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Many researchers in geometric functional analysis are unaware of algebraic aspects of the subject and the advances they have permitted in the last half century. This book, written by two world experts on homological methods in Banach space theory, gives functional analysts a new perspective on their field and new tools to tackle its problems. All techniques and constructions from homological algebra and category theory are introduced from scratch and illustrated with concrete examples at varying levels of sophistication. These techniques are then used to present both important classical results and powerful advances from recent years. Finally, the authors apply them to solve many old and new problems in the theory of (quasi-) Banach spaces and outline new lines of research. Containing a lot of material unavailable elsewhere in the literature, this book is the definitive resource for functional analysts who want to know what homological algebra can do for them.
Older subjects are susceptible to develop gambling problems, and researchers have attempted to assess the mechanisms underlying the gambling profile in later life. The objective of this study was to identify the main stressful life events (SLE) across the lifespan which have discriminative capacity for detecting the presence of gambling disorder (GD) in older adults. Data from two independent samples of individuals aged 50+ were analysed: N = 47 patients seeking treatment at a Pathological Gambling Outpatient Unit and N = 361 participants recruited from the general population. Sexual problems (p < 0.001), exposure to domestic violent behaviour (p < 0.001), severe financial problems (p = 0.002), alcohol or drug-related problems (p = 0.004) and extramarital sex (p < 0.001) were related to a higher risk of GD, while getting married (p = 0.005), moving to a new home (p = 0.003) and moving to a new city (p = 0.006) decreased the likelihood of disordered gambling. The accumulated number of SLE was not a predictor of the presence of GD (p = 0.732), but patients who met clinical criteria for GD reported higher concurrence of SLE in time than control individuals (p < 0.001). Empirical research highlights the need to include older age groups in evidence-based policies for gambling prevention, because these individuals are at high risk of onset and/or progression of behavioural addiction-related problems such as GD. The results of this study may be useful for developing reliable screening/diagnostic tools and for planning effective early intervention programmes aimed to reduce the harm related to the onset and evolution of problem gambling in older adults.
The aim of this study was to assess body shape trajectories in childhood and midlife in relation to subsequent risk of breast cancer in a Mediterranean cohort.
The SUN Project is a dynamic prospective cohort study of university graduates initiated in 1999. With a group-based modelling approach, we assessed body shape trajectories from age 5 to 40 years. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for breast cancer after the age of 40 years according to the body shape trajectory.
City of Pamplona, in the North of Spain.
6498 women with a mean age of 40 years (standard deviation: 9 years).
We identified four distinct body shape trajectories [‘childhood lean-midlife increase’ (19.9%), ‘childhood medium-midlife stable’ (53%), ‘childhood heavy-midlife stable’ (21%), and ‘childhood heavy-midlife increase’ (6.1%)]. Among 54,978 women-years of follow-up, we confirmed 82 incident cases of breast cancer. Women in the ‘childhood lean-midlife increase’ group showed a higher risk of breast cancer (HR=1.84, 95%CI 1.11, 3.04) compared to women in the ‘childhood medium-midlife stable’ category. This association was stronger for postmenopausal breast cancer (HR=2.42, 95%CI 1.07, 5.48).
This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
This chapter dissects the opening sequences of Skyfall (2012) in Istanbul and Spectre (2015) in Mexico City in order to argue that Eon's predilection for runaway productions has begun began to influence the textual composition of the James Bond film series. Eon Productions often modifies the narratives and settings of its Bond features in order to exploit the increasingly global availability of funding schemes, tax incentives, and cheap labor, and to secure, on a global scale, profitable distribution deals, enhanced visibility, and greater revenues from merchandizing. In the process, the Bondian runaway production fashions a colonial imaginary of exotic non-places, which has since long been a staple of the brand of Bond.
