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The near-infrared reflectance spectra of Pluto and its satellites are rich with diagnostic absorption bands of ices of CH4, N2, CO, H2O, and an incompletely identified ammonia-bearing molecule. Following years of investigation of the spectra of Pluto and Charon with ground-based telescopes, NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft obtained spectral maps of these bodies and three small satellites on its passage through the system on July 14, 2015, showing the distribution of these ices, as well as a colored, non-ice component. Spectral modeling mapped the distribution of the various ices and showed their abundance and mixing details in relationship to regions of differing surface elevation, albedo, and geologic structure. Additionally, owing to their greatly different degrees of volatility, the ices of Pluto are distributed in patterns responsive to Pluto’s climatic changes on both short and long terms. The surface of Charon is dominated spectrally by H2O ice with one or more ammoniated compounds, and three of the four very small satellites show both H2O ice and the ammonia signature.
The Critically Endangered Peruvian yellow-tailed woolly monkey Lagothrix flavicauda was presumed to only occur in the tropical montane cloud forests between the Marañón and Huallaga rivers in northern Peru. Here we report the discovery of a population to the south of its previously known range, in the Región Junín. During September–December 2018 we carried out transect surveys to record large mammals present near the village of San Antonio in the district of Pampa Hermosa, at 1,287–2,015 m altitude. We recorded five primate species during transect surveys. Lagothrix flavicauda was seen four times, and appeared phenotypically distinct from populations to the north, with notable white patches above each eye and a reduced yellow patch at the end of the tail. The presence of L. flavicauda in Junín extends its known geographical range over 200 km southwards from the closest previously known population in the Huánuco region, and presents a unique opportunity for the conservation of this Critically Endangered species.
Stellarator configurations with reactor relevant energetic particle losses are constructed by simultaneously optimizing for quasisymmetry and an analytically derived metric (
), which attempts to align contours of the second adiabatic invariant,
with magnetic surfaces. Results show that with this optimization scheme it is possible to generate quasihelically symmetric equilibria on the scale of ARIES-CS which completely eliminate all collisionless alpha particle losses within normalized radius
. We show that the best performance is obtained by reducing losses at the trapped–passing boundary. Energetic particle transport can be improved even when neoclassical transport, as calculated using the metric
, is degraded. Several quasihelically symmetric equilibria with different aspect ratios are presented, all with excellent energetic particle confinement.
Flaviviruses include many viruses causing encephalitis, including West Nile encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. Human pegivirus genotype-1 (HPgV-1) is a lesser known member of the Flaviviridae family and has been identified in human serum, cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue. Here, we describe two adult patients with fatal HPgV-1-associated encephalitis. Neuroimaging revealed multifocal lesions, initially present in the periventricular and brain stem white matter, then one year later throughout the corona radiata bilaterally with marked involvement of the brainstem and cervical spinal cord. Phylogenetic analyses of HPgV-1 showed clustering of brain-derived sequences from both patients with other human pegiviruses. In both patients, a novel 87-nucleotide deletion in the viral NS2 gene was detected. The presence of positive and negative strand HPgV-1 RNA and viral antigens in both patients indicated viral persistence and replication in the CNS. Autopsy showed lymphocyte infiltration and gliosis predominantly in white matter of the brain and brain stem but, to a lesser extent, also in grey matter. Immunofluorescence revealed HPgV-1 NS5A antigen in lymphocytes as well as in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Thus, we hypothesize that the novel deletion in the NS2 coding region may have caused HPgV-1 neuroadaptation or might represent a yet unrecognized genotype of human pegivirus.
This presentation will enable the learner to:
1.Describe the clinical and neuropathological features of fatal human pegivirus-associated encephalitis
2.Recognize the importance of molecular analysis in encephalitis cases with unknown etiology
To examine factors that influence decision-making, preferences, and plans related to advance care planning (ACP) and end-of-life care among persons with dementia and their caregivers, and examine how these may differ by race.
13 geographically dispersed Alzheimer’s Disease Centers across the United States.
431 racially diverse caregivers of persons with dementia.
Survey on “Care Planning for Individuals with Dementia.”
The respondents were knowledgeable about dementia and hospice care, indicated the person with dementia would want comfort care at the end stage of illness, and reported high levels of both legal ACP (e.g., living will; 87%) and informal ACP discussions (79%) for the person with dementia. However, notable racial differences were present. Relative to white persons with dementia, African American persons with dementia were reported to have a lower preference for comfort care (81% vs. 58%) and lower rates of completion of legal ACP (89% vs. 73%). Racial differences in ACP and care preferences were also reflected in geographic differences. Additionally, African American study partners had a lower level of knowledge about dementia and reported a greater influence of religious/spiritual beliefs on the desired types of medical treatments. Notably, all respondents indicated that more information about the stages of dementia and end-of-life health care options would be helpful.
