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Implicit memories like consumption habits and conditioned reactions to drug-related stimuli are operational in addiction and relapse. The affective startle paradigm is an attractive tool for the measurement of the incentive salience of drug-related cues. We tested whether the stronger appetitive valence of drug cues, shown in two recent startle studies in smokers, does persist after prolonged abstinence, and may thus contribute to relapse.
We examined the auditory startle reflex magnitude of mildly deprived (4-6 hours) heavy smokers (n = 24), former smokers (n = 16, mean abstinence interval 18 months), and non-smokers (n = 24) while they viewed smoking-related scenes or standardized unpleasant, neutral and pleasant control scenes from the International Affective Picture System.
As expected, non-smokers showed no appetitive reactions toward smoking-cues. In smokers, smoking-cues had both appetitive implicit (startle suppression) and explicit (ratings for valence and craving) motivational effects, resembling those of pleasant scenes and differing from neutral and unpleasant scenes. This effect was more pronounced in smokers who later relapsed after a smoking cessation program, and in smokers consuming less than 20 cigarettes per day. Former smokers, despite reporting no craving and negative reactions to smoking cues, still showed evidence of implicit appetitive valence of these cues.
Nicotine addiction results in automatic appetitive reactions to drug-cues, which does not vanish after prolonged abstinence and which may thus contribute to relapses. Heavy smoking may result in a progressive internalization of smoking habits and a decline in reactivity towards external smoking-associated cues.
Intermetallic titanium aluminides solidifying via the disordered β-phase are of great interest for several high-temperature applications in automotive and aircraft industries. In this paper the thermocyclic oxidation behavior of three β-solidifying γ-TiAl-based alloys at 800°C and 900°C in air, with and without fluorine treatment, is reported for the first time. The behavior of the well-known TNM alloy (Ti-43.5Al-4Nb-1Mo-0.1B, in at.%) is compared with that of two Nb-free model alloys which contain different amounts of Mo (Ti-44Al-3Mo and Ti-44Al-7Mo, in at.%). During thermocyclic high-temperature exposure in air a mixed oxide scale develops on all three untreated alloys. Small additions of fluorine in the subsurface region of the alloys change the oxidation mechanism from mixed oxide scale formation to alumina at both temperatures. The oxidation resistance of the fluorine treated samples was significantly improved compared to the untreated samples.
Orthorhombic titanium-based Ti2AlNb alloys cannot be used above a temperature limit of about 800°C due to accelerated oxidation and environmental embrittlement. This embrittlement is caused by the high oxygen solubility which deteriorates the mechanical properties. Even if these materials possess an Al content up to ca. 25at.% no protective alumina layer is formed. Instead a non-protective fast growing mixed scale is found. Several attempts have been made to increase their operation temperature e.g. by coatings but none has proven sufficiently protective so far. One new way presented in this paper is to enrich Al in a narrow surface zone by using a powder pack process (aluminization) followed by a fluorination step. Exposure tests at elevated temperature have shown that the aluminized specimens form an alumina layer during exposure in oxidizing environments. Due to the gradient in the Al-concentration interdiffusion with the substrate and the Al-rich diffusion zone occurs which lowers the Al concentration in the diffusion zone. If the Al content drops below a critical value, Ti oxides will also form, which deteriorates the protection provided by the alumina scale. The subsequent fluorination triggers the fluorine effect which stabilizes the protective alumina layer. Untreated specimens are covered with a thick non protective scale and exhibit oxygen ingress in the subsurface zone while treated specimens reveal a thin protective alumina layer and no inward diffusion of oxygen. In this paper results of exposure tests of untreated and treated orthorhombic Ti2AlNb alloys will be presented and compared with the Nb-free α2-phase Ti3Al and Nb-containing Ti3Al-based alloys.
