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Periodic multilayers are ideally suited as high-reflectivity and wide-bandwidth Bragg reflectors. Their period can be matched laterally to the incidence angle so that for all points on the reflector, Bragg reflection is obtained for the same wavelength. Three major types of laterally graded multilayer optics were appJied to X-ray diffraction: (i) Parabolically curved multilayer mirrors were used to convert divergent radiation emerging from an X-ray source into a parallel beam. The parallel beam was applied in powder diffraction, grazing incidence diffraction, reflectometry, high-resolution diffraction, and protein crystallography, (ii) Elliptically curved multilayer mirrors focused the divergent radiation from the source into a line on the sample or detector. The high brilliance and small dimension of the focused beam make this mirror type suited for transmission diffractometry of capillary and fiber specimens, (iii) Planar multilayer mirrors were employed in divergent-beam optics. In Bragg-Brentano diffractometers, this mirror type can serve as a compact incident-beam monochromator for removing Kβ lines and Bremsstrahlung.
Effective integrated weed management in agricultural landscapes depends on the ability to identify and manage processes that drive weed dynamics. The current study reports the effects of grazing management and crop rotation strategies on the seedbank and emerged weed flora in an integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) experiment during a 12-year period under no-tillage in sub-tropical southern Brazil. During winter, Italian ryegrass cover crops were grazed by sheep: grazing management treatments included two stocking methods (continuous and rotational) and two forage allowances (10 and 20 kg of herbage dry matter available per 100 kg animal live weight). During summer, the crop rotation treatments involved either soybean-maize or soybean-soybean in succession with winter-grazed cover crops. The treatments were part of a factorial randomized complete block design. Treatment effects were evaluated on the weed seedbank and emerged weed flora populations during winter-grazed cover crop and summer crop growth as well as during the harvest phase. The current results demonstrate that crop rotation and grazing management exhibited interactive effects on the determination of weed outcomes in an ICLS. However, overall, compared with moderate forage allowance, high forage allowance during the winter-grazed cover crop caused lower emerged weed flora in subsequent crops (20% reduction during crop growth and 90% reduction at crop harvest) and 48% reduction in seedbank size. High forage allowance promoted more residue from winter-grazed cover crop biomass, which remained during the summer crop phases and probably resulted in a physical barrier to weed emergence.
The central star of NGC 2346 is a well known binary with an A-type primary and a hot companion (Méndez and Niemela 1981). The star went through a series of periodic light variations which ceased in 1986 and were interpreted as an eclipse of a dust cloud passing in front of the binary system (e.g. Méndez et al. 1982, Costero et al. 1986). Recently, light variations reappeared with shallower minima compared to the previous eclipse (e.g. Kohoutek et al. 1992).
High resolution imaging with HST-wfpc2 of seven of the most luminous evolved cool stars shows that the three OH/IR stars NML Cyg, VX Sgr and S Per have circumstellar nebulae while no ejecta was detected for the M-type supergiant μ Cep and the yellow hypergiants ρ Cas, HR 8752 and HR 5171a.
This paper presents a position gauging system of welding joints. While the principle measurement concept was already introduced by Schrattenecker et al. in 2014, here it is focused on different types of practically used welding materials. The sensor used is based on the frequency-modulated continuous-wave principle operating in the W-band. Position estimation (PoE) of different welding geometries is carried out with polarimetric scattering effects introduced by geometrical discontinuities. For the real-time calculation of the signal models a field simulation tool we developed is used. Aside from a variety of geometries, we introduce a geometrical optimization approach that increases the achievable accuracy of the measurement concept. The optimization and PoE of the different welding materials were examined in various simulations and the results were verified by measurements in the laboratory and in an industrial environment. Simulation and measurement were in good agreement.
Sense of Coherence (SOC) and mindfulness are known protective factors against psychopathology, also in older age. We set out to investigate the influence of SOC and mindfulness on posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions in the context of lifetime trauma in elderly persons with a history of childhood war-experiences.
Elderly Austrians (N = 97) filled in questionnaires on traumatic lifetime experiences and posttraumatic symptoms (ETI), posttraumatic cognitions (PTCI), SOC (SOC-13) and mindfulness (FFMQ). We expected the influence of SOC scores on posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions to be on one hand influenced by mindfulness. On the other hand, we expected that both aspects would uniquely explain fewer posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions.
