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The design, simulations, and optimized results for a novel low specific absorption rate (SAR) monopole antenna on a single artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) cell are described in this paper. Simulated results show a reduction close to 70% in the 1 g ps SAR for the developed monopole antenna with the AMC in comparison to the monopole antenna without AMC. This allows higher radiation efficiency, battery drain reduction as well as mobile terminal user health risks reduction.
Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare but severe psychiatric disorder with important individual, family and societal consequences. Its prevalence is approximately 2 per 10.000 in the general population and the incidence of COS increases with age.
The main objective of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of COS in French medical-social institutions or psychiatric day hospitals for children and adolescents in the PACA region. The secondary objectives were:
(1) to estimate the prevalence of children with both COS and autism diagnosis,
(2) to characterize clinical and neurocognitive presentation of COS using the evaluation of intensity of positive and negative symptoms (PANSS, SANS), of thought disorganization (TLC), of cognitive functioning, and of attention and executive functions (verbal fluency, TMT A, TMT B).
Subjects were patients from medical-social and psychiatric care centers for children and adolescents in three PACA sub-regions in the south-east of France. The study included French speaking girls and boys between 7 and 18 years old, registered in a partner structure of the study, and presenting an IQ > 35 (WISC-IV). The study design was constituted by two phases: the first one was the categorical diagnostic phase using the psychosis section of the Kiddie-SADS Present and Lifetime Version. The second phase consisted of the dimensional COS diagnosis and neurocognitive exploration for the subjects fulfilling the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia.
The diagnosis of COS was not exceptional in this population. Most subjects diagnosed with COS also presented autism diagnosis and mental retardation.
Taste perception is a complex phenomenon modulated by different factors, such as taste receptors and memory brain circuitry. The palatability of the food, that activates central reward pathways, also plays an important role in taste perception. It means that taste is able to influence the choice of food and then the eating behavior.
It's well known that people with anorexia nervosa (AN) have lower sensitivity to reward stimuli and recent studies have shown that altered function of taste neural circuitry may contribute to restricted eating in AN.
The aim of this study is to evaluate, in patients suffering from AN, the activation of the brain areas involved in taste perception and in central reward mechanisms to both pleasant and aversive taste stimuli and to correlate gustatory neural circuitry activity with eating behaviors, temperament measures and/or sensitivity to reward and to punishment.
12 underweight AN patients and 12 normal-weight healthy subjects underwent a functional MRI to measure brain areas activation to repeated stimuli of a pleasant taste, a sucrose solution, alternated with an aversive taste, a bitter solution, and a water taste.
Preliminary results showed, in patients with AN, a dysfunctional activation of brain areas involved in both taste perception and reward mechanisms following both the pleasant and aversive stimulus.
These results, if confirmed in future analyses, may improve our knowledge about the pathophysiological mechanism of AN.
Taste perception is a complex phenomenon modulated by different factors, such as taste receptors and memory brain circuits. The palatability of the food, that activates the central reward pathways, also plays an important role in taste perception. It means that taste is able to influence the choice of food and then eating behaviour.
It is well known that people with anorexia nervosa (AN) have a lower sensitivity to reward stimuli and recent studies suggested that altered function of taste neural circuitry may contribute to restricted eating in AN.
The aim of this study was to evaluate, in patients suffering from AN, the activation of brain areas involved in taste perception and in central reward mechanisms to both pleasant and aversive taste stimuli and to correlate gustatory neurocircuitry activity with eating behaviours, temperament measures and/or sensitivity to reward and to punishment.
Fifteen underweight female AN patients and sixteen normal-weight healthy women underwent a functional MRI to measure brain areas activation to repeated stimuli of a pleasant taste (sucrose solution), alternated with an aversive taste (bitter solution), and water taste.
Compared to healthy controls, patients with AN showed a significantly reduced activation of left insula and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to sweet stimulus and reduced activation of right parietal cortex to bitter stimulus.
These results, if confirmed in future studies, may improve our knowledge about the pathophysiological mechanisms of AN.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The primary objective of sustainable archaeology is to maintain the profession of archaeology—that is, to sustain itself. An effort to rebrand the discipline as virtuous, sustainable archaeology is self-serving and reflects larger institutional anxieties around an unethical past and an uncertain future. An example of futurist rhetoric and doublespeak, sustainable archaeology exists because archaeology is unsustainable.
We report here for the first time the presence of Ophelimus mediterraneus sp. n. in Mediterranean Europe. This species appears to be closely related to Ophelimus maskelli, a well-known invasive pest of Eucalyptus. Based on molecular (cytochrome oxidase I, 28S), morphological (multivariate ratio analysis) and bio-ecological investigations, our study gives unambiguous relevant criteria that allow the discrimination between these two species. A full description of O. mediterraneus sp. n. is also provided. The geographic distribution of O. mediterraneus sp. n. as well as its impact on Eucalyptus species needs to be more widely assessed since its presence may have been confused with O. maskelli in their sympatric introduced areas. Further investigations of potential parasitoids in the native area may thus be welcomed to evaluate classical biological control achievability.
The Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale (EBIA) has eight general/adult items applied in all households and six additional items exclusively asked in households with children and/or adolescents (HHCA). Continuing an investigation programme on the adequacy of model-based cut-off points for EBIA, the present study aims to: (i) explore the capacity of properly stratifying HHCA according to food insecurity (FI) severity level by applying only the eight ‘generic’ items; and (ii) compare it against the fourteen-item scale.
Latent class factor analysis (LCFA) models were applied to the answers to the eight general/adult items to identify latent groups corresponding to FI levels and optimal group-separating cut-off points. Analyses involved a thorough classification agreement evaluation and were performed at the national level and by macro-regions.
