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Early life adversity (ELA) has been associated with inflammation and immunosenescence, as well as hyporeactivity of the HPA axis. Because the immune system and the HPA axis are tightly intertwined around the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), we examined peripheral GR functionality in the EpiPath cohort among participants who either had been exposed to ELA (separation from parents and/or institutionalization followed by adoption; n = 40) or had been reared by their biological parents (n = 72).
Expression of the strict GR target genes FKBP5 and GILZ as well as total and 1F and 1H GR transcripts were similar between groups. Furthermore, there were no differences in GR sensitivity, examined by the effects of dexamethasone on IL6 production in LPS-stimulated whole blood. Although we did not find differences in methylation at the GR 1F exon or promoter region, we identified a region of the GR 1H promoter (CpG 1-9) that showed lower methylation levels in ELA.
Our results suggest that peripheral GR signaling was unperturbed in our cohort and the observed immune phenotype does not appear to be secondary to an altered GR response to the perturbed HPA axis and glucocorticoid (GC) profile, although we are limited in our measures of GR activity and time points.
Previous studies have examined associations of cardiometabolic factors with depression and cognition separately.
To determine if depressive symptoms mediate the association between cardiometabolic factors and cognitive decline in two community studies.
Data for the analyses were drawn from the Rotterdam Study, the Netherlands (n = 2940) and the Whitehall II study, UK (n = 4469).
Mediation analyses suggested a direct association between cardiometabolic factors and cognitive decline and an indirect association through depression: poorer cardiometabolic status at time 1 was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms at time 2 (standardised regression coefficient 0.07 and 0.06, respectively), which, in turn, was associated with greater cognitive decline between time 2 and time 3 (standardised regression coefficient of −0.15 and −0.41, respectively).
Evidence from two independent cohort studies suggest an association between cardiometabolic dysregulation and cognitive decline and that depressive symptoms tend to precede this decline.
The discovery and dating of a volcanic ash bed within the upper Phosphoria Formation in SE Idaho, USA, is reported. The ash occurs 11 m below the top of the phosphatic Meade Peak Member and yielded a 206Pb/238U date of 260.57 ± 0.07 / 0.14 / 0.31 Ma, i.e. latest Capitanian, Guadalupian. The stratigraphic position of this ash near the top of the Meade Peak phosphatic Member of Phosphoria Formation indicates plausible completeness of the sedimentation within the Guadalupian–Lopingian and probably at the Permo-Triassic (P-T) transitions. The new radiometric age reveals that the regional biostratigraphy and palaeontology of Phosphoria and Park City formations requires serious reconsideration, particularly in cool water conodonts, bryozoans and brachiopods. The new age proposes that the Guadalupian–Lopingian boundary (GLB) coincides with the Meade Peak – Rex contact and consequently with the end-Guadalupian extinction event. The lack of a major unconformity at the P-T transition suggests that the effects of the Sonoma orogeny were not as extensive as has been assumed.
A computer data base of infrared astronomical observations has been established at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. It contains a summary of all infrared (1µm-1000µm) observations of celestial sources outside the solar system, published in the major scientific journals since 1960, as well as the contents of infrared surveys and catalogs. A Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO) has been developed from the data base in printed and magnetic tape versions. A bibliographic Guide to the Infrared Astronomical Literature, and an Atlas of Infrared Source Names and Positions will be published in conjunction with the catalog. Future plans include development of an interactive data system at Goddard which will give a user direct access to the computerized data.
The Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Laboratory (WiPAL) is a flexible user facility designed to study a range of astrophysically relevant plasma processes as well as novel geometries that mimic astrophysical systems. A multi-cusp magnetic bucket constructed from strong samarium cobalt permanent magnets now confines a
, fully ionized, magnetic-field-free plasma in a spherical geometry. Plasma parameters of
provide an ideal testbed for a range of astrophysical experiments, including self-exciting dynamos, collisionless magnetic reconnection, jet stability, stellar winds and more. This article describes the capabilities of WiPAL, along with several experiments, in both operating and planning stages, that illustrate the range of possibilities for future users.
Microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity (MTI) is an important component of the plant innate immunity response to invading pathogens. Although several MTI responses can be measured in different plant species, their magnitude is probably plant species specific and even cultivar specific. In this study, a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of two soybean parental lines and two progeny lines treated for 30 min with the MAMPs flg22 and chitin was carried out. This analysis revealed a clear variation in gene expression, under both untreated and flg22+chitin-treated conditions. In addition, genes with potential additive and non-additive effects were identified in the two progeny lines, with several of these genes having a potential function in the control of innate immunity. The data presented herein represent the basis for further functional analysis that can lead to a better understanding of the soybean innate immunity response.