The use of light weight structural materials such as titanium in transport systems like aero planes leads to a significant reduction in fuel consumption. However, titanium and its alloys cannot be used at elevated temperatures above 500°C for several reasons. Today aero engine compressors are made of a mixture of light Ti- and heavy Ni-alloys. The improvement of Ti-alloys to withstand the conditions in the high pressure compressor i.e. temperatures above 500°C would enable the manufacturing of a compressor from titanium as a whole with all its associated benefits. Intermetallic TiAl-alloys are another class of light weight materials for several high temperature applications. The use of TiAl as low pressure turbine (LPT) blades in the last sections of a large jet engine could save up to 150 kg of weight. In the last sections of the LPT the temperature is quite moderate (max. 650°C). The improvement of the high temperature capability of TiAl would allow its use in hotter sections of the engine with additional weight reduction. Similarly, the response performance of TiAl-turbocharger rotors in automotive engines would be much faster compared to the heavy Ni-based alloys used today. Furthermore higher rotation speeds are possible. Due to the novel so called fluorine effect the oxidation mechanism of TiAl can be altered. Fluorine-treated TiAl-components are protected by an alumina layer formed during high temperature exposure in oxidizing environments. This effect can be transferred to Ti-base materials if they are enriched with aluminum in a thin surface zone. The concepts and the results of high temperature exposure experiments of treated Ti- and TiAl-specimens are presented in this paper. They are discussed in the view of a use for real components.
The nature of human–animal interactions is an important factor contributing to animal welfare and productivity. Reducing stress during routine husbandry procedures is likely to improve animal welfare. We examined how the type of early handling of calves affected responses to two common husbandry procedures, ear-tagging and disbudding. Forty Holstein–Friesian calves (n = 20/treatment) were exposed to one of two handling treatments daily from 1 to 5 weeks of age: (1) positive (n = 20), involving gentle handling (soft voices, slow movements, patting), and (2) negative (n = 20), involving rough handling (rough voices, rapid movements, pushing). Heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR) and behaviour (activity, tail flicking) were measured before and after ear-tagging and disbudding (2 days apart). Cortisol was measured at −20 (baseline), 20 and 40 min relative to disbudding time. There were no significant treatment differences in HR, RR or behaviour in response to either procedure. However, the following changes occurred across both treatment groups. HR increased after disbudding (by 14.7 ± 4.0 and 18.6 ± 3.8 bpm, positive and negative, respectively; mean ± s.e.m.) and ear-tagging (by 8.7 ± 3.1 and 10.3 ± 3.0 bpm, positive and negative, respectively). After disbudding, there was an increase in RR (by 8.2 ± 3.4 and 9.3 ± 3.4 breaths/min, positive and negative, respectively), overall activity (by 9.4 ± 1.2 and 9.9 ± 1.3 frequency/min, positive and negative, respectively) and tail flicking (by 13.2 ± 2.8 and 11.2 ± 3.0 frequency/min, positive and negative, respectively), and cortisol increased from baseline at 20 min post procedure (by 10.3 ± 1.1 and 12.3 ± 1.1 nmol/l positive and negative, respectively). Although we recorded significant changes in calf responses during ear-tagging and disbudding, the type of prior handling had no effect on responses. The effects of handling may have been overridden by the degree of pain and/or stress associated with the procedures. Further research is warranted to understand the welfare impact and interaction between previous handling and responses to husbandry procedures.
The potential of platy nanofillers like clays in polymer nanocomposites is mostly determined by their aspect ratio. The degree of improvement that may be achieved in respect to reinforcement, gas-barrier properties and flame retardancy critically depends on the aspect ratio. Thus, increasing the aspect ratio is highly desirable in order to explore the full potential of the clay filler. Mechanical shear stress as generated in the grinding chamber of a stirred media mill (ball mill) induced an efficient exfoliation of highly hydrated and therefore ‘shear-labile’ synthetic Mg-fluorohectorite in aqueous dispersion. The attainable degree of exfoliation can be tuned and controlled through the shear forces applied by changing process parameters such as solid content and grinding media diameter. Characterization and evaluation of the exfoliation efficiency during milling was achieved by combining and cross-validating data obtained by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), static light scattering (SLS), specific surface area measurements applying the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equation, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This led to the identification of optimal processing parameters, allowing for control of the degree of exfoliation and, consequently, the aspect ratio of the nanoplatelets. Not surprisingly, besides exfoliation, increasing the magnitude of the shear stress also resulted in some reduction in platelet size.
