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This study examines the relationship between paternal height or body mass index (BMI) and birth weight of their offspring in a Japanese general population. The sample included 33,448 pregnant Japanese women and used fixed data, including maternal, paternal and infant characteristics, from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS), an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study. Relationships between paternal height or BMI and infant birth weight [i.e., small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA)] were examined using a multinomial logistic regression model. Since fetal programming may be a sex-specific process, male and female infants were analyzed separately. Multivariate analysis showed that the higher the paternal height, the higher the odds of LGA and the lower the odds of SGA in both male and female infants. The effects of paternal BMI on the odds of both SGA and LGA in male infants were similar to those of paternal height; however, paternal height had a stronger impact than BMI on the odds of male LGA. In addition, paternal BMI showed no association with the odds of SGA and only a weak association with the odds of LGA in female infants. This cohort study showed that paternal height was associated with birth weight of their offspring and had stronger effects than paternal BMI, suggesting that the impact of paternal height on infant birth weight could be explained by genetic factors. The sex-dependent effect of paternal BMI on infant birth weight may be due to epigenetic effects.
Children with CHD and acquired heart disease have unique, high-risk physiology. They may have a higher risk of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events, as compared with children with non-cardiac disease.
Materials and methods
We sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in children with cardiac disease compared to children with non-cardiac disease. A retrospective analysis of tracheal intubations from 38 international paediatric ICUs was performed using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) quality improvement registry. The primary outcome was the occurrence of any tracheal-intubation-associated event. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events, multiple intubation attempts, and oxygen desaturation.
A total of 8851 intubations were reported between July, 2012 and March, 2016. Cardiac patients were younger, more likely to have haemodynamic instability, and less likely to have respiratory failure as an indication. The overall frequency of tracheal-intubation-associated events was not different (cardiac: 17% versus non-cardiac: 16%, p=0.13), nor was the rate of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events (cardiac: 7% versus non-cardiac: 6%, p=0.11). Tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest occurred more often in cardiac patients (2.80 versus 1.28%; p<0.001), even after adjusting for patient and provider differences (adjusted odds ratio 1.79; p=0.03). Multiple intubation attempts occurred less often in cardiac patients (p=0.04), and oxygen desaturations occurred more often, even after excluding patients with cyanotic heart disease.
The overall incidence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in cardiac patients was not different from that in non-cardiac patients. However, the presence of a cardiac diagnosis was associated with a higher occurrence of both tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest and oxygen desaturation.
We initiated a long-term and highly frequent monitoring project toward 442 methanol masers at 6.7 GHz (Dec >−30 deg) using the Hitachi 32-m radio telescope in December 2012. The observations have been carried out daily, monitoring a spectrum of each source with intervals of 9–10 days. In September 2015, the number of the target sources and intervals were redesigned into 143 and 4–5 days, respectively. This monitoring provides us complete information on how many sources show periodic flux variations in high-mass star-forming regions, which have been detected in 20 sources with periods of 29.5–668 days so far (e.g., Goedhart et al. 2004). We have already obtained new detections of periodic flux variations in 31 methanol sources with periods of 22–409 days. These periodic flux variations must be a unique tool to investigate high-mass protostars themselves and their circumstellar structure on a very tiny spatial scale of 0.1–1 au.
We report on results from an ongoing spectral scan of four nearby positions in the Sgr B2 molecular cloud using SEST (Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope). The antenna beam size is approximately 22″ in the frequency range 226-245 GHz presently covered. This high angular resolution allows detailed studies of the physical and chemical conditions in the warm and compact cores discovered (Vogel et al. 1987, Goldsmith et al. 1987) inside the region previously surveyed in the 3 mm band with lower angular resolution (Cummins et al. 1986, Turner 1989, beam sizes of 1.5-2.9′ and 1-2′, respectively). The Sgr B2(OH) position used by these investigators is located about 30″ south of our M position, and hence the cores M and N will contribute to the observed spectral line emissions to a larger or lesser extent.