Using optimised growth processes for an AIX 2000 HT Planetary® Reactor a high material quality and high potential device yield are demonstrated. Doping levels for GaN single layers from 1·1020 cm−3 free electrons to semi-insulating to 1·1018 cm−3 free holes with state-of-the-art layer resistance uniformities especially for n-type layers are shown. Both AlGaN and GaInN with composition homogeneities of better than 1 nm photoluminescence peak-wavelength standard deviation are displayed. Finally, examination of optically pumped laser action in simple double-hetero structures is quoted to prove the quality of the material.
For the growth of an electrically pumped lasing nitride emitter, the development of the MOCVD equipment and the process are mutually dependent. Most important is the implementation of the rapid temperature changes that are required between the growth of the different layers of a device structure. Equally important is to provide a reaction chamber that develops a stable gas phase at all growth temperatures used in the process. In this paper we will give insight in the technology and the relationship between processes and equipment. The development of the reation chamber was supported by mathematical modeling that formed the basis for the selection of appropriate process parameters for growth of group-III nitrides. The modeling consists of the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with heat transfer and mass transport of the chemical species. The modeling of radiative heat transfer takes into account the effect of changing surface radiative properties. These changes result from the coating of the reactor inner surfaces during the growth run. Coupled flow dynamics and chemistry including homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions play an important role for predicting growth rate distributions on the susceptor area. At the practically used high temperatures, group-III metalorganics turn out to be almost entirely decomposed and it is the mass transport of these decomposition products to the growing layer that is assumed to control the growth rate in accordance with experimental observations.
We present a radio survey of molecules in a sample of Galactic center molecular clouds, including M0.25 + 0.01, the clouds near Sgr A, and Sgr B2. The molecules detected are primarily NH3 and HC3N; in Sgr B2-N we also detect non-metastable NH3, vibrationally-excited HC3N, torsionally-excited CH3OH, and numerous isotopologues of these species. 36 GHz Class I CH3OH masers are ubiquitous in these fields, and in several cases are associated with new NH3 (3,3) maser candidates. We also find that NH3 and HC3N are depleted or absent toward several of the highest dust column density peaks identified in submillimeter observations, which are associated with water masers and are thus likely in the early stages of star formation.
A pioneer study of the previously unknown δ13C chemostratigraphy in the Ordovician/Silurian boundary interval in eastern Iowa and northeastern Illinois resulted in the discovery of the Hirnantian Isotope Carbon Excursion (HICE). The presence of this major isotope excursion in the Mosalem Formation in Iowa and the Wilhelmi Formation in Illinois, which indicates that the excursion interval in these units is of Hirnantian (latest Ordovician) rather than Early Silurian age, necessitates a revised chronostratigraphic classification of these units. Although the precise level of the Ordovician/Silurian boundary remains somewhat uncertain in the absence of the diagnostic graptolites, it is herein placed in the upper part, but well below the top, of the Mosalem Formation and at the top of the Wilhelmi Formation. During a major regression following the deposition of the Maquoketa Shale, the upper part of the latter clastic unit was in some places deeply eroded, resulting in a topographically dissected landscape with upland areas separated by wide incised valleys. During a subsequent late Hirnantian transgression, these palaeovalleys were gradually filled with marine sediments, but the upland areas were not transgressed until earliest Silurian times. The new chemostratigraphical evidence is in good agreement with the available biostratigraphical data, especially from corals, conodonts, and brachiopods. A preliminary chemostratigraphical study of the presumably coeval Edgewood Group successions in Pike County, northeastern Missouri failed to document any heavy δ13C values characteristic of the HICE and some, or all, of the Hirnantian values obtained there may be diagenetically overprinted.
Few studies have focused on the mental health consequences of indirect exposure to disasters caused by naturally occurring hazards. The present study assessed indirect exposure to the 2010 earthquake in Haiti among Haitian-Americans now living in Miami; these subjects had no direct exposure to the earthquake, but retained their cultural identity, language, and connection to family and friends in Haiti.
Two months following the earthquake a sample of Haitian-Americans was surveyed inquiring about: (1) their psychological reactions to the quake; (2) types of exposures experienced by their family members and friends in Haiti; and (3) symptom levels of (a) major depression, (b) generalized anxiety disorder, (c) complicated grief, (d) mental health status, and (e) physical health status.
