DRA in the field of congenital cardiology, setting an example for many to follow. With his innovative publication and subsequent lecture at 2011 Pediatric and Adult Interventional Cardiac Symposium (PICS-AICS) on “The Emerging Use of 3-Dimensional Rotational Angiography in Congenital Heart Disease” he motivated many to explore benefits of this modality to strive for improved procedural outcomes and reduced patients’ burden of cardiac catheterisation3. I was one of those to take Dr Zahn’s thoughts and implement them into routine workflow.4–6 However, almost a decade after Dr Zahn shared his important work, despite tremendous efforts by teams from Utrecht, (Netherlands) and Columbus (Ohio, United States of America) to popularise 3D imaging in catheterisation laboratory during dedicated meetings, two-dimensional (2D) angiography does not seem to be threatened in many, otherwise-progressive, laboratories. During the recent 30th Japanese Pediatric Interventional Cardiology (JPIC) meeting I had the opportunity to ask Dr Zahn why giving up knowledge is almost never a good idea, what is technology’s natural order of things, and why the technology has to be more than just exciting, pretty, and new.
Limbic-cortical imbalance is an established model for the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), but imaging genetics studies have been contradicting regarding potential risk and resilience mechanisms. Here, we re-assessed previously reported limbic-cortical alterations between MDD relatives and controls in combination with a newly acquired sample of MDD patients and controls, to disentangle pathology, risk, and resilience.
We analyzed functional magnetic resonance imaging data and negative affectivity (NA) of MDD patients (n = 48), unaffected first-degree relatives of MDD patients (n = 49) and controls (n = 109) who performed a faces matching task. Brain response and task-dependent amygdala functional connectivity (FC) were compared between groups and assessed for associations with NA.
Groups did not differ in task-related brain activation but activation in the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) was inversely correlated with NA in patients and controls. Pathology was associated with task-independent decreases of amygdala FC with regions of the default mode network (DMN) and decreased amygdala FC with the medial frontal gyrus during faces matching, potentially reflecting a task-independent DMN predominance and a limbic-cortical disintegration during faces processing in MDD. Risk was associated with task-independent decreases of amygdala-FC with fronto-parietal regions and reduced faces-associated amygdala-fusiform gyrus FC. Resilience corresponded to task-independent increases in amygdala FC with the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) and increased FC between amygdala, pgACC, and SFG during faces matching.
Our results encourage a refinement of the limbic-cortical imbalance model of depression. The validity of proposed risk and resilience markers needs to be tested in prospective studies. Further limitations are discussed.
The range and number of educational and networking events that are available for fellows, trainees, and junior faculty to attend grows every year. Each meeting useful in its own way; each adding value to the development and the growth of an interventionist. Within paediatric, congenital, and structural heart disease, three of the standout meetings are: Pediatric and Interventional Cardiac Symposium (PICS-AICS), Congenital and Structural Interventions (CSI), and International Workshop on Interventional Pediatric and Adult Congenital Cardiology (IPC). All of these were started by leaders in our field; people known to be passionate educators and innovators. International congresses focusing more broadly on congenital cardiac disease in children and adults are rare. These forums allow more interdisciplinary discussions between the interventionist, surgeon, and non-invasive specialists. Purely interventional meetings are essential to allow colleagues to debate and explore the nuances and intricacies of technique and approach, developing concepts to be challenged in wider forums. During the recent 21st PICS-AICS meeting Prof. Ziyad M. Hijazi, Shakeel A. Qureshi, Mario Carminati, and Dr Damien Kenny shared their time to engage in frank, recorded conversations which provide a unique insight in to the process and concepts behind three of our most important educational congresses.
We introduce CRYSTAL, a multi-agent AI system for crystal-structure phase mapping. CRYSTAL is the first system that can automatically generate a portfolio of physically meaningful phase diagrams for expert-user exploration and selection. CRYSTAL outperforms previous methods to solve the example Pd-Rh-Ta phase diagram, enabling the discovery of a mixed-intermetallic methanol oxidation electrocatalyst. The integration of multiple data-knowledge sources and learning and reasoning algorithms, combined with the exploitation of problem decompositions, relaxations, and parallelism, empowers AI to supersede human scientific data interpretation capabilities and enable otherwise inaccessible scientific discovery in materials science and beyond.
To verify the previously untested assumption that eating more salad enhances vegetable intake and determine if salad consumption is in fact associated with higher vegetable intake and greater adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommendations.
Individuals were classified as salad reporters or non-reporters based upon whether they consumed a salad composed primarily of raw vegetables on the intake day. Regression analyses were applied to calculate adjusted estimates of food group intakes and assess the likelihood of meeting Healthy US-Style Food Pattern recommendations by salad reporting status.
Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2011–2014 in What We Eat in America, the dietary intake component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
US adults (n 9678) aged ≥20 years (excluding pregnant and lactating women).