Data derived from the cross-sectional Brazilian National Household Sample Survey of 2013.
A nationally representative sample of 116 543 households.
In all households and investigated domains, LCFA detected four distinct household food (in)security groups (food security and three levels of severity of FI) and the same set of cut-off points (1/2, 4/5 and 6/7). Misclassification in the aggregate data was 0·66 % in adult-only households and 1·06 % in HHCA. Comparison of the scale reduced to eight items with the ‘original’ fourteen-item scale demonstrated consistency in the classification. In HHCA, the agreement between both classifications was 96·2 %.
Results indicate the eight ‘generic’ items in HHCA can be reliably used when it is not possible to apply the fourteen-item scale.
Ironstone outcrop habitats harbour rare and endemic rupicolous plants. In southeast Brazil, they concentrate on mountaintops in the Iron Quadrangle (IQ), an intensively exploited iron ore reserve. To evaluate the current habitat availability of 32 plants endemic to canga (ironstone outcrops) and to support priority conservation areas and actions, we compared their functional connectivity in the IQ before (1960s) and after (2014) massive habitat loss to opencast mining. The Integral Index of Connectivity and associated metrics of habitat availability were used to evaluate present and past connectivity at a threshold distance of 500 m. The overall canga habitat loss up to 2014 was 50%. The historical configuration of 334 patches totalling 18 654 ha was already disconnected and the proportion of patches acting as relevant stepping stones was thus very low. Furthermore, in both the historical and current settings, the largest contribution to habitat availability came from ‘intrapatch connectivity’ (i.e., patch area), especially in the east sector. All the IQ canga endemics fall into the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Critically Endangered category and require protection. The recommended strategy for their conservation is to protect large, preferably well-preserved ironstone patches. This measure will require finding the middle ground between economic development and conservation of natural heritage.
The authors respond to the recent debate piece in Antiquity by González-Ruibal et al., which they claim misrepresents public archaeology by ignoring the dominant practice of cultural resource management (CRM).
In the current study, phage-exposed mimotopes as targets against tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) were selected by means of bio-panning cycles employing sera of TL patients and healthy subjects, besides the immune stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from untreated and treated TL patients and healthy subjects. The clones were evaluated regarding their specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in the in vitro cultures, and selectivity and specificity values were calculated, and those presenting the best results were selected for the in vivo experiments. Two clones, namely A4 and A8, were identified and used in immunization protocols from BALB/c mice to protect against Leishmania amazonensis infection. Results showed a polarized Th1 response generated after vaccination, being based on significantly higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); which were associated with lower production of specific IL-4, IL-10 and immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibodies. Vaccinated mice presented significant reductions in the parasite load in the infected tissue and distinct organs, when compared with controls. In conclusion, we presented a strategy to identify new mimotopes able to induce Th1 response in PBMCs from TL patients and healthy subjects, and that were successfully used to protect against L. amazonensis infection.
This comprehensive yet practical text reviews the pathology of neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions of the pleura and peritoneum, with a particular focus on mesothelioma. The anatomy and embryology of serous membranes are discussed, and the causes, epidemiology, and clinical and radiologic features of malignant mesothelioma are reviewed. A comprehensive review of immunostains used for diagnosing serous membrane lesions is given, current treatment options for patients are outlined. The markers of asbestos exposure and their significance are also assessed. The pathology of non-neoplastic conditions of serous membranes, from peritoneal cysts and endometriosis to deciduosis and gliomatosis peritonei are also covered, as are lymphomas and soft tissue tumors in serous membranes. This makes Practical Pathology of Serous Membranes an essential resource for effective diagnosis.
Over the period 1995–2012, the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup Y (NmY) increased significantly in Sweden. This is mainly due to the emergence of a predominant cluster named strain type YI subtype 1, belonging to the ST-23 clonal complex (cc). The aim of this study was to examine the clinical picture of patients with invasive disease caused by NmY and to analyse whether the predominant cluster exhibits certain clinical characteristics that might explain the increased incidence. In this retrospective observational study, the medical records available from patients with IMD caused by Nm serogroup Y in Sweden between 1995 and 2012 were systematically reviewed. Patient characteristics, in-hospital findings and outcome were studied and differences between the dominating cluster and other isolates were analysed. Medical records from 175 of 191 patients were retrieved. The median age was 62 years. The all-cause mortality within 30 days of admission was 9% (15/175) in the whole material; 4% (2/54) in the cohort with strain type YI subtype 1 and 11% (12/121) among patients with other isolates. Thirty-three per cent of the patients were diagnosed with meningitis, 19% with pneumonia, 10% with arthritis and 35% were found to have bacteraemia but no apparent organ manifestation. This survey included cases with an aggressive clinical course as well as cases with a relatively mild clinical presentation. There was a trend towards lower mortality and less-severe disease in the cohort with strain type YI subtype 1 compared with the group with other isolates.
The 9th meeting of the African Society of Human Genetics, in partnership with the Senegalese Cancer Research and Study Group and the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) Consortium, was held in Dakar, Senegal. The theme was Strengthening Human Genetics Research in Africa. The 210 delegates came from 21 African countries and from France, Switzerland, UK, UAE, Canada and the USA. The goal was to highlight genetic and genomic science across the African continent with the ultimate goal of improving the health of Africans and those across the globe, and to promote the careers of young African scientists in the field. A session on the sustainability of genomic research in Africa brought to light innovative and practical approaches to supporting research in resource-limited settings and the importance of promoting genetics in academic, research funding, governmental and private sectors. This meeting led to the formation of the Senegalese Society for Human Genetics.