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In recent years, there has been an increase in migration in Europe. Particularly, Italy has been one of the most important landing place. Currently, migrants in the province of Avellino, South Italy city, amount to about 1400, housed in 40 facilities in 23 municipalities. Psychological interest on migration and its impact on lifestyle patterns has increased in recent years.
There are few studies that evaluated the frequent psychosomatic symptoms in these populations. Despite the trauma experienced, they are not able to give a name to the suffered and somatized pain.
Assessment of somatic symptoms reported by the immigrant cohort after a three-month observation period.
We included 50 migrants (21.3 mean years) hosted in emergency centre in Avellino, Italy. All guests have conducted psychological clinical interviews. At baseline, were administered following scales: the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9); Illness Behaviour Inventory (IBI); Symptoms checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) scale. Same data was collected after three months.
The migrant group was a heterogeneous group. Overall data on IBI and PHQ-9 scale indicate a statistically significant variation baseline vs deadline Data of IBI scale is statistically significant [T-Score: 3,921; P: 003]; also with PHQ-9 [T0 vs. T1: T-Score: 3,986; P: .003]. Similar results have been found with SCL-90-R.
In their vocabulary, terms such as anxiety, sadness, fear exist hardly. They tend to minimize the psychological pain, not because I do not feel, but because move it on the body. They have difficulty to talk about emotions, not just a matter of culture and language, but also because they are ashamed.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Energy security of natural gas supplies in Europe is becoming a key concern. As demand increases, infrastructure development focuses on extending the capacity of the pipeline system. While conventional approaches focus mainly on source dependence, we argue for a network perspective to also consider risks associated with transit countries, by borrowing methods from ecological food web analysis. We develop methods to estimate the exposure and dominance of each country, by using network datasets from the present pipeline system, and future scenarios of 2020 and 2030. We have found that future scenarios will not increase the robustness of the system. Pipeline development to 2030 will shift the relative weight of energy security concerns away from source to transit countries. The dominance of politically unstable countries will increase. The exposure will be slightly redistributed by improving the security of already secure countries, and increasing the exposure of those countries that are already in a vulnerable position.
During the first days of 2009 a dispute between Russia and Ukraine led to a closure of major gas pipelines, and the worst dropout of the natural gas supply in Europe so far (Pirani et al., 2009). Supply to 18 countries was disrupted, and some areas with limited reserves and a lack of alternative supply channels were left without heating amidst a bone-chilling cold snap. Initial cuts affected the supplies to Ukrainian consumption (January 1), while deliveries to Europe were reduced drastically on January 6 (e.g. Italy experienced losses of 25% towards its needs and decided to increase imports from Libya, Norway, and The Netherlands; Hungarian consumption was cut off by 40%).
We have established mutant collections of the model species Medicago truncatula according to current protocols. In particular, we used a transposon (Tnt1) tagging method and an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis approach (TILLING). The collections were subjected to both forward and reverse genetics screenings, and several mutants were isolated that affect plant traits (e.g. shoot, root developments, flower morphology, etc.) and also biosynthetic pathways of secondary compounds (saponins and tannins). Genes responsible for some of the mutations were cloned and further characterized.
Double ‘free-hybrids’ (DH) in alfalfa were obtained by crossing in a diallelic scheme, six multiplied simple hybrids (SH) derived from four partly inbred (S2) lines. Analysis of the specific combining ability demonstrated that the main source of variation was for dry matter yield (DMY) in DHs and supported heterosis values of DHs versus the best parent of an average +45% (ranging from +5 to +76%). Investigation at the molecular level was carried out by analysis of simple sequence repeat markers on the six parental SHs and 15 DH progenies and by comparison of gene expression profiles using microarrays of a single DH line to its parental lines. The variation of heterozygosity estimates of the DHs explained a small part (about 20%) of their variation in DMY, while the number of alleles was significantly related to DM performance (r = 0.61; P < 0.05). The microarray analysis identified genes with both significant additive and non-additive levels of expression in the hybrid compared with the parents. The majority of the variation in gene expression was additive (87%), but among the genes with a non-additive pattern of expression, the greater proportion of probe sets (86%) fell outside the parental range. Gene ontology analysis of these genes revealed the presence of a number of terms related to metabolism and genetic information processing.
Tenova started a research program in 2002 for strongly lowering NOx emissions. After the excellent results achieved in the reheating furnaces, the Tenova FlexyTech® burner family was enlarged with the TLX burner whose first application was in the furnace for austenitizing treatment of seamless tubes at TenarisDalmine (2006). The main goals of the revamping were strongly decreasing NOx emissions and increasing the productivity. The results after one year of operation are presented.
Although human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a notifiable disease in Italy, there is evidence that the actual number of cases is far higher than that notified. A programme for active surveillance of VL in the 14 Italian endemic regions was launched by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. We report data collected during a 3-year period of active surveillance in Campania, a south Tyrrhenian region covering 4·5% of the Italian territory. Out of 120 clinically suspected cases referred to medical and diagnostic references centres, there were 52 confirmed VL cases (17·3/year), i.e. 10-fold more than previously notified. Most of the infection sites were in rural areas or peripheral districts of towns in hilly parts of Naples province. An epidemic cluster of 10 cases was identified in a microfocus of Caserta province. The biochemical analysis of 23 Leishmania stocks showed a zymodeme composition indicating Campania as an old and well-established focus of VL. The data obtained emphasize that the present notification system for VL in Italy is inadequate.