We report recent investigations of the organic chemistry of relatively nearby cold, dark interstellar clouds. Specifically, we confirm the presence of interstellar tricarbon monoxide (C3O) in Taurus Molecular Cloud1 (TMC-1); report the first detection in such regions of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), the most complex oxygen-containing organic molecule yet found in dark clouds; report the first astronomical detection of several molecular rotational transitions, including the J=18−17 and 14−13 transitions of cyanodiacetylene (HC5N), the 101−000 transition of acetaldehyde, and the J=5−4 transition of C3O; and set a significant upper limit on the abundance of cyanocarbene (HCCN) as a result of the first reported interstellar search for this molecule.
In temperate zones, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) outbreaks typically occur in cold weather, i.e. in late autumn and winter. However, recent outbreaks in Japan have tended to start during summer and autumn. This study examined associations of meteorological conditions with the numbers of HRSV cases reported in summer in Japan. Using data from the HRSV national surveillance system and national meteorological data for summer during the period 2007–2014, we utilized negative binomial logistic regression analysis to identify associations between meteorological conditions and reported cases of HRSV. HRSV cases increased when summer temperatures rose and when relative humidity increased. Consideration of the interaction term temperature × relative humidity enabled us to show synergistic effects of high temperature with HRSV occurrence. In particular, HRSV cases synergistically increased when relative humidity increased while the temperature was ⩾28·2 °C. Seasonal-trend decomposition analysis using the HRSV national surveillance data divided by 11 climate divisions showed that summer HRSV cases occurred in South Japan (Okinawa Island), Kyushu, and Nankai climate divisions, which are located in southwest Japan. Higher temperature and higher relative humidity were necessary conditions for HRSV occurrence in summer in Japan. Paediatricians in temperate zones should be mindful of possible HRSV cases in summer, when suitable conditions are present.
Documenting past changes in the East Antarctic surface mass balance is important to improve ice core chronologies and to constrain the ice-sheet contribution to global mean sea-level change. Here we reconstruct past changes in the ratio of surface mass balance (SMB ratio) between the EPICA Dome C (EDC) and Dome Fuji (DF) East Antarctica ice core sites, based on a precise volcanic synchronization of the two ice cores and on corrections for the vertical thinning of layers. During the past 216 000 a, this SMB ratio, denoted SMBEDC/SMBDF, varied between 0.7 and 1.1, being small during cold periods and large during warm periods. Our results therefore reveal larger amplitudes of changes in SMB at EDC compared with DF, consistent with previous results showing larger amplitudes of changes in water stable isotopes and estimated surface temperature at EDC compared with DF. Within the last glacial inception (Marine Isotope Stages, MIS-5c and MIS-5d), the SMB ratio deviates by up to 0.2 from what is expected based on differences in water stable isotope records. Moreover, the SMB ratio is constant throughout the late parts of the current and last interglacial periods, despite contrasting isotopic trends.
In the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, as in Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the United States, older individuals were at the greatest risk of mortality. Much concern has been raised about developing plans to reduce these risks, but little information has been provided about preparedness, and the key role played by caregivers has been largely unexplored. The aims of this study were thus to examine the preparedness of family caregivers of older adults with long-term care needs and to identify the characteristics of older adults and their caregivers that are associated with poor preparedness and greater concern about disasters.
Shortly after the Great East Japan Earthquake, the second wave of the Fukui Longitudinal Caregiver Study was administered to the family caregivers of older Japanese individuals with long-term care needs. The sample included 952 caregivers from 17 municipalities in Fukui prefecture. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors associated with self-assessed preparedness, evacuation planning, and caregivers’ concerns about preparedness.
The majority (75%) of the caregivers had no concrete plans for evacuation in an emergency, and those caring for persons with dementia were 36% less likely to have any plan. In multivariate models, caregivers who were more experienced and wealthier and who reported more family and community support were more likely to feel well prepared. Caregivers with poor health or limited financial resources or who were responsible for older persons with mobility difficulties reported higher levels of anxiety about their disaster preparedness.
This study indicates that most caregivers are ill prepared to respond in emergencies and that caregiver resources, community support, and the needs of older care recipients influence both preparedness and concern about disasters. Education for caregivers and the development of community support programs could provide important sources of assistance to this vulnerable group. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:31–38)
We have made a 12CO(J = 1−0) survey of the LMC with NANTEN. A sample of 55 giant molecular clouds has been identified and comparisons with stellar clusters, HII regions and SNRs are presented. The connection between the clouds and cluster formation is discussed.