The clay platelets obtained showed a high average aspect ratio (>600), several times greater than that of original synthetic fluorohectorite. The increase of aspect ratio was reflected in a significant enhancement of both specific surface area and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the external basal surfaces. This method has substantial advantages compared to microfluidizer processing with respect to feasibility, batch size and particle diameter size preservation. The exfoliated nanoplatelets obtained by milling have great potential to improve mechanical properties of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites (PLSN).
Enhanced acquisition and delayed extinction of fear conditioning are viewed as major determinants of anxiety disorders, which are often characterized by a dysfunctional hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis.
In this study we employed cued fear conditioning in two independent samples of healthy subjects (sample 1: n=60, sample 2: n=52). Two graphical shapes served as conditioned stimuli and painful electrical stimulation as the unconditioned stimulus. In addition, guided by findings from published animal studies on HPA axis-related genes in fear conditioning, we examined variants of the glucocorticoid receptor and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 genes.
Variation in these genes showed enhanced amygdala activation during the acquisition and reduced prefrontal activation during the extinction of fear as well as altered amygdala–prefrontal connectivity.
This is the first demonstration of the involvement of genes related to the HPA axis in human fear conditioning.
Above 750-800°C oxidation becomes a serious life time issue for the new group of intermetallic light-weight high temperature alloys based on titanium aluminides (TiAl). Fast growing titanium oxide competes with protective alumina as a surface scale in the oxidation reaction by which the formation of a slow-growing protective oxide scale is prevented. The key to the development of alloys with sufficient oxidation resistance is the understanding of the thermodynamic and kinetic situation during the oxidation process. The latter is influenced by the type of alloying elements, the Al- and Ti-activities in the alloy, the oxidation temperature and the environment (e.g. dry or humid air, etc.). This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the oxidation mechanisms and the parameters influencing oxide scale formation. Besides the role of metallic alloying elements, the halogen effect will also be discussed. The paper finishes with recent results concerning the prevention of oxidation-induced room temperature embrittlement of TiAl alloys.
Intermetallic titanium aluminides are potential materials for application in high temperature components. In particular, alloys solidifying via the β-phase are of great interest because they possess a significant volume fraction of the disordered body-centered cubic β-phase at elevated temperatures ensuring good processing characteristics during hot-working. Nevertheless, their practical use at temperatures as high as 800°C requires improvements of the oxidation resistance. This paper reports on the fluorine effect on a multi-phase TiAl-alloy in the cast and hot-isostatically pressed condition at 800°C in air. The behavior of the so-called TNM material (Ti-43.5Al-4Nb-1Mo-0.1B, in at %) was compared with that of two other TiAl-alloys which are Nb-free and contain different amounts of Mo (3 and 7 at%, respectively). The oxidation resistance of the fluorine treated samples was significantly improved compared to the untreated samples. After fluorine treatment all alloys exhibit slow alumina kinetics indicating a positive fluorine effect. Results of isothermal and thermocyclic oxidation tests at 800°C in air are presented and discussed in the view of composition and microstructure of the TiAl-alloys investigated, along with the impact of the fluorine effect on the oxidation resistance of these materials.
Studies have suggested that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of CVD and premature mortality in individuals with diabetes mellitus. However, history of alcohol consumption has hardly been taken into account. We investigated the association between current alcohol consumption and mortality in men and women with diabetes mellitus accounting for past alcohol consumption. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a cohort was defined of 4797 participants with a confirmed diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Men and women were assigned to categories of baseline and past alcohol consumption. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for total mortality were estimated with multivariable Cox regression models, using light alcohol consumption (>0–6 g/d) as the reference category. Compared with light alcohol consumption, no relationship was observed between consumption of 6 g/d or more and total mortality. HR for >6–12 g/d was 0·89 (95 % CI 0·61, 1·30) in men and 0·86 (95 % CI 0·46, 1·60) in women. Adjustment for past alcohol consumption did not change the estimates substantially. In individuals who at baseline reported abstaining from alcohol, mortality rates were increased relative to light consumers: HR was 1·52 (95 % CI 0·99, 2·35) in men and 1·81 (95 % CI 1·04, 3·17) in women. The present study in diabetic individuals showed no association between current alcohol consumption >6 g/d and mortality risk compared with light consumption. The increased mortality risk among non-consumers appeared to be affected by their past alcohol consumption rather than their current abstinence.
