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To explore the feasibility of a workplace farmstand programme through the utilization of an online ordering system to build awareness for local food systems, encourage community participation, and increase local fruit and vegetable availability.
A 4-week pilot to explore feasibility of workplace farmstand programmes through a variety of outcome measures, including survey, mode of sale, weekly sales totals and intercept interviews.
A large private company in Sarpy County, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.
Employees of the company hosting the farmstand programme.
Pre-programme, a majority of employees indicated that quality (95·4 %), variety (94·6 %) and cost of fruits and vegetables (86·4 %) were driving factors in their fruit and vegetable selection when shopping. The availability of locally or regionally produced fruits and vegetables was highly important (78·1 %). Participants varied in their definition of local food, with nearly half (49·2 %) reporting within 80·5 km (50 miles), followed by 160·9 km (100 miles; 29·5 %) and 321·9 km (200 miles; 12·1 %). Weekly farmstand purchases (both walk-ups and online orders) ranged from twenty-eight to thirty-nine employees, with weekly sales ranging from $US 257·95 to 436·90 for the producer. The mode of purchase changed throughout the pilot, with higher use of online ordering in the beginning and higher use of walk-up purchasing at the end.
The workplace farmstand pilot study revealed initial interest by both employees and a producer in this type of programme, helped to establish a sustained producer–employer relationship and led to additional opportunities for both the producer and employer.
Complex Metallic Alloys (CMAs) are metallic solids of high structural complexity, consisting of large numbers of atoms in their unit cells. Consequences of this structural complexity are manifold and give rise to a variety of exciting physical properties. The impact that such structural complexity may have on the lattice dynamics will be discussed. The surprising dynamical flexibility of Tsai-type clusters with the symmetry breaking central tetrahedron will be addressed for Zn6Sc, while in the Ba-Ge-Ni clathrate system the dynamics of encaged Ba guest atoms in the surrounding Ge-Ni host framework is analysed with respect to the experimentally evidenced strong reduction of lattice thermal conductivity. For both systems experimental results from neutron scattering are analyzed and interpreted on atomistic scale by means of ab initio and molecular dynamics simulations, resulting in a picture with the respective structural building blocks as the origin of the peculiarities in the dynamics.
Exposure to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an important risk factor for impaired learning and memory, particularly in males. Although the basis of IUGR-associated learning and memory dysfunction is unknown, potential molecular participants may be insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) and its receptor, IGF1r. We hypothesized that transcript levels and protein abundance of Igf1 and IGF1r in the hippocampus, a brain region critical for learning and memory, would be lower in IUGR male rats than in age-matched male controls at birth (postnatal day 0, P0), at weaning (P21) and adulthood (P120). We also hypothesized that changes in messenger Ribonucleic acid (mRNA) transcript levels and protein abundance would be associated with specific histone marks in IUGR male rats. Lastly, we hypothesized that IUGR male rats would perform poorer on tests of hippocampal function at P120. IUGR was induced by bilateral ligation of the uterine arteries in pregnant dams at embryonic day 19 (term is 21 days). Hippocampal Igf1 mRNA transcript levels and protein abundance were unchanged in IUGR male rats at P0, P21 or P120. At P0 and P120, IGF1r expression was increased in IUGR male rats. At P21, IGF1r expression was decreased in IUGR male rats. Increased IGF1r expression was associated with more histone 3 lysine 4 dimethylation (H3K4Me2) in the promoter region. In addition, IUGR male rats performed poorer on intermediate-term spatial working memory testing at P120. We speculate that altered IGF1r expression in the hippocampus of IUGR male rats may play a role in learning and memory dysfunction later in life.
Results of computer simulations of diffusion and relaxation in the liquid and the glassy state are presented for model systems and Cu33Zr67 and Se. The diffusion constant and the intermediate self scattering function show the typical behavior upon quenching from the liquid to the glass. The diffusion constant in the undercooled liquid can be fitted both with a Vogel-Fulcher or a mode coupling law. However, its pressure derivative, the activation volume, clearly follows the prediction of the mode coupling theory. From the diffusional isotope effect in the liquid we conclude that collectivity increases upon quenching to the glass transition. Checking the relaxations in the glass we find collective hopping of chains of atoms as elementary process. Both in the glassy state and in the undercooled liquid we observe an increase oc ∝√ι ofthe non-Gaussianity of the self correlation function, which measures the dynamic heterogeneity. This can be understood from the collective jump mechanism.
Track formation in amorphous solids is treated in terms of viscoelastic shear stress relaxation in thermal spike regions which is followed by the freezing-in of the associated strain increment. The resulting strained tracks are considered to be the mesoscopic defects responsible for anisotropic creep and growth. A recently presented approximate quantitative approach to the problem is reviewed. In addition, a new set of constitutive equations describing the viscous flow in thermal spike regions is suggested and general solutions are discussed.