Keywords: runaway production; Global South; exoticism; non-place; Mexico City; Istanbul
From the outset, the James Bond film series was conceived as a runaway production. Bond-producer Harry Saltzman, a Canadian born in Quebec, relocated to the United Kingdom in the mid-1950s, where he founded Woodfall Film Productions with director Tony Richardson and writer John Osborne in 1958, famously engendering a wave of British Kitchen Sink classics such as Look Back in Anger (UK: Tony Richardson, 1959). In 1961, while at Woodfall, Saltzman secured an option on nine Bond novels from Ian Fleming but struggled to complete the financing for the films. It is at this stage that the second producer of the Bond film series, Albert R. Broccoli, an Italian-American hailing from New York, entered the picture. Broccoli moved to the United Kingdom in the early 1950s, setting up Warwick Films with Irving Allen in 1951. Warwick's base in the UK granted Broccoli and Allen the distinct benefits of a “runaway production:” it enabled the duo to circumvent the British quota requirement; to tap into the resources of the Eady Levy, a British fund that subsidized domestic film production through a tax imposed on ticket sales; to bypass tax regulations in the United States; to hire high-skilled laborers that were considerably cheaper than those available in Hollywood; and to retain creative freedom in the production process.
Background:Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is the third etiologic agent of healthcare associated infections, and the most frequent pathogen in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). In critical care units is associated with high mortality, long hospital stay, and high healthcare-associated costs. We evaluated the effectiveness of filter placement in the water taps in critical care units to prevent the occurrence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIa) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods: This experimental study was both cross-over and open-label in nature. We included patients admitted for >24 hours in critical care units over 24 months. The study was divided into 4 periods of 6 months each. We divided the study into 2 groups: patients in units with filters and patients in units without filters. We compared the incidence density of P. aeruginosa HAIs (number of cases divided by the number of person days) according the ECDC definition of case criteria between the groups. The 2 test was used, and the magnitude of the association was calculated as a rate ratio with a 95% confidence interval, adjusted using a Poisson regression model. Results: Overall, 1,132 patients were included in the study: 595 in units with water tap filters and 537 in units without water tap filters. HAI incidence among patients in units with water tap filters was 5.3 per 1,000 person days stay; without water tap filters, HAI incidence was 4.7 per 1,000 person days stay (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.47–1.90). Conclusions: The preliminary results of this study indicate a a lower incidence of P. aeruginosa HAIs in units with filters placed in water taps than in units without filters.
In this work, the first nonlinear particle-in-cell simulations carried out in a stellarator with the global gyrokinetic code EUTERPE using adiabatic electrons and realistic plasma parameters are reported. Several studies are conducted with the aim of enabling reliable nonlinear simulations in stellarators with this code. First, EUTERPE is benchmarked against ORB5 in both linear and nonlinear settings in a tokamak configuration. Next, the use of noise control and stabilization tools, a Krook-type collision operator, markers’ weight smoothing and heating sources is investigated. It is studied in detail how these tools influence the linear growth rate of instabilities in both tokamak and stellarator geometries, and their influence on the linear zonal flow evolution in a stellarator. Then, it is studied how these tools allow improvement of the quality of the results in a set of nonlinear simulations of electrostatic turbulence in a stellarator configuration. Finally, these tools are applied to a W7-X magnetic configuration using experimental plasma parameters.
TiO2-(B)/SnO2 nanostructured composites have been prepared by the combination of an oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion reaction method (MRM) and a hydrothermal method. Its electrochemical properties were investigated as anode materials in lithium-ion battery, and characterization was carried out by XRD, BET, Raman, FE-SEM, EDXS, and TEM. The as-prepared composites consisted of monoclinic phase TiO2-(B) nanoribbons decorated with cassiterite structure SnO2 nanoparticles. The electrochemical performance of the TiO2-(B)/SnO2 50/50 nanocomposite electrode showed higher reversible capacity of 265 mAh/g than that of the pure SnO2 electrode, 79 mAh/g, after 50 cycles at 0.1 C in a voltage range of 0.01-3.0 V at room temperature. In addition, the coulombic efficiency of the TiO2-(B)/SnO2 50/50 nanocomposite remains at an average greater than 90% from the 2nd to the 50th cycles. The TiO2-(B)/SnO2 50/50 nanocomposite presented the best balance between the mechanical support effect provided by TiO2-(B) that also contributes to the LIB capacity and the SnO2 that provides high specific capacity.