On the intake day, 23 % of adults ate salad. The proportion of individuals reporting salad varied by sex, age, race, income, education and smoking status (P<0·001). Compared with non-reporters, salad reporters consumed significantly larger quantities of vegetables (total, dark green, red/orange and other), which translated into a two- to threefold greater likelihood of meeting recommendations for these food groups. More modest associations were observed between salad consumption and differences in intake and likelihood of meeting recommendations for protein foods (total and seafood), oils and refined grains.
Study results confirm the DGA message that incorporating more salads in the diet is one effective strategy (among others, such as eating more cooked vegetables) to augment vegetable consumption and adherence to dietary recommendations concerning vegetables.
Weekly low-dose cisplatin is routinely used in concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) in locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC), despite 3-weekly cisplatin being the standard of care. We compared compliance, toxicity and efficacy in weekly versus 3-weekly cisplatin CCRT in LAHNC.
Materials and methods
In this retrospective study, weekly cisplatin 50 mg flat dose was compared with 3-weekly cisplatin 100 mg/m2, when given in CCRT in LAHNC with curative intent. The study outcome was compliance, toxicity, loco-regional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).
Eighty-four patients received CCRT from January 2013 to June 2017, 40 in weekly and 44 in 3-weekly arm. There was no difference between the arms not completing scheduled radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Patient receiving 200 mg/m2 cisplatin is higher in 3-weekly arm compared with weekly arm (75 versus 40·9%; p<0·0015). Compared with 3-weekly arm, more patient in weekly arm developed grade ≥3 mucositis (52·5 versus 15·9%, p=0·0004), day care intravenous hydration (82·5 versus 38·6% <0·0001) and in-patient admission (55·0 versus 18·2%; p=0·0004). The 2-year LRC, DFS and OS in weekly versus 3-weekly arm were: 70 versus 61·4% (p=0·406); 67·5 versus 56·8% (p=0·314); 67·5 versus 61·4% (p=0·558), respectively. The median time to LRR, DFs and OS was not reached.
Weekly cisplatin is comparable with 3-weekly cisplatin in terms of compliance, disease control and survival, but with increased grade 3 mucositis and higher admissions for supportive care.
The present study examines the influence of language proficiency and language combination on bilingual lexical access using category fluency in 109 healthy speakers. Participants completed a category fluency task in each of their languages in three main categories (animals, clothing, and food), each with two subcategories, as well as a language use questionnaire assessing their proficiency. Five language combinations were examined (Hindi–English, Kannada–English, Mandarin–English, Spanish–English, and Turkish–English). Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that the average number of correct items named in the category fluency task across the three main categories varied across the different groups only in English and not the other language. Further, results showed that language exposure composite (extracted from the questionnaire using a principal component analysis) significantly affected the average number of items named across the three main categories. Overall, these results demonstrate the effects of particular language combinations on bilingual lexical access and provide important insights into the role of proficiency on access.
Reports of changes in patients’ social behavior during deep brain stimulation (DBS) raised the question whether DBS induces changes in personality. This study explored if (1) DBS is associated with changes in personality in patients suffering from treatment-resistant depression (TRD), (2) how personality dimensions and depression are associated, and (3) if TRD patients’ self-ratings of personality are valid.
TRD patients were assessed before DBS (n = 30), 6 months (t2, n = 21), 2 (t3, n = 17) and 5 years (t4, n = 11) after the initiation of DBS of the supero-lateral branch of the medial forebrain bundle (slMFB-DBS). Personality was measured with the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), depression severity with Hamilton (HDRS), and Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS).
Personality dimensions did not change with slMFB-DBS compared with baseline. Extraversion was negatively correlated with HDRS28 (r = −0.48, p < 0.05) and MADRS (r = −0.45, p < 0.05) at t2. Inter-rater reliability was high for the NEO-FFI at baseline (Cronbach's α = 0.74) and at t4 (α = 0.65). Extraversion [t(29) = −5.20; p < 0.001] and openness to experience [t(29) = −6.96; p < 0.001] differed statistically significant from the normative sample, and did not predict the antidepressant response.
slMFB-DBS was not associated with a change in personality. The severity of depression was associated with extraversion. Personality of TRD patients differed from the healthy population and did not change with response, indicating a possible scar effect. Self-ratings of personality seem valid to assess personality during TRD.
Knowledge of Arctic sea-ice conditions is of great interest for Arctic residents, as well as for commercial usage, and to study the effects of climate change. Information gained from analysis of satellite data contributes to this understanding. In the course of using in situ data in combination with remotely sensed data, the question of how representative local scale measurements are of a wider region may arise. We compare in situ total sea-ice thickness measurements from the Norwegian young sea ICE expedition in the area north of Svalbard with airborne-derived total sea-ice thickness from electromagnetic soundings. A segmented and classified synthetic aperture radar (SAR) quad-pol ALOS-2 Palsar-2 satellite scene was grouped into three simplified ice classes. The area fractions of the three classes are: 11.2% ‘thin’, 74.4% ‘level’, and 14.4% ‘deformed’. The area fractions of the simplified classes from ground- and helicopter-based measurements are comparable with those achieved from the SAR data. Thus, this study shows that there is potential for a stepwise upscaling from in situ, to airborne, to satellite data, which allow us to assess whether in situ data collected are representative of a wider region as observed by satellites.