Light element complex hydrides (e.g. NaBH4) together with metal hydrides (e.g. MgH2) are considered two primary classes of solid state hydrogen storage materials. In spite of drawbacks such as unfavourable thermodynamics and poor kinetics, enhancements may occur in reactive hydride composites by nanostructuring of reactant phases and formation of more stable product phases (e.g. MgB2) which lower overall reaction enthalpy and allow reversibility. One potential system is based on mixing NaBH4 and MgH2 and subsequent ball milling, which in a 2:1 molar ratio can store considerable amounts of hydrogen by weight (up to 7.8 wt%). A study of the 2NaBX4 + MgX2 → MgB2 + 2NaX + 4X2 (X=D,H) reaction is assessed by means of in-situ neutron diffraction with different combinations of hydrogen and deuterium on the X position. The desorption is established to begin at temperatures as low as 250 °C, starting with decomposition of nanostructured MgX2 due to joint effects of nanostructured MgX2 and its reducing effect at NaBX4. Analyses of background profile, due to the high incoherent neutron scattering of hydrogen, as a function of temperature demonstrate direct correlation of H/D desorption reactions with relative phases amount.
In this work we present both resonators working at ambient conditions and their first application as a biological and physical sensor. Singly- and doubly-clamped resonators of different geometries were realized using active layers of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The resonators were excited by magneto-motive actuation. The quality factor reached 350 and 50000 in air and in vacuum (2-5 10−5 mbar), respectively, which is sufficient for sensing applications in air. The resonance shift caused by mass loadings in the range of picograms and by single biological cells was measured at ambient conditions. Initial non-resonant measurements in liquids such as propanol were performed to investigate the possibility of viscosity measurements in small volumes such as microfluidic channels and droplets.
Growing interest in nanomaterials has raised many questions regarding the operating mechanisms active during the deformation and failure of nanoscale materials. To address this, a simple, effective in situ TEM straining technique was developed that provides direct detailed observations of the active deformation mechanisms at a length scale relevant to most nanomaterials. The capabilities of this new straining structure are highlighted with initial results in pulsed laser deposited (PLD) Al-Al2O3 thin films of uniform thickness. The Al-Al2O3 system was chosen for investigation, as the grain size can be tailored via deposition and annealing conditions and the active mechanisms in the binary system can be compared to previous studies in PLD Ni and evaporated Al films. PLD Al-Al2O3 free-standing films of various oxide concentrations and different thermal histories were produced and characterized in terms of average grain and particle sizes. Preliminary in situ TEM straining experiments show intergranular failure for films with 5 vol% Al2O3. Further work is in progress to explore and understand the active deformation and failure mechanisms, as well as the dependence of mechanisms on processing routes.
To gain basic insight into the impact of non-biological features on cells’ behaviour, primary skin-cells, keratinocytes and fibroblasts, were cultured on amine-functionalized or carboxy-functionalized planar, nano- or microstructured surfaces. Sintered layers of silica nano- or microparticles were used to fabricate structures in the range of naturally occurring structure-sizes. Organo-chemical functionalization was achieved using organo-functional silanes. Primary human keratinocytes and fibroblasts were isolated from human foreskin and cultivated on the modified interfaces. Both cell-types displayed specific proliferation behaviour, depending on surface topography and chemical functionalization: Keratinocytes showed significantly better proliferation on amino-functionalized surfaces than on carboxy-functionalized surfaces. On amino-functional surfaces decree-topography. Fibroblasts, in contrast, tended to proliferate stronger on carboxylated surfaces. Immunohistological staining proofed that actin and vinculin, which is involved in the formation of focal adhesions, were expressed on all modified surfaces, thus revealing intact cytoskeleton and cell-substrate contacts.
An Fe–1 at.% Cu model alloy was examined by atom probe (3DAP) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to verify the accordance of the gained results. The Fe-Cu alloy was heat-treated for various times at 500°C, forming Cu-rich precipitates within the Fe matrix. The chemical compositions of the precipitates and matrix found by 3DAP were used to calculate the magnetic scattering contrast. Additionally, a magnetic moment of the precipitates that contain a significant amount of Fe was taken into account for the calculation of magnetic scattering contrast. This in turn is used for the evaluation of the magnetic scattering curves gained by SANS. Both the 3DAP data as well as the scattering curves were analyzed with regard to radius, number density, and volume fraction of the precipitates as a function of aging time. The results yielded by both techniques are in good agreement and correspond to the development of the hardness of the alloy. Minor differences can be related to the cluster search algorithm used for the analysis of the 3DAP data as well as Fe overestimation based on different field phases.
The relationship between metabolic control and cognitive function in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (DM type 1) is not clear. We compared the quality of glycemic control (GC) and cognitive measures in adolescents with DM type 1 to find out if the quality of diabetes management is related to cognitive impairment.
We assessed executive functions (EFs) and other neuropsychological and psychosocial variables in 70 adolescent patients with DM type 1 and 20 age-matched controls. Patients were divided into two groups according to their last hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c): acceptable (HbA1c 5.9–8.0%, mean 6.9%, 36 patients, mean age 14 years) and non-optimal (HbA1c 8.2–11.6%, mean 9.3%, 34 patients, mean age 15.6 years).