The early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and ongoing efforts for mitigation underscore the importance of universal travel and symptom screening. We analyzed adherence to documentation of travel and symptom screening through a travel navigator tool with clinical decision support to identify patients at risk for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome.
Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) produced and released by eructation to the atmosphere in large volumes by ruminants. Enteric CH4 contributes significantly to global GHG emissions arising from animal agriculture. It has been contended that tropical grasses produce higher emissions of enteric CH4 than temperate grasses, when they are fed to ruminants. A number of experiments have been performed in respiration chambers and head-boxes to assess the enteric CH4 mitigation potential of foliage and pods of tropical plants, as well as nitrates (NO3−) and vegetable oils in practical rations for cattle. On the basis of individual determinations of enteric CH4 carried out in respiration chambers, the average CH4 yield for cattle fed low-quality tropical grasses (>70% ration DM) was 17.0 g CH4/kg DM intake. Results showed that when foliage and ground pods of tropical trees and shrubs were incorporated in cattle rations, methane yield (g CH4/kg DM intake) was decreased by 10% to 25%, depending on plant species and level of intake of the ration. Incorporation of nitrates and vegetable oils in the ration decreased enteric CH4 yield by ∼6% to ∼20%, respectively. Condensed tannins, saponins and starch contained in foliages, pods and seeds of tropical trees and shrubs, as well as nitrates and vegetable oils, can be fed to cattle to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions under smallholder conditions. Strategies for enteric CH4 mitigation in cattle grazing low-quality tropical forages can effectively increase productivity while decreasing enteric CH4 emissions in absolute terms and per unit of product (e.g. meat, milk), thus reducing the contribution of ruminants to GHG emissions and therefore to climate change.
Is darker skin pigmentation associated with less favorable social and political outcomes in Latin America? We leverage data from 18 Latin American countries across multiple survey waves to demonstrate the robust and potent negative relationship between the darkness of skin tone and socio-economic status. Then we examine the relationship between skin color and attitudes toward the political system. In spite of our substantial sample size, we find little support for the expectation that respondents with darker skin are less favorably disposed toward the political system—indeed, on balance, our findings run counter to this expectation. Our findings suggest that the socio-economic “pigmentocracy” that pervades the region does not necessarily translate into pronounced differences in attitudes about the political system. This finding casts some doubt on the expectation that social inequalities are likely to destabilize governments or undermine their legitimacy.
Mesoscale features within the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) are known to influence zooplankton dynamics. Here we describe the composition of the zooplankton assemblage off shelf during summer in relation to environmental conditions, with emphasis on hyperiid amphipods and salps. Zooplankton samples were collected in summer of 2015 and 2016 in the central and southern GOM and in the Yucatan Channel in 2015. Two anticyclonic gyres were present in the north and less intense coupled cyclonic-anticyclonic gyres in the south. Zooplankton abundances differed temporally and spatially. Copepods were the dominant group (>55% of total abundance), while several less abundant taxa contributed to inter-annual and spatial differences. Amphipods and salps comprised <3% and their abundances were positively correlated. Fifty-six hyperiid and 10 salp species were identified. The dominant amphipod species were: Lestrigonus bengalensis (summer 2015), Anchylomera blossevillei and Primno spp. juveniles (summer 2016). Dominant salp species were Ihlea punctata, Iasis cylindrica and Thalia spp. Lower salp and amphipod species richness and abundance were associated with anticyclonic structures. Spatial and temporal differences were partly associated with symbiotic relationships between the groups. This study supports previous evidence of high spatial and temporal variability in zooplankton abundance in off-shelf waters of the GOM.