Educational programs may be useful in reducing racial differences in attitudes towards ACP. These programs could focus on the clinical course of dementia and issues related to end-of-life care, including the importance of ACP.
In Germany all keepers of livestock are legally required to record animal welfare indicators as part of their on-farm self-assessment. The Association for Technology and Structures in Agriculture (Kuratorium für Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft e.V. (KTBL)) has suggested the use of a particular set of animal welfare indicators in their publication Animal welfare indicators: Practical guide – Pigs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the inter-observer reliability (Inter-OR) and intra-observer reliability (Intra-OR) of these indicators with respect to the welfare of fattening pigs. For the assessment of Inter-OR, three observers evaluated six KTBL animal welfare indicators. The Inter-OR of the indicators was calculated from the results using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). ‘Excellent’ Inter-OR results were found for the indicators tail length (ICC 0.89), skin lesions (ICC 0.77) and ear lesions (ICC 0.80). In contrast, the Inter-OR of the indicators tail lesions (ICC 0.46) and faecal soiling (ICC 0.47) were considered to be only ‘fair’ and that of the indicator lameness (ICC 0.36) as ‘poor’. For the evaluation of the Intra-OR, the same three observers assessed the welfare of 162 to 200 fattening pigs using the same welfare indicators in total eight times. Again ICCs, here per indicator and observer, were used to calculate the Intra-OR. The Intra-OR of the indicators faecal soiling (ICC 0.81) and ear lesions (ICC 0.97) lay in the ‘excellent’ range on average. While the Intra-OR of the indicators skin lesions (ICC 0.67), tail length (ICC 0.74) and lameness (ICC 0.60) could still be considered as being ‘good’, the Intra-OR of the indicator tail lesions (ICC 0.52) could only be assessed as being ‘fair’. From these results the significance of the KTBL indicators could be judged as follows: it is possible to use all the chosen indicators apart from the indicator tail lesions as an internal controlling instrument or as part of an internal weak-point analysis as long as the indicators are evaluated by the same person. A comparison of the indicators tail lesions, lameness and faecal soiling when assessed by different observers should be considered critically because the Inter-OR of these three indicators could only be considered as being ‘poor’ to ‘fair’.
The main objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate a nutrition education curriculum to enhance young children’s dietary behaviours and nutrition and health knowledge.
A randomized controlled design was utilized. The intervention was designed to improve children’s nutrition and health knowledge and preferences for fruits and vegetables through classroom lessons and activities, including direct instruction and tastings (implemented twice per week for 6 weeks).
The study took place in elementary schools in a Midwestern US state.
One hundred and thirty-one 2nd grade children from ten classrooms (n 82 intervention, n 49 control) participated.
Multiple regression analyses that adjusted se for clustering by classroom were used to test hypotheses. Children in the intervention condition demonstrated significantly higher scores on the nutrition and health survey (β=0·47, P=0·001) and showed greater preferences for fruits and vegetables at post-test than the control group (β=0·19, P=0·003).
Findings suggest that a short, 6-week intervention that aligns with educational standards has the ability to significantly enhance children’s outcomes and thus may be a more feasible option for teachers to incorporate into their classrooms than what is currently available.