Participants reported various lifetime traumas (M = 2.42), including experiences during World War II (WWII) as children and adolescents. Mindfulness partially mediated the association of SOC scores with posttraumatic cognitions, but not with posttraumatic symptoms. However, in a two-stage mediation model, mindfulness significantly predicted posttraumatic symptoms via its effects on posttraumatic cognitions.
Although SOC was the strongest predictor of posttraumatic symptoms, mindfulness influenced the severity of posttraumatic symptoms via its effects on posttraumatic cognitions. We discuss implications for mindfulness-based interventions on trauma-related cognitions in the elderly.
Expose is a multi-user instrument for astrobiological and astrochemical experiments in space. Installed at the outer surface of the International Space Station, it enables investigators to study the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical test samples. Two Expose missions have been completed so far, designated as Expose-E (Rabbow et al. 2012) and Expose-R (Rabbow et al. this issue). One of the space-unique environmental factors offered by Expose is full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV)-rich electromagnetic radiation from the Sun. This paper describes and analyses how on Expose-R, access of the test samples to Solar radiation degraded during space exposure in an unpredicted way. Several windows in front of the Sun-exposed test samples acquired a brown shade, resulting in a reduced transparency in visible light, UV and vacuum UV (VUV). Post-flight investigations revealed the discolouration to be caused by a homogenous film of cross-linked organic polymers at the inside of the windows. The chemical signature varied per sample carrier. No such films were found on windows from sealed, pressurized compartments, or on windows that had been kept out of the Sun. This suggests that volatile compounds originating from the interior of the Expose facility were cross-linked and photo-fixed by Solar irradiation at the rear side of the windows. The origin of the volatiles was not fully identified; most probably there was a variety of sources involved including the biological test samples, adhesives, plastics and printed circuit boards. The outer surface of the windows (pointing into space) was chemically impacted as well, with a probable effect on the transparency in VUV. The reported analysis of the window contamination on Expose-R is expected to help the interpretation of the scientific results and offers possibilities to mitigate this problem on future missions – in particular Expose-R2, the direct successor of Expose-R.
Roll-to-roll deposition techniques for the fabrication of chalcopyrite solar cells are of major interest and are a promising alternative to state of the art vacuum processes. However, for roll-to-roll processes the preparation of precursor materials like nanoparticle inks is a crucial point. In this work a study on the preparation technique of copper-indium intermetallic nanoparticles was conducted. The preparation of the nanoparticles is based on the chemical reduction of copper and indium cations with sodium borohydride. Different parameters are discussed regarding their influence on (1) size and shape of the nanoparticles, (2) Cu/In ratio within the synthesised nanoparticles and (3) yield of the synthesis. Results show a strong dependency of the Cu/In ratio of the nanoparticles and the yield of the synthesis on the synthesis parameters. The influence of different parameters like (a) the ratio of metal cations to BH4- anions, (b) the Cu2+/In3+ cation ratio within the precursor solution and (c) the dropping rate of the copper-indium precursor solution are discussed. The Cu/In ratio within the nanoparticles can mainly be controlled by the Cu2+/In3+ cation ratio and the dropping rate of the copper-indium precursor solution. The yield of the synthesis shows saturation behaviour depending on the ratio of metal cations to BH4- anions. Shape and size of the nanoparticles are independent of the varied parameters.
Between April and July 2011 there was an outbreak of measles virus, genotype D4, in Berlin, Germany. We identified 73 case-patients from the community and among students of an anthroposophic school, who participated in a 4-day school trip, as well as their family and friends. Overall, 27% were aged ⩾20 years, 57% were female and 15% were hospitalized. Of 39 community case-patients, 38% were aged ⩾20 years, 67% were female and 63% required hospitalization. Unvaccinated students returning from the school trip were excluded from school, limiting transmission. Within the group of 55 school-trip participants, including 20 measles case-patients, a measles vaccine effectiveness of 97·1% (95% confidence interval 83·4–100) for two doses was estimated using exact Poisson regression. Our findings support school exclusions and the recommendation of one-dose catch-up vaccination for everyone born after 1970 with incomplete or unknown vaccination status, in addition to the two-dose routine childhood immunization recommendation.
Background: Wartime rape is an atrocity with long-lasting impacts not only on victims but whole societies. In this brief report, we present data on experience and witness of sexual violence during World War II (WWII) and subsequent time of occupation and on indicators of mental health in a sample of elderly Austrians.