Although deficits in affective processing are a core component of anorexia nervosa (AN), we lack a detailed characterization of the neurobiological underpinnings of emotion regulation impairment in AN. Moreover, it remains unclear whether these neural correlates scale with clinical outcomes.
We investigated the neural correlates of negative emotion regulation in a sample of young women receiving day-hospital treatment for AN (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 21). We aimed to determine whether aberrant brain activation patterns during emotion regulation predicted weight gain following treatment in AN patients and were linked to AN severity. To achieve this, participants completed a cognitive reappraisal paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Skin conductance response, as well as subjective distress ratings, were recorded to corroborate task engagement.
Compared to controls, patients with AN showed reduced activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) during cognitive reappraisal [pFWE<0.05, threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) corrected]. Importantly, psycho–physiological interaction analysis revealed reduced functional connectivity between the dlPFC and the amygdala in AN patients during emotion regulation (pFWE<0.05, TFCE corrected), and dlPFC-amygdala uncoupling was associated with emotion regulation deficits (r = −0.511, p = 0.018) and eating disorder severity (r = −0.565, p = .008) in the AN group. Finally, dlPFC activity positively correlated with increases in body mass index (r = 0.471, p = 0.042) and in body fat mass percentage (r = 0.605, p = 0.008) following 12 weeks of treatment.
Taken together, our findings indicate that individuals with AN present altered fronto-amygdalar response during cognitive reappraisal and that this response may serve as a predictor of response to treatment and be linked to clinical severity.
The giant gypsum crystals of Naica cave have fascinated scientists since their discovery in 2000. Human activity has changed the microclimate inside the cave, making scientists wonder about the potential environmental impact on the crystals. Over the last 9 years, we have studied approximately 70 samples. This paper reports on the detailed chemical–structural characterization of the impurities present at the surface of these crystals and the experimental simulations of their potential deterioration patterns. Selected samples were studied by petrography, optical and electronic microscopy, and laboratory X-ray diffraction. 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, X-ray μ-fluorescence, and X-ray μ-absorption near-edge structure were used to identify the impurities and their associated phases. These impurities were deposited during the latest stage of the gypsum crystal formation and have afterward evolved with the natural high humidity. The simulations of the behavior of the crystals in microclimatic chambers produced crystal dissolution by 1–4% weight fraction under high CO2 concentration and permanent fog, and gypsum phase dehydration under air and CO2 gaseous environment. Our work suggests that most surface impurities are of natural origin; the most significant anthropogenic damage on the crystals is the extraction of water from the caves.
Studies have reported an inverse association between a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and type 2 diabetes (T2D), but data on high-risk ethnic minority groups is limited. We investigated whether serum carotenoids, as biomarkers for fruit and vegetable intake, mediate ethnic differences in the prevalence of T2D.
Age-adjusted serum carotenoid concentrations were compared using ANCOVA. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using Cox regression to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95 % CI of the association between serum carotenoid concentrations and T2D. To study whether serum carotenoids potentially mediate the differences in the prevalence of T2D across ethnic groups, we compared PR of the model including known risk factors and the model additionally adjusted for serum carotenoid concentrations using the Dutch group as reference.
A study among six ethnic groups living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Data on 204 Dutch, 203 South Asian Surinamese, 204 African Surinamese, 203 Turkish and 200 Moroccan-origin participants from the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting (HELIUS) study were used.
Serum carotenoid concentrations differed across ethnic groups. After adjusting for confounders, the serum concentrations of total carotenoids (PR 0·67, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·84), α-carotene (PR 0·57, 95 % CI 0·42, 0·77), β-carotene (PR 0·45, 95 % CI 0·32, 0·63) and β-cryptoxanthin (PR 0·73, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·92) were inversely associated with T2D. Despite the associations, serum carotenoids did not mediate the ethnic differences in the prevalence of T2D.
The limited contribution of serum carotenoids to ethnic differences in T2D suggests that a focus on increasing fruit and vegetable intake alone will not likely eliminate ethnic differences in T2D prevalence.