In many developing countries, high rates of deforestation and biodiversity loss make conservation efforts urgent. Improving existing land-use plans can be an option for enhancing biodiversity conservation. We showcase an approach to enhancing an existing forest land-use plan using widely available data and spatial tools, focusing on Argentina's Southern Yungas ecoregion. We mapped the distribution of wilderness areas and species and habitats of conservation concern, assessed their representation in the land-use plan and quantified potential changes in habitat availability and forest connectivity. Wilderness comprised 48% of the study area, and the highest concentrations of elements of conservation concern were in the north. In the current land-use plan, wilderness areas often occur in regions where logging and grazing are allowed, and a large proportion of the forest with the highest conservation value (43%) is under some level of human influence. Furthermore, we found that deforestation being legally allowed in the land-use plan could reduce forest connectivity and habitat availability substantially. We recommend updating the current land-use plan by considering human influence and elements of conservation concern. More broadly, we demonstrate that widely available spatial datasets and straightforward approaches can improve the usefulness of existing land-use plans so that they more fully incorporate conservation goals.
We report on a target system supporting automated positioning of nano-targets with a precision resolution of
in three dimensions. It relies on a confocal distance sensor and a microscope. The system has been commissioned to position nanometer targets with 1 Hz repetition rate. Integrating our prototype into the table-top ATLAS 300 TW-laser system at the Laboratory for Extreme Photonics in Garching, we demonstrate the operation of a 0.5 Hz laser-driven proton source with a shot-to-shot variation of the maximum energy about 27% for a level of confidence of 0.95. The reason of laser shooting experiments operated at 0.5 Hz rather than 1 Hz is because the synchronization between the nano-foil target positioning system and the laser trigger needs to improve.
Dormant states of organisms are easier to store than the living state because they tolerate larger variations in temperature, light, storage space etc., making them attractive for laboratory culture stocks and also for experiments under special circumstances, especially space flight experiments. Like several other organisms, Euglena gracilis is capable of forming desiccation tolerant resting states in order to survive periods of unfavourable environmental conditions. In earlier experiments it was found that dormant Euglena cells must not become completely desiccated. Some residual moisture is required to ensure recovery of the resting states. To analyse the water demand in recovery of Euglena resting states, cells were transferred to a defined amount of cotton wool (0.5 g). Subsequently different volumes of medium (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10 and 20 ml) were added in order to supply humidity; a control was set up without additional liquid. Samples were sealed in transparent 50 ml falcon tubes and stored for 9 months under three different conditions:
•Constant low light conditions in a culture chamber at 20°C,
•In a black box, illuminated with short light emitting diode-light pulses provided by joule thieves and
•In darkness in a black box.
After 9 months, cells were transferred to fresh medium and cell number, photosynthetic efficiency and movement behavior was monitored over 3 weeks. It was found that cells recovered under all conditions except in the control, where no medium was supplied. Transcription levels of 21 genes were analysed with a Multiplex-polymerase chain reaction. One hour after rehydration five of these genes were found to be up-regulated: ubiquitin, heat shock proteins HSP70, HSP90, the calcium-sensor protein frequenin and a distinct protein kinase, which is involved in gravitaxis. The results indicate a transient general stress response of the cells.
Objectives: Pedophilia (P) is a psychiatric disease associated with sexual attraction toward children and often accompanied by child sexual offending (CSO). Consequently, it is important to address the understanding of executive dysfunctions that may increase the probability of CSO. Moreover, this research field has been lacking to disentangle executive deficits associated with pedophilia (as a deviant sexual preference) from those associated with CSO (as a deviant sexual behavior). Methods: The German multi-sided research network NeMUP offers the opportunity to overcome these limitations. By applying the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery in four carefully matched groups of men: (1) pedophiles with (N=45) and (2) without (N=45) a history of sexual offending against children; (3) child molesters without pedophilia (N=19), and (4) non-offending controls (N=49), we were able to analyze executive functioning in pedophilia and CSO independently. Results: Both CSO groups as compared to both non-CSO groups exhibited worsened response inhibition ability. However, only non-pedophilic offenders showed additionally disabled strategy use ability. Regarding set-shifting abilities, the P+CSO group showed the best performance. We also found that performances were affected by age: only in pedophiles, response inhibition worsened with age, while age-related deficits in set-shifting abilities were restricted to non-pedophilic participants. The latter also differentiated between both sexual preference groups. Conclusions: Our results are the first to demonstrate that executive dysfunctions are related to offense status rather than pedophilic preference. Furthermore, there was evidence for differentiating age and performance correlations between pedophiles and non-pedophiles, which warrants further investigation. (JINS, 2017, 23, 460–470)