The development of astrochemistry is inextricably linked to the generation of fundamental data. In this report, we discuss data needs in terms of astrochemical models, gas-phase kinetics, molecular excitation, optical and UV spectroscopy, solid-state chemistry, and millimeter and submillimeter wave spectroscopy.
We measured relative positions of the 22 GHz H2O maser components toward the class 0 protostar S106FIR with the VLA. Two clusters of H2O masers were found. The separation between these clusters is approximately 50 AU at position angle = 73° and each cluster is spread over about 10–20 AU The size of the S106FIR maser clusters is unusually compact compared with other known H2O masers associated with outflows of forming stars. The maser emission appears to originate from MHD driven outflow very close to the star.
The red variables whose amplitude is larger than 1.3 mag in the MOA database are studied for the LMC. Among 3 196 such stars, 532 stars are likely to be Miras or red semiregular variables. The period–colour relation of these stars is shown.
The Following design of a Pulsar Survey System with a Huge Interferometric Array is discussed. (1) A Huge Array of 320m × 320m with 256(= 16 × 16) spherical dishes of 20m in diameter, (2) RF is 1.4 GHz, (3) Receivers are frequency modified GPS(1.57542, 1.2276GHz) ones, (4) Phase and Delay Tracking, (5) Phase Calibration using Differential GPS(GPS signal × 2 → CW), (6) (2+1+2)D FFT /256 pixel Imaging + 256 ch Filtering + Dispersion Removal and Period finding(17M point floating 2DFFT by DSP), (8) Observing time required for the same sensitivity to Arecibo τ/τA: 0.88(Timing), 0.003(Survey).
More than 4000 stars observed in both MOA and DENIS projects showing periodic or quasi-periodic light curves are studied. Almost all Mira stars are located on the classical period-luminosity relation, and the multiplicity of the period-luminosity relation is confirmed for small-amplitude stars. The colour-magnitude diagrams based on the MOA red band, Rm, and Ks constructed for the sequences, form a single strip with small successive shifts.
A large database of CCD photometry for 1.4 million stars towards both the LMC and the SMC, which has been established by the MOA project, is a useful resource to study variable stars. In our preliminary study, variables identified as β Lyrae type stars and Herbig Ae/Be stars have been found amongst blue stars.
A review of the MOA (Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics) project is presented. MOA is a collaboration of approximately 30 astronomers from New Zealand and Japan established with the aim of finding and detecting microlensing events towards the Magellanic Clouds and the Galactic bulge, which may be indicative of either dark matter or of planetary companions. The observing program commenced in 1995, using very wide band blue and red filters and a nine-chip mosaic CCD camera.
As a by-product of these observations a large database of CCD photometry for 1.4 million stars towards both LMC and SMC has been established. In one preliminary analysis 576 bright variable stars were confirmed, nearly half of them being Cepheids. Another analysis has identified large numbers of blue variables, and 205 eclipsing binaries are included in this sample. In addition 351 red variables (AGB stars) have been found. Light curves have been obtained for all these stars. The observations are carried out on a 61-cm f/6.25 telescope at Mt John University Observatory where a new larger CCD camera was installed in 1998 July. From this latitude (44° S) the Magellanic Clouds can be monitored throughout the year.
The recent appearance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is a concern for both veterinary and human healthcare. MRSP clonal lineages with sequence type (ST) 71-spa t02-staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) II–III and ST68-spa t06-SCCmec V have spread throughout Europe and North America, respectively. The current study compared the molecular characteristics of 43 MRSP isolates from dogs in Japan with those of MRSP from previous reports using multilocus sequence typing based on seven housekeeping genes, SCCmec typing, and detection of antimicrobial resistance genes. Three related clonal lineages, ST71, ST169, and the newly registered ST354, were observed in SCCmec II–III isolates from Japan, despite MRSP SCCmec II–III isolates being thought to belong to a single clonal lineage. The majority of SCCmec II–III isolates belonging to ST169 (9/11) and ST354 (3/3), but not ST71 (0/11), harboured tetM. Four STs were observed for the SCCmec V isolates; however, neither ST68 nor related STs were found in the Japanese MRSP isolates. In conclusion, MRSP SCCmec II–III isolates from Japan belonged to ST71 and related STs (ST169 and ST354). A variety of MRSP SCCmec V clones, including some novel clones, were identified.