Increasing demands on technical components for high-temperature applications (e.g. tur-bine blades) promote new developments not only in the field of alloy design, but also in surface engineering. This paper shows that it is possible to structure the surface of intermetallic titanium aluminides in-situ by locally controlled oxidation of the material due to selective doping with fluorine. The aim is to reproduce a shark-skin pattern (parallel riblets with valleys in between) in order to improve the surface aerodynamics. Riblets with widths in the single digit μm range have been generated. The nucleation process, the aspect ratio and the stability of the generated micro-structures are discussed as a function of the substrate composition and the oxidation conditions.
Intermetallic TiAl-alloys can replace the heavier Ni-based superalloys in several high temperature applications with regards to their mechanical properties, however they can not be used at temperatures above 800°C in oxidizing environments for longer times because of insufficient oxidation resistance. Despite an Al-content of about 45 at.% in technical alloys, no protective alumina layer is formed because the thermodynamic stabilities of titanium oxide and aluminum oxide are of the same order of magnitude. Therefore a mixed TiO2/Al2O3-scale is formed which is fast growing so that the metal consumption rate is quite high. On the other hand the formation of a slow growing alumina layer is promoted by a fluorine treatment. This so called fluorine effect leads to the preferential intermediate formation of gaseous aluminum fluorides at elevated temperatures if the fluorine content at the surface stays within a defined concentration range. These fluorides are converted into solid Al2O3 due to the high oxygen partial pressure of the high temperature service environment forming a protective pure Al2O3 surface scale. In this paper results of high temperature oxidations tests of several technical TiAl-alloys will be presented. Different F-treatments e.g. dipping or spaying which are easy to apply have been used and their results will be compared. The mass change data of the F-treated specimens are always lower than those of the untreated ones. Post experimental investigations such as light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis reveal the formation of a thin alumina layer on the F-treated samples after optimization of the process while a thick mixed scale is found on the untreated samples. The results will be discussed in view of an optimized procedure and the future use of TiAl-components in high temperature environments.
Two body condition scoring systems were compared for assessing body condition of cows at the Scottish Agricultural College's Crichton Royal Farm. The weekly body condition scores (BCS) were collected for a period of 12 weeks (5 September–21 November). Scores were obtained using the primary systems utilized within the UK and USA. The USBCS were obtained by the same evaluator each week, while the UKBCS were obtained by two different evaluators alternating between weeks. Paired scores (n=2088) between the two systems within week were moderately correlated (r=0·75, P<0·0001). Regression equations to convert scores between the two systems were created using the GLM procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary NC, USA). The simple GLM models to convert from UK to US scores and US to UK scores were USBCS=1·182+0·816 * UKBCS (R2=0·56) and UKBCS=0·131+0·681 (R2=0·56), respectively. These equations may be used to interpret scores within the literature obtained using these two BCS systems, although they must be used with caution.
Time spent lying by lactating Holstein-Friesian cows of varying body condition scores (BCS) and milk yield was measured using an animal activity monitor. A 3-week average BCS was calculated for each cow; and in total, 84 cows were selected with 28 cows each among three BCS categories (Thin: BCS<2·75; Moderate: 2·75⩾BCS<3·25; Heavy: BCS⩾3·25) and two stage of lactation categories (<150 days in milk or >150 days in milk). Cows were kept in two management systems: parlour/freestall (n=60) or automated milking system/freestall (n=24). Behaviour was recorded for 5·3±0·1 d for each cow. Production levels were considered using a 28-d rolling average of daily milk production. Cows that exhibited clinical lameness before or during the observation period were excluded from analyses. For cows exhibiting oestrus, the day prior to, day of, and day following breeding were removed. The final analysis included 77 cows (408 d of observation). A mixed model was fitted to describe average daily hours spent lying. Results demonstrated that lying time increased as days in milk (DIM) increased (P=0·05). Variables that were tested but not significant (P>0·05) were BCS category, parity category (1 or ⩾2) and 28-d rolling average daily milk production. Although a numerical trend for increasing hours spent lying with increasing BCS was observed, after accounting for other factors in the mixed model, BCS did not significantly impact lying time. Continued investigation of these management factors that impact lying time and bouts, using new technologies, more cows, and more herds will help dairy owners better manage facilities and cow movements to optimize this essential behaviour.