We found impaired EFs, mainly problems of concept formation (p=0.038), cognitive flexibility (p=0.011) and anticipation (p=0.000), in the patients with DM type 1. Both groups did not differ in intelligence, most assessed EFs and adjustment to chronic illness (Youth Self-Report; YSR). Younger patients (<15 years) were cognitively less flexible. GC was worse in older patients and in patients with longer duration of the disease. We also found significant differences between patients with diabetes and controls concerning somatic complaints, internalizing problems (Child Behavior Checklist; CBCL) and social activity (CBCL and YSR).
DM type 1 is associated with cognitive deficits in adolescents independent of the quality of metabolic control and the duration of the disease. These deficits are probably related to the disease, especially in patients with early-onset diabetes.
Genitoplasty has been the traditional treatment for various forms of ambiguous genitalia and genotypical abnormalities. These conditions represent a spectrum of clitorophallic size and form, as well as vaginal position, size, and location. In some cases, complete absence of the genitalia must also be considered. Careful consideration of anticipated gender and function outcomes must be weighed before choosing some form of feminizing genitoplasty. Through the years, techniques, timing, and materials for genitoplasty have evolved, whereas surgical goals have remained unchanged.
The immediate goal is to provide the external genitalia with an esthetic and feminine appearance. The long-term goals are to produce a functional vagina of sufficient size for comfortable sexual intercourse, to retain sexually sensitive tissue to allow orgasm and, if internal genitalia permit, to preserve fertility potential. The surgeon's intent is to facilitate the patient's positive psychosocial adjustment throughout the patient's life. Sometimes, a completely satisfactory solution is not possible.
Even though techniques have advanced through the years, these demanding repairs and reconstructions are not without significant complications, necessitating careful multidisciplinary follow-up. Though genitoplasty presents many immediate problems and considerations, the most challenging are the long-term surgical outcomes. Many surgeons consider creating presentable external female genitalia with a sizable vagina an adequate outcome, but cosmetic appearance and passive sexual function is only one measure of success. Because scant knowledge exists, little is known about how adults adjust to genitoplasty or whether the genitoplasty expresses their sexual preference.
Background and objectives: Salt-water aspiration results in pulmonary oedema and hypoxia. We tested the hypothesis that partial liquid ventilation has beneficial effects on gas exchange and rate of survival in acute and extended salt water-induced lung injury. Methods: Anaesthetized, ventilated rats (tidal volume 6 mL kg−1, PEEP 5 cmH2O) received a tracheal salt-water instillation (3%, 8 mL kg−1 body weight) and were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 10 per group). While lungs of Group 1 were gas-ventilated, lungs of Group 2 received a single perfluorocarbon instillation (30 min after the injury, 5 mL kg−1 perfluorocarbon) and lungs of Group 3 received an additional continuous perfluorocarbon application into the treachea (5 mL kg−1 h−1). Arterial blood gases were measured with an intravascular blood gas sensor. Results: Salt-water instillation resulted in a marked decrease in PaO2 values within 30 min (from 432 ± 65 to 83 ± 40 mmHg, FiO2 = 1.0, P < 0.01). Arterial oxygenation improved in all three groups irrespective of treatment. We observed no significant differences between groups in peak PaO2 and PaCO2 values. Conclusions: Our results suggest that partial liquid ventilation has no additional beneficial effects on gas exchange after life-threatening salt water-induced lung injury when compared to conventional gas ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure.
European chub Leuciscus cephalus collected from five localities in the lowland and subalpine regions of Austria were analysed for oestrogenic effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the presence of the plerocercoid of the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis. Of 1494 chub analysed, only seven (six males, one female) were found to be infected with single, but large plerocercoids up to 15 cm in length. Ligula-infected fish showed comparatively immature gonads, as demonstrated by the gonadosomatic index and gamete developmental stages. Plasma levels of the egg precursor protein vitellogenin also showed concentrations ranging below the detection limit. The present results indicate that chub infected with L. intestinalis and exposed to exogenous oestrogenic compounds can result in reduced gonadal maturation and produce false oestrogen-positive diagnoses in male fish. For plasma vitellogenin levels, L. intestinalis infections can result in false oestrogen-negative diagnoses in male and female fish.
We present a case study of a 43-year-old woman
with chronic and stable pure alexia. Using a multiple baseline
design we report the results of two different interventions
to improve reading. First, a restitutive treatment
approach using an implicit semantic access strategy was
attempted. This approach was designed to exploit privileged
access to lexical–semantic representations and met
with little success. Treatment was then switched to a substitutive
treatment strategy, which involved using the patient's
finger to pretend to copy the letters in words and sentences.
Reading using this motor cross-cuing strategy
was 100% accurate and doubled in speed after 4 weeks of
intervention. We propose that this patient's inability
to benefit from the implicit semantic access treatment
approach may be in part related to her inability to suppress
the segmental letter identification process of word recognition.
(JINS, 1998, 4, 636–647.)
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