Methods: Interviews of 298 elderly Austrians from a larger epidemiological study on WWII traumatization were analyzed for the impact of experience and witness of sexual violence during the wartime committed by occupational forces. Interviews comprised a biographical/historical section and psychological measures (BSI, TLEQ, PCL–C). Participants were recruited in all nine provinces of Austria with respect to former zones of occupation (Western Allied/Soviet).
Results: Twelve persons reported direct experience of sexual violence, 33 persons witnessed such atrocities. One third of the victims and 18.2% of the witnesses reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD full/subthreshold). Sexual violence occurred more often in the former Soviet zone. Victims and witnesses displayed higher odds of post-traumatic symptoms and symptoms of depression and phobic fear than non-victims. Furthermore, witnesses displayed higher levels of aggression compared to victims and non-witnesses.
Conclusions: Our results corroborate previous findings that wartime rape has long-lasting effects over decades on current mental health and post-traumatic distress in victims and witnesses. We recommend integration of psychotraumatological knowledge on consequences of sexual violence on mental health into geriatric care and the education of dedicated personnel.
Current state-of-the-art trajectory prediction tools typically model aircraft as three-dimensional point-masses, and make a number of simplifying assumptions about the actual and anticipated dynamics states of the aircraft. They are typically based on predefined settings obtained from existing databases such as Eurocontrol’s Bada rather than real-time information, including on the environment, available onboard the aircraft. This significantly limits trajectory prediction performance. This paper proposes a high-accuracy four-dimensional trajectory prediction model for use onboard civil aircraft, as well as by ground-based systems, which addresses these limitations. It is designed for strategic traffic capacity optimisation and conflict-detection and resolution over time-horizons covering the entire duration of a flight. The model incorporates a number of features including a novel flight-control-system and an enhanced flight-script that incorporates new taxonomy and content thereby enabling better definition of aircraft intent. The accuracy of the model is characterised using operational data acquired during a real flight trial. Results show that the performance of the proposed model is significantly better than the current models. Its accuracy is better than the required navigation performance for departure, en route and Non-Precision-Approach phases of flight.
A challenge exists for wider application of low cost iron-base alloys in the extreme conditions of high temperature, hot corrosion, and high stress experienced in gas turbine engines. In response to this challenge the constitution of the quaternary, Fe-Cr-Mn-C, and to a lesser extent the quinary, Fe-Cr-Mn-Al-C, systems were examined for in situ composite alloy candidates. Multivariant eutectic compositions, determined from phase equilibria, were directionally solidified to produce aligned composites consisting of M7C3 carbides within a gamma iron matrix. The composition and lattice parameters of the carbide and matrix phases were determined to establish their respective stabilities. Stress rupture tests in the direction of phase alignment for certain compositions (e.g., Fe-20 wt% Cr-lO wt% Mn-3.2 wt% C) indicated strength values comparable to cast nickel-base superalloys and exceeded those of the strongest iron-nickel superalloys developed for automotive turbines. Results of cyclic sulfidation testing at 9000 indicated a balance of Cr and Al content to be important to the achievement of outstanding surface stability.
The lack of high-quality health information for accurately estimating burdens of disease in some Aboriginal populations is a challenge for developing effective and relevant public health programmes and for health research. We evaluated data from a health registry system that captured patient consultations, provided by Labrador Grenfell Health (Labrador, Canada). The goal was to evaluate the registry's utility and attributes using modified CDC guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. Infectious gastrointestinal illness data were used as a reference syndrome to determine various aspects of data collection and quality. Key-informant interviews were conducted to provide information about system utility. The study uncovered limitations in data quality and accessibility, resulting in region-specific recommendations including conversion to an electronic system. More generally, this study emphasized how a systematic and standardized evaluation of health registry systems can help address challenges to obtaining quality health data in often remote areas where many Aboriginal communities are found.
Pumpless arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist is increasingly used as a rescue therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist is highly efficient in eliminating carbon dioxide and allows the application of ventilator techniques that prioritize lung protection and aim to reduce ventilator-induced lung injury and remote organ dysfunction.
Retrospective data analysis performed in a 12-bed university hospital ICU. In all, 22 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome refractory to standard care were included. Arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist as central part of a multimodal treatment concept was combined with tidal volume (VT) reduction below 4 mL kg−1 predicted body weight, a positive end-expiratory pressure titrated to optimize oxygenation and continuous axial rotation.