Haitian-Americans living in Miami experienced a broad spectrum of indirect exposures to the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. These exposures were strongly associated with psychological distress, trauma-related mental health consequences, and diminished health status. Most notable was the multiplicity of indirect exposures to the on-scene experiences of multiple family members and friends in Haiti.
Consideration should be given to the psychological impact and needs for support among indirectly-exposed populations with strong affiliation to directly-impacted victims.
Shultz JM, Besser A, Kelly F, Allen A, Schmitz S, Hausmann V, Marcelin LH, Neria Y. Psychological consequences of indirect exposure to disaster due to the Haiti earthquake. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2012;27(4):1-10.
A novel setup for Raman measurements under small angles of incidence during the parallel plate plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of μc-Si:H films is described. The possible influence of disturbances introduced by the setup on growing films is studied. The substrate heating by the probe beam is investigated and reduced as far as possible. It is shown that with optimized experimental parameters the influence of the in-situ measurements on a growing film can be neglected. With optimized settings, in-situ Raman measurements on the intrinsic layer of a microcrystalline silicon solar cell are carried out with a time resolution of about 40 s corresponding to 20 nm of deposited material during each measurement.
In this paper we review recent progress achieved in our development of type-I GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb quantum-well (QW) lasers with emission wavelength in the 1.74–2.34 μm range. Triple-QW (3-QW) and single-QW (SQW) diode lasers having broadened waveguide design emitting around 2.26 μm have been studied in particular. Comparing the two designs we have find that the threshold current density at infinite cavity length as well as the transparency current density scale with the number of QWs. Maximum cw operating temperature exceeding 50°C and 90°C has been obtained for ridge waveguide lasers emitting above and below 2 μm, respectively. Ridge waveguide diode lasers emitting at 1.94 μm exhibited internal quantum efficiencies in excess of 77%, internal losses of 6 cm−1, and threshold current density at infinite cavity length as low as 121 A/cm2 reflecting the superior quality of our diode lasers, all values recorded at 280 K. A high characteristic temperature TOof 179 K for the threshold current along with a value of T1 = 433 K for the characteristic temperature of the external efficiency have been attained for the 240–280 K temperature interval. Room temperature cw output powers exceeding 1.7 W have been demonstrated for broad area single element devices with highreflection/ antireflection coated mirror facets, mounted epi-side down. The latter result is a proof for the high power capabilities of these GaSb-based mid-ir diode lasers.
This paper addresses the optimization of ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing for the fabrication of shallow junctions and the activation of polycrystalline silicon gates in deepsubmicron CMOS transistors. Achieving ultrashallow, low-resistance junctions was studied by combining low-energy B and As implantation with spike annealing. In addition, experiments using B doping marker superlattices were performed to identify the critical physical effects underlying dopant activation and diffusion. The combination of high ramp rates (∼100 °C/s) and ∼1 s cycles at temperatures as high as 1100 °C can be used to improve dopant activation without inducing significant thermal diffusion after TED has completed. MOS capacitors were used to identify the implantation and annealing conditions needed for adequate activation of the gate electrode. In comparison to the conventional recrystallized amorphous Si gates, it was found that fine-grained poly-Si allows for the use of lower processing temperatures or shorter annealing times while improving the gate activation level. The fine-grained crystal structure enhances the de-activation of B dopants in PMOS gates during the thermal treatments following gate activation. Yet, the resulting dopant loss stays within acceptable limits as verified by excellent 0.18 μm device performance. The feasibility of spike annealing and poly-Si gate materials for 100-nm technology was proven by full integration using gate lengths down to 80 nm.
The epitaxial growth of GaAs/AIGaAs layers and multilayer structures has been investigated in different low pressure horizontal multiwafer reactors for high throughput capable to handle several 2“ and 3“ wafers in one run. The growth behavior in these reactors will be described with respect to gas flow dynamics. The background carrier concentration is in the 1014 cm−3range. The uptake of dopants (SiH4) is strongly reduced upon pressure reduction.
The uniformity of GaAs and AIGaAs layer thickness is better than ±3 % over 3“ diameter substrates. The uniformity of composition (measurer on HEMT structures) is better than ± 1 % across 98 % of the wafer areas (± 0.5 % across 75 %). Also the reproducibility is better than 1 %. Results on the uniformity of dopant distribution will also be presented.
HEMT structures grown at low pressure conditions show mobilities of 100,000 cm2/Vs at 77 K and over 210,000 cm2/Vs at 20 K (ns= 6×1011 cm−2, spacer thickness 9 nm). HEMT devices with transconductance of 330 mS/mm could be achieved.