Given the personal and societal costs associated with acute impairment and enduring post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the mental health response to disasters is an integral component of disaster response planning. The purpose of this paper is to explore the compatibility between cognitive-behavioral psychology and the disaster mental health model, and explicate how cognitivebehavioral perspectives and intervention methods can enhance the effectiveness of disaster mental health services. It is argued that cognitive-behavioral methods, if matched to the contexts of the disaster and the needs of individuals, will improve efforts to prevent the development of PTSD and other trauma-related problems in survivors of disaster or terrorist events. First, the similarities between models of care underlying both disaster mental health services and cognitive-behavioral therapies are described. Second, examples of prior cognitive-behavioral therapy-informed work with persons exposed to disaster and terrorism are provided, potential cognitive-behavioral therapy applications to disaster and terrorism are explored, and implications of cognitive-behavioral therapy for common challenges in disaster mental health is discussed. Finally, steps that can be taken to integrate cognitive-behavioral therapy into disaster mental health are outlined. The aim is to prompt disaster mental health agencies and workers to consider using cognitive-behavioral therapy to improve services and training, and to motivate cognitive-behavioral researchers and practitioners to develop and support disaster mental health response.
Ce3+-doped boro, phospho and borophosphosilicate monolithic glasses (BSG, PSG and BPSG) were prepared by sol-gel method. The inclusion of the glass formers P and B in silica lowered the tendency of rare earth (RE) to segregate as CeO2 with respect to pure SiO2 matrix (SG). In PSG and BPSG, Ce3+ co-ordination to P=O groups was responsible for the inhibition of both CeO2 segregation and oxidation of isolated Ce3+ ions to Ce4+. The better ion dispersion in the host matrix and the stabilization of Ce3+ oxidation state improved PSG and BPSG luminescence properties with respect to BSG and SG.
The reactivity of nanosized Ru(Pd,Pt)-doped SnO2, obtained by sol-gel synthesis, towards NO/Ar was investigated by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), Mössbauer and Electrical Resistance measurements. A sensing mechanism was proposed that involves (i) the formation of bielectronic oxygen vacancies VO, (ii) their single-ionisation to VO•, which injects electrons to SnO2 conduction band, (iii) the transfer of VO• electrons to the transition metal centers reducing them to lower oxidation states. It was suggested that the electronic exchange between oxide and transition metal is responsible for the enhancement of the reactivity in doped SnO2 with respect to the undoped material.
Fructans (polyfructosylsucrose) are synthesized by a number of plants
and micro-organisms. Plant fructans are
localized in the vacuole and have a low degree of polymerization (DP), whereas
the fructans synthesized by micro-organisms are usually much bigger. There is
an increasing interest in fructans for both food and non-food
applications. In order to accumulate fructans of high DP in the plant vacuole,
the levansucrase protein of Bacillus
subtilis was fused to the vacuolar targeting sequence of sporamin and expressed
in plants. Transgenic tobacco
plants in which this fusion gene is expressed accumulate fructans to levels
up to 21% of the d. wt. They showed
a reduced translocation of carbohydrates, bleaching of the leaves, stunted
growth and increased levels of hexoses
and starch. The levansucrase protein was not translocated to the plant vacuole,
but retained in the endomembrane
system, even though the same targeting signal was able to translocate the E.
coli GUS protein to the plant vacuole.
High-quality YBCO thin films have been grown by Inverted Cylindrical Magnetron Sputtering (ICMS) on LaAlO3(100), SrTiO3(100), SrTiO3(110), and MgO(100) substrates. Transition temperatures of c-axis films exceed 90 K, and transition widths are within 1 K. Critical currents range up to 5 × 106 A/cm2 at 77 K. Structural and morphological features analyzed by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively, are found to be strongly dependent on film orientation and deposition temperature. In order to understand such dependence, a simple interpretation is proposed in terms of Gibbs energies and growth dynamics of the nucleation process.
Current-voltage characteristics and dV/dI curves of a YBCO/Nb bulk junction at 4.2 K are reported. The presence of the Josephosn effect is clearly shown. The dV/dI spectrum shows sharp structures which can be related to the Niobium and the YBCO energy gaps Δnb and ΔNb and ΔYBCO. A value ΔYBCO = 26.2 ± 1.0 meV can be estimated, confirming the strong coupling character of such a compound.
A statically stable stratified free shear layer was formed within the test section of a wind tunnel by merging two uniform streams of air after uniformly heating the top stream. The two streams were accelerated side by side in a contraction section. The resulting sheared thermocline thickened gradually as a result of molecular diffusion and was characterized by nearly self-similar temperature (odd), velocity (odd) and Richardson number (even) profiles. The minimum Richardson number J0 could be adjusted over the range 0·07 ≥ J0 ≥ 0·76; the Reynolds number Re varied between 30 and 70. Small periodic disturbances were introduced upstream of the test section by a fine wire oscillating in the thermocline. The wire generated a narrow horizontal beam of internal waves, which propagated downstream and remained confined within the thermocline. The growth or decay of these waves was observed in the test section. The results confirm the existence of a critical Richardson number the value of which is in plausible agreement with theoretical predictions (J0 ≅ 0·22 for the Reynolds number of the experiment). The growth rate is a function of the wavenumber and is somewhat different from that computed for the same Reynolds and Richardson numbers, but the calculation assumed velocity and density profiles which were also somewhat different.
An electron microprobe analyzer shielded and modified to accept for analysis radioactive samples reading up to 100 R/hr is described. The following features will be illustrated and discussed: (1) biological shielding, (2) detector shielding, (3) sample transfer system, (4) remote sample loading and focusing system, (5) laboratory layout, and (6) experimental results.
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