Nurse sow strategies are used to manage large litters on commercial pig farms. However, new-born piglets transferred to nurse sows in late lactation might be compromised in terms of growth and survival. We investigated the effects of two nurse sow strategies on piglet growth, suckling behaviour and sow nursing behaviour. At 1-day post-farrowing, the four heaviest piglets from large litters were transferred to a nurse sow either 21 (1STEP21, n=9 litters) or 7 (2STEP7, n=10 litters) days into lactation. The remainder of the litter remained with their mother and was either kept intact (remain intact (RI), n=10 litters) or had some piglets cross-fostered to equalise birth weights (remain equalised (RE), n=9 litters). The 7-day-old piglets from 2STEP7 were transferred onto a sow 21 days into lactation (2STEP21, n=10 litters). The growth of new-born piglets on 1STEP21 and 2STEP7 nurse sows was initially lower than in RI litters (F3,33.8=4.61; P<0.01), but weaning weights did not significantly differ (F4,32.7=0.78; P>0.5). After the 1st week of lactation, the weights and growth rates did not differ between treatments. Fighting behaviour during nursing bouts decreased over time. The frequency of fights was higher in 1STEP21 and 2STEP21 litters compared with RI litters (t122=3.06 and t123=3.00, respectively, P<0.05). The 2STEP21 litters had shorter nursing bouts than RI and 1STEP21 litters (t107=−2.81 and t81.7=2.8, respectively, P<0.05), which were more frequently terminated by 2STEP21 than RI sows (t595=2.93; P<0.05). Transferring heaviest piglets from RI and RE litters to nurse sows reduced the percentage of teat changes during nursing bouts (RI: F1,275=16.61; RE: F1,308=43.59; P<0.001). In conclusion, nurse sow strategies do not appear to compromise piglet growth. However, new-born piglets transferred onto sows in late lactation experienced more competition at the udder, suggesting that the sows’ stage of lactation is of importance to how achievable nurse sow strategies are. Thus, the two-step nurse sow strategy is likely the best option (in relation to growth and suckling behaviour), as it minimises the difference between piglet age and sow stage of lactation.
Management strategies are needed to optimise the number of piglets weaned from hyper-prolific sows. Nurse sow strategies involve transferring supernumerary new-born piglets onto a sow whose own piglets are either weaned or fostered onto another sow. Such ‘nurse sows’ have extended lactations spent in farrowing crates, which could have negative implications for their welfare. This study used 47 sows, 20 of which farrowed large litters and had their biggest piglets fostered onto nurse sows which were either 1 week (2STEP7, n=9) or 3 weeks into lactation (1STEP21, n=10). Sows from which piglets were removed (R) were either left with the remainder of the litter intact (I) (remain intact (RI) sows, n=10), or had their litters equalised (E) for birth weight using piglets of the same age from non-experimental sows (remain equalised (RE) sows, n=9). Piglets from 2STEP7 were fostered onto another nurse sow which was 3 weeks into lactation (2STEP21, n=9). Back-fat thickness was measured at entry to the farrowing house, at fostering (nurse sows only) and weaning. Sows were scored for ease of locomotion and skin and claw lesions at entry to the farrowing house and weaning. Salivary cortisol samples were collected and tear staining was scored at 0900 h weekly from entry until weaning. Saliva samples were also taken at fostering. Data were analysed using GLMs with appropriate random and repeated factors, or non-parametric tests were applied where appropriate. Back-fat thickness decreased between entry and weaning for all sows (F1,42=26.59, P<0.001) and tended to differ between treatments (F4,16=2.91; P=0.06). At weaning RI sows had lower limb lesion scores than 2STEP7 and RE sows (χ24=10.8, P<0.05). No treatment effects were detected on salivary cortisol concentrations (P>0.05) and all nurse sows had a higher salivary cortisol concentration at fostering, compared with the other days (F10,426=3.47; P<0.05). Acute effects of fostering differed between nurse sow treatments (F2,113=3.45, P<0.05); 2STEP7 sows had a higher salivary cortisol concentration than 1STEP21 and 2STEP21 sows on the day of fostering. 2STEP7 sows had a higher salivary cortisol concentration at fostering, compared with 1STEP21 and 2STEP21 sows. Tear staining scores were not influenced by treatment (P>0.05). In conclusion, no difference was detected between nurse sows and non-nurse sows in body condition or severity of lesions. Although some nurse sows experienced stress at fostering, no long-term effect of the nurse sow strategies was detected on stress levels compared with sows that raised their own litter.
Background: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) accounts for approximately 20% of pediatric epilepsy cases. Of those, many are considered medically intractable and require surgical interventions. In this study, we hypothesized that mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) was less common in patients who had undergone surgery for intractable pediatric TLE than in adult series. We further hypothesized that there was a radiological and pathological discordance in identifying the cause of pediatric TLE. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of pediatric patients with TLE who had undergone surgical treatments as part of the University of Alberta’s Comprehensive Epilepsy Program between 1988 and 2018. Along with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports, post-surgical pathology results and seizure outcomes were studied Results: Of the 83 pediatric patients who had undergone temporal lobe epilepsy surgery, 28% had tumors, 22% had dual pathologies, 18% had MTS, 11% had focal cortical dysplasia, and 22% had other pathologies. In addition, for 36% of these patients, discordance between their pre-surgical MRI reports and post-surgical pathology reports were found. Conclusions: This was one of the largest retrospective cohort studies of pediatric patients who had undergone surgery for intractable TLE. This study showed that tumors, and not MTS, were the most common pathology in surgical pediatric TLE.