Hypercapnia was reversed within 24 h in survivors (39 mmHg (35–42) (median and interquartile range) vs. 65 mmHg (54–72), P < 0.05) and non-survivors (5.2 kPa (5.5–6.0) vs. 10 kPa (6.9–13.9), P < 0.05). Oxygenation was significantly improved in survivors after 24 h (PaO2/FiO2 ratio 20.7 kPa (17.4–22.7) vs. 11.7 kPa (7.3–20.8), P < 0.05). All patients required norepinephrine infusion and volume resuscitation. The overall complication rate was 23%, predominantly due to reversible lower limb ischaemia. One patient (5%) was permanently disabled due to amputation of a seriously injured lower leg 9 days after initiation of arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist therapy; however, the patient survived without neurological deficits despite an initial oxygenation index of 4.4 kPa. The overall mortality rate was 27%.
A multimodal treatment concept with arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist as its central part provides reversal of hypercapnia and stabilization of oxygenation. In an attempt to maximize lung protection and potentially reduce ventilator-induced lung injury, a further VT reduction below 4 mL kg−1predicted body weight combined with a high mean airway pressure and continuous axial rotation is safely possible.
In this study, two sheep, eight dromedary camels and two Bactrian camels were inoculated with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) type A SAU 22/92. Five naive dromedary camels and four sheep were kept in direct or indirect contact with the inoculated camels. The inoculated sheep, which served as positive controls, displayed typical moderate clinical signs of FMD and developed viraemia and high antibody titres. The presence of the virus was also detected in probang and mouth-swab samples for several days after inoculation. In contrast, the inoculated dromedary camels were not susceptible to FMDV type A infection. None of them showed clinical signs of FMD or developed viraemia or specific anti-FMDV antibodies despite the high dose of virus inoculated. All the contact sheep and contact dromedaries that were kept together with the inoculated camels remained virus-negative and did not seroconvert when tested up to 28 days post-inoculation (p.i.). In comparison with the non-susceptible dromedaries, the two inoculated Bactrian camels showed moderate to severe clinical signs of FMD; however, the clinical signs of FMD appeared rather late, between 8 and 14 days p.i., compared to the inoculated sheep. Characteristic FMD lesions in the Bactrian camels, accompanied with severe lameness, were only observed on the hind feet. The presence of the virus in the serum samples of both Bactrian camels was detected by real-time RT–PCR in one of the animals on days 3 and 7 p.i. and in the second animal from days 1 to 3 p.i. and subsequently again on day 21 p.i. The Bactrian camels developed high titres of antibodies to the inoculated FMDV which appeared at 7–10 days p.i. and lasted up to 130 days p.i. Only low and transient amounts of FMDV were detected in the mouth-swab and probang samples collected from both Bactrian camels.
We present a 12CO 2-1 map of M51 (Schuster et al. 2006) at 11″ resolution observed with HERA at the IRAM-30m telescope. The map covers the companion galaxy NGC5195 as well as the south-western arm out to 12 kpc. Using the IRAM-30m data and the clump finding procedure GAUSSCLUMPS (Stutzki et al. 1990), we obtain the masses, positions, peak temperatures and more intrinsic properties as i.e. deconvolved sizes of Giant Molecular Associations (GMAs) in M51 (Hitschfeld et al. 2007, in prep.).
Nutrigenomics is the study of how constituents of the diet interact with genes, and their products, to alter phenotype and, conversely, how genes and their products metabolise these constituents into nutrients, antinutrients, and bioactive compounds. Results from molecular and genetic epidemiological studies indicate that dietary unbalance can alter gene–nutrient interactions in ways that increase the risk of developing chronic disease. The interplay of human genetic variation and environmental factors will make identifying causative genes and nutrients a formidable, but not intractable, challenge. We provide specific recommendations for how to best meet this challenge and discuss the need for new methodologies and the use of comprehensive analyses of nutrient–genotype interactions involving large and diverse populations. The objective of the present paper is to stimulate discourse and collaboration among nutrigenomic researchers and stakeholders, a process that will lead to an increase in global health and wellness by reducing health disparities in developed and developing countries.
The crystal structure of the new ternary phase CuSnTi is determined by full profile Rietveld analysis of the powder diffractogram. 104 reflections were refined to a final RBragg value of 5.60%. CuSnTi crystallizes with the spacegroup P63/mmc and is isostructural to InNi2. The lattice parameters are a=0.439 555(5) nm and c=0.601 505(9) nm.