Through this study we aimed to assess the educational level and employment status of adults with CHD in Germany.
Data were acquired from an online survey carried out in 2015 by the German National Register for Congenital Heart Defects. A total of 1458 adults with CHD participated in the survey (response rate: 37.6%). For 1198 participants, detailed medical information, such as main cardiac diagnosis and information from medical reports, was available.
Of the participants surveyed (n=1198), 54.5% (n=653) were female, and the mean age was 30 years. The majority of respondents (59.4%) stated that they had high education levels and that they were currently employed (51.1%). Patients with simple CHD had significantly higher levels of education (p<0.001) and were more likely to be employed (p=0.01) than were patients with complex CHD.
More than half of the participants had high education levels and the majority were employed. The association between CHD and its severity and individuals’ educational attainment should be investigated more closely in future studies.
Numerous recent studies of lichenized fungi have uncovered hidden genetic diversity within a single phenotypic entity (so-called ‘cryptic species’). Here we report the opposite situation with vastly different morphologies apparently deriving from the same genotype. Endocena is a monotypic genus known only from southern South America. The single reported species, the terricolous E. informis, is morphologically variable; the type and other collections from the west coast of Chile being subfruticose, whereas specimens from further south and east are almost crustose in form. A sorediate terricolous lichen that is frequent on the Falkland Islands was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of ITS rDNA and mtSSU rDNA sequences as being congeneric with E. informis and, surprisingly, both taxa were recovered as congeneric with the recently described genus and species Chirleja buckii, which is morphologically distinct from both E. informis and the sorediate taxon. Consequently, the genus Chirleja is included in the synonymy of Endocena and the new combination Endocena buckii is proposed. Because E. informis and the sorediate specimens have a similar thallus structure that differs radically from that of E. buckii, the name E. informis var. falklandica is proposed for the sorediate taxon. Poorly developed, incipient apothecia are also described from both varieties of E. informis, the first time that these have been reported for Endocena. We also report two lichenicolous fungi from E. informis var. informis, which are the first reports of lichenicolous fungi occurring on this genus.
We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) carriage in slaughterhouse workers and the association with occupational exposure to slaughter animals and products. Stool samples from 334 employees in a Dutch pig slaughterhouse were obtained. Presence of ESBL was determined by selective plating, microarray analysis, and gene sequencing. Questionnaires were used to collect personal and occupational information. The overall prevalence of ESBL carriage was 4·8% (16/334). All ESBL-producing isolates were Escherichia coli. The ESBL genes detected were blaCTX-M-1 (n = 8), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 3), blaCTX-M-27 (n = 2), blaCTX-M-24 (n = 1), blaCTX-M-55 (n = 1), and blaSHV-12 (n = 1). A higher prevalence of ESBL was seen in workers in jobs with as tasks ‘removal of lungs, heart, liver, tongue’ (33%), and ‘removal of head and spinal cord’ (25%). For further analysis, participants were divided in two groups based on potential exposure to ESBL as related to their job title. One group with an assumed higher exposure to ESBL (e.g. stable work, stabbing, dehairing, removal of organs) and another group with an assumed lower exposure to ESBL (e.g. refrigeration, packaging and expedition). In the ‘higher exposure’ group, ten out of 95 (10·5%) were carrying ESBL vs. six out of 233 (2·6%) in the ‘lower exposure’ group. Human ESBL carriage was significantly associated with job exposure in the slaughterhouse (OR 4·5, CI 1·6–12·6). Results suggest that ESBL carriage in slaughterhouse workers overall is comparable with the Dutch population. Within the slaughterhouse population a difference in carriage exists depending on their position along the slaughter line and tasks involved.
This practical manual provides a comprehensive yet concise guide to state-of-the-art molecular techniques and their applications. It starts with an overview of the essential principles of molecular techniques, followed by separate chapters detailing the use of these techniques in particular tissues and organs, and describing recommended treatment plans. Each chapter covers the tests available, their advantages, limitations, and use as diagnostic and prognostic tools, with key learning points at the end of each topic. Using both histologic and cytologic samples, it discusses how to interpret test results in a pathologic context and enables trainees and practising pathologists to gain an in-depth understanding of molecular diagnostic techniques and how to incorporate them into routine diagnostic practice. Aiding the daily practice of refining diagnosis, as well as offering a didactic approach, this book is an essential reference for practising pathologists and cytopathologists as well as